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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 282
COVID-19 infections in infants

Małgorzata Sobolewska-Pilarczyk; Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak; Anna Stachowiak (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Scientific reports
The study aimed to analyse the clinical course of COVID-19 in 300 infants, selected from 1283 children diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020, registered in the SARSTerPED multicenter database. Most of the infants were registered in October and November 2020. 44% of the group were girls, and 56% were boys. At diagnosis, the most common symptoms were fever in 77% of the children, cough in 40%, catarrh in 37%. Pneumonia associated with COVID-19 was diagnosed in 23% of the children, and gastrointestinal symptoms in 31.3%. In 52% of the infants, elevated levels of D-dimers were observed, and in 40%, elevated levels of IL-6 serum concentration were observed. During the second wave of the pandemic, 6 times more infants were hospitalized, and the children were statistically significantly younger compared to the patients during the first wave (3 months vs 8 months, p < 0.0001 respectively). During the second wave, the infants were hospitalized for longer. COVID-19 in infants usually manifests as a mild gastrointestinal or respiratory infection, but pneumonia is also observed with falls in oxygen saturation, requiring oxygen therapy.
Coping with COVID: pandemic narratives for Australian children

Jessica Gildersleeve; Kate Cantrell; India Bryce (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Heliyon
The experience of the COVID-19 pandemic can be recognised as traumatic for the way in which its sudden and unexpected onset disrupted a sense of ordinary life for so many around the world. Adults, and far less so children, were unable to prepare for the danger of the rapidly spreading disease. As such, both were left vulnerable to the experience of trauma and anxiety that surrounds the threat of COVID. Whereas adults, however, have access to a range of resources and strategies for mental health protection, children of various ages need targeted resources to enable them to understand, prepare for, and come to terms with a trauma situation. A great deal of research exists around the value of children developing their own narratives as a means of coming to terms with trauma, such that storytelling is identified as a primary coping device. Similarly, literature exists that compares parental narratives of trauma with those of their children. Moreover, the use of the fairy tale as a cautionary tale has long been examined. What has not been established is the way in which contemporary multimedia narratives - such as television programmes, animations, and digital stories - can be used to develop coping strategies in children and to mitigate anxiety in young people experiencing global or collective trauma. This article examines a selection of such narratives produced for Australian children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through a cross-disciplinary framework, this work considers how these resources can help (or hinder) mental health recovery in young children under the age of five, as well as strategies for best practice in the future development of trauma-informed resources for this age group.
Measuring parents’ readiness to vaccinate themselves and their children against COVID-19

Franziska Rees; Mattis Geiger; Lau Lilleholt (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine
To reach high vaccination rates against COVID-19, children and adolescents should be also vaccinated. To improve childhood vaccination rates and vaccination readiness, parents need to be addressed since they decide about the vaccination of their children. This study adapted the 7C of vaccination readiness scale to measure parents’ readiness to vaccinate their children and evaluated the scale in a long and a short version in two studies. The study was first evaluated with a sample of N = 244 parents from the German COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO) and validated with N = 464 parents from the Danish COSMO.
COVID-19 Experiences and Health-Related Implications: Results From a Mixed-Method Longitudinal Study of Urban Poor Adolescents in Shanghai

Mengmeng Li; Chunyan Yu; Xiayun Zuo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Journal of adolescent health

This analysis aimed to investigate gender differences in adolescents’ concerns and the health implications of COVID-19. It used two rounds of the Global Early Adolescent Study (GEAS) collected in Shanghai in 2018 and 2020. It analyzed data from 621 adolescents, comparing boys’ and girls’ concerns about COVID-19 and examining trends in general health and mental health by sex between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Changes in health indicators over time were assessed using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models.

The role of children in household transmission of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Feifan Chen; Yan Tian; Lixin Zhang (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International journal of infectious diseases

Household is potentially the highest-risk exposure setting of SARS-COV-2 transmission, in which the role of children has remained controversial. Through retrieval in PubMed and EMBASE, studies were included in two parts: meta-analysis of the household secondary attack rate (SAR) and case analysis of household pediatric infections.

Catch-up vaccination campaign in children between 6 and 8 years old during COVID-19 pandemic: the experience in a COVID hub in Milan, Italy

Matteo Mancarella; Federica Natarelli; Caterina Bertolini (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

COVID-19 has led to disruption in routine immunization programs around the world. Effective strategies need to be developed to address the decline in vaccine coverage to avoid preventable disease outbreaks. Our study reports a 4-days campaign for the catching-up of missed vaccinations in children aged between 6 and 8 years, in Milan, Italy. The catch-up vaccination campaign (21st-24th of September 2021) involved children born in 2013, 2014 and 2015. These cohorts, if not already immunized, received the fourth dose of the Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis and Poliomyelitis vaccination (DTaPP4), the second dose of the Measles-Mumps and Rubella vaccination (MMR2) and Chickenpox, according to the Italian vaccine schedule.

Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children

Krista Salo-Tuominen; Tamara Teros-Jaakkola; Laura Toivonen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009–2010. This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008–2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother’s and father’s individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA).

