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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 119
Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting attitudes during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa K. Forbes; Margaret R. Lamar; Megan Speciale (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
Attitudes about parenting are derived from early socialization of gender role norms and often include intensive parenting beliefs, which give mothers an outsized role in parenting. This study examined the differences in intensive parenting beliefs among cisgender mothers and fathers during the United States COVID-19 response. Data from a sample of 1048 mothers and fathers were collected during March and April 2020 to understand parenting beliefs. Results indicated that some demographic factors, including gender and ethnicity, impact intensive parenting beliefs. Additionally, the number of COVID-19 cases in a state, along with school closure length, was related to intensive parenting beliefs.
The relationships of parent- and child-related psychiatric conditions with oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder symptoms in children with ADHD

AUTHOR(S)
Ayhan Bilgiç; Necati Uzun; Ümit Işık (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Children's Health Care
This cross-sectional study evaluated the impacts of maternal and paternal affective temperament traits, maternal and paternal ADHD, depression and anxiety symptoms, parenting styles, child’s depression and anxiety disorder symptoms, and child’s autistic traits on the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Analysis showed a positive relation of maternal anxious and irritable temperament and child inattention, hyperactivity–impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) scores on ODD scores.
The mediating role of social internet use on the correlation of parental efficacy, peer influence and social functioning of adolescents in the current era

AUTHOR(S)
Kehinde Lawrence

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Research in Behavioral Sciences
The goal of this study was to examine the mediating role of social internet use on the correlation of parental efficacy, peer influence and social functioning of adolescents. Methodologically, data was collected from a sample of 496 adolescents (Male = 18.5%; Female = 81.5%, M age = 15.9), the idea that the relationship between parental efficacy, peer influence and social functioning of adolescents could be influenced by the mediating power of social internet use was tested.
Faces of risk and resilience: fathers and their families

AUTHOR(S)
Rob Palkovitz; Jay Fagan

Published: March 2021   Journal: Adversity and Resilience Science
The global Covid-19 pandemic and heightened focus on systemic racism in the USA provide differential lenses for considering contexts of risk and resilience as they apply to individual fathers and their families. Intersections of race, class, culture, personal characteristics, and access to resources uniquely shape fathers’ resilience as they navigate risks to themselves and their families. The interdependence of families with other community members, family work, role enactments, gender, and policy highlights the centrality of fathers’ executive function in conjunction with available resources to shape the quality of individual father–child relationships and the overall wellbeing of fathers and their families. This commentary focuses on the current pandemic and racism as risk factors for families, the ways in which fathers are uniquely affected by these risks, the ways in which fathers exhibit resilience in the face of these adversities, and implications for future research about the ways in which fathers’ gendered behaviors and attitudes may ultimately change as a consequence of the pandemic and systemic racism.
'Now my life is stuck!’: experiences of adolescents and young people during COVID-19 lockdown in South Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Lesley Gittings; Elona Toska; Sally Medley (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Global Public Health
Consequences of COVID-19 pandemic responses have included exacerbated poverty, food insecurity and state and domestic violence. Such effects may be particularly pronounced amongst adolescents and young people living in contexts of precarity and constraint, including in South Africa. However, there are evidence gaps on the lived experiences of this group. Telephonic semi-structured interviews with adolescents and young people in two South African provinces (n = 12, ages 18–25) were conducted in April 2020 to explore and document their experiences, challenges and coping strategies during strict COVID-19 lockdown.
Understanding the perceived psychological distress and health outcomes of children during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gyanesh Kumar Tiwari; Ajit Kumar Singh; Priyanka Parihar

Published: March 2021   Journal: The Educational and Developmental Psychologist

The study explored the impacts of restrictions on the perceived psychological distress and health outcomes in children by their mothers who acted as their full-time caregivers during the pan-India lockdown after the outbreak of COVID-19. A narrative qualitative research design was used and a purposive heterogeneous sample of 20 mothers of children aged 9–11 years were chosen, who were in a full-time caregiving role. Data obtained through a telephonic semi-structured interview were analysed using Narrative Thematic Method.

COVID-related fear maintains controlling parenting behaviors during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Karl Wissemann; Brittany Mathes; Alexandria Meyer (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
The direct threat posed by the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19), uncertainty surrounding best safety practices, and secondary consequences of the virus have led to widespread stress and declining mental health across communities and individuals. These stresses may impact parenting behaviors, potentially leading to negative consequences for children. Controlling parenting behaviors increase in the face of perceived environmental threat and are associated with adverse mental health outcomes for children; however, determinants of parenting behaviors have not been investigated during the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study prospectively evaluated parenting behaviors during the pandemic (N=87).
Unpaid work and care during COVID-19: subjective experiences of same-sex couples and single mothers in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Lyn Craig; Brendan Churchill

Published: March 2021   Journal: Gender & Society
This paper draws on data from Work and Care During COVID-19, an online survey of Australians during pandemic lockdown in May 2020 (n = 2,722). It focuses on how sub-samples of lesbian, gay, and bisexual mothers and fathers in couples (n = 280) and single mothers (n = 480) subjectively experienced unpaid work and care during lockdown compared with heterosexual mothers and fathers in couples, and with partnered mothers, respectively. During the pandemic, non-heterosexual fathers’ subjective reports were less negative than those of their heterosexual counterparts, but differences between heterosexual and lesbian/bisexual mothers were more mixed. Unlike their partnered counterparts, more single mothers reported feeling satisfied than before with their balance of paid and unpaid work and how they spent their time overall during the pandemic, perhaps because they avoided partnership conflicts and particularly benefited from relaxed commuting and child care deadlines.
Adding salt to wounds”: parentification among children living with parents with mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of social workers

AUTHOR(S)
Ebenezer Cudjoe; Debora Daisy Kwabia; Marcus Yu Lung Chiu (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Developmental Child Welfare
Children living with a parent with mental illness experience challenges as some may take on the roles of their parents. Physical distancing restrictions introduced because of the COVID-19 pandemic means that many children will spend more time at home which could heighten the impact of parental mental illness. For many of these children, engaging in activities with peers provides them a sort of normal life outside their family environment. However, face-to-face interactions with others outside the family may be limited under existing public health protocols. Moreover, services for children in families where there is parental mental illness may also be limited considering limitations placed on people’s movements to reduce the rate of COVID-19 infections.
Experiences with COVID-19 stressors and parents’ use of neglectful, harsh, and positive parenting practices in the Northeastern United States

AUTHOR(S)
Christian M. Connell; Michael J. Strambler

Published: March 2021   Journal: Child Maltreatment

This study aims to estimate household exposure to COVID-19 related stress and the association with parent report of neglectful, harsh, and positive discipline practices. Cross sectional survey data was collected from 2,068 parents in the Northeastern US. Parents reported personal and household experiences of COVID-19 stressors, their level of distress, and use of neglectful parenting and discipline practices for a randomly selected child in their home. Analyses estimated rates of COVID-19 related stress and parenting practices. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation of COVID-19 stress to parenting behaviors.

Left‐behind children