Prevalence of respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mitchell T. G. Pratt; Tasnim Abdalla; Peter C. Richmond (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: The Lancet. Child & adolescent health
Respiratory viruses are increasingly detected in children with community-acquired pneumonia but prevalence estimates vary substantially. This study aimed to systematically review and pool estimates for 22 viruses commonly associated with community-acquired pneumonia. It conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of each of the common respiratory viruses detected by any diagnostic method in children aged up to 18 years with community-acquired pneumonia. It searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus databases with no language restrictions for relevant published articles and reports published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2019, restricting the review to pre-COVID-19 pandemic years.
On race and ethnicity during a global pandemic: An ‘imperfect mosaic’ of maternal and child health services in ethnically-diverse South London, United Kingdom

Sergio A. Silverio; Kaat De Backer; Tisha Dasgupta (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: eClinicalMedicine

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought racial and ethnic inequity into sharp focus, as Black, Asian, and Minority Ethnic people were reported to have greater clinical vulnerability. During the pandemic, priority was given to ongoing, reconfigured maternity and children’s healthcare. This study aimed to understand the intersection between race and ethnicity, and healthcare provision amongst maternity and children’s healthcare professionals, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Methods A qualitative study consisting of semi-structured interviews (N = 53) was undertaken with maternity (n = 29; August-November 2020) and children’s (n = 24; June-July 2021) healthcare professionals from an NHS Trust in ethnically-diverse South London, UK. Data pertinent to ethnicity and race were subject to Grounded Theory Analysis, whereby data was subjected to iterative coding and interpretive analysis. Using this methodology, data are compared between transcripts to generate lower and higher order codes, before super-categories are formed, which are finally worked into themes. The inter-relationship between these themes is interpreted as a final theory.

COVID-19 and mandatory vaccination: Ethical considerations
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: May 2022
The aim of the document is to identify and articulate salient ethical considerations regarding mandatory vaccinations against COVID-19. This document updates a policy brief initially published in April 2021 in response to changes in the COVID-19 vaccine landscape, including authorization of vaccines for children and additional information about, and experiences with, vaccination mandates for COVID-19.
A study of clinical profile and outcome of COVID-19 in children

M. V. Nagaraj; Chikkanna Somashekhar; Raj Muniraju Geetha Nithin (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics

 COVID-19 has become a major public health crisis around the world. This study aimed at identifying the different clinical presentations of children who were tested positive for SARS-COV-2. Descriptive and prospective study of the children who were seen over the fever clinic and were admitted to the Sapthagiri institute of medical science and research centre over a period of 4 months from November 2021 to February 2022. Among the 251 children admitted to the hospital majority of them were males 52.5% and the age group of 1-5 years were highest affected 46.2%. The most common symptoms noted were fever 60.5%, followed by pain abdomen 45.8%, vomiting 43.8%, running nose 39%, cough 38%, diarrhoea 30.6%, decreased appetite 26.7% and the least common symptom was skin rash 0.3%. Children with comorbidites had higher risk of ICU admission. No deaths were noted during the study period.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 5 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, health services, hospitalization, infectious disease, pandemic | Countries: India
Disparities in high schools' vaccination coverage (COVID-19): a natural experiment in the Province of Quebec.

Alice Morissette; Gabrielle Lefebvre; Claude Bacque-Dion (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Teenagers' vaccination has become crucial to limit the COVID-19 transmission in the population. To increase the vaccination rate of this age group, a school-based vaccination campaign was launched in Québec, Canada from June 7 to 18, 2021. This study aimed to analyze trajectories of vaccination coverage over time among students attending 37 high schools. The study explored whether school-based vaccination campaigns contributed to the progression of the vaccination coverage and attenuated disparities in vaccination coverage across schools.
Understanding the behavioural and social drivers of vaccine uptake WHO position paper – May 2022
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: May 2022

This is the first position paper to be published by WHO on the behavioural and social drivers (BeSD) of vaccine uptake. It summarizes the development of new tools and indicators to assess the BeSD of vaccine uptake for childhood and COVID-19 vaccination, enabling decision-makers on immunization policy, programme managers, and partners to address under-vaccination through an enhanced understanding of the underlying causes. This paper also reports the main findings of a scoping review that examined existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses on interventions to improve vaccine uptake – a first step towards understanding which interventions work to increase vaccine uptake, for whom, and in what settings. Finally, this paper makes recommendations for using the new tools and the resulting data to prioritize local interventions, and concludes with future research directions.

Parent/guardian intentions to vaccinate children against COVID-19 in the United States

Don E. Willis; Mario Schootman; Sumit K. Shah (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Vaccination is critical for protecting adults and children from COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. Analyzing subsamples of parent/guardians of children age 0–11 (n = 343) and 12–17 (n = 322) from a larger national survey of US adults (n = 2,022), this study aimed to assess intentions to vaccinate children and how intentions might vary across parent/guardian sociodemographic characteristics, healthcare coverage, vaccination status, political affiliation, prior COVID-19 infection, exposure to COVID-19 death(s) of family or friends, perceived norms of vaccination, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. It also reported the prevalence of vaccinated children for parents whose oldest child was eligible for vaccination at the time of the survey.
Child protection social workers facing the Covid-19 challenge

Valentina Calcaterra; Camilla Landi

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Social Work
The Covid-19 pandemic forced social workers to rethink how they perform their functions. This process was particularly challenging for child protection social workers, who had to understand how to continue to support families and children despite social distancing rules and the suspension of some activities. Three online focus groups were conducted with 18 child protection social workers to explore the Italian child protection social workers’ functions during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study presents the reflections shared by these social workers on their experiences and the new awareness they acquired while performing their work in support of families during the pandemic.
16 - 30 of 282

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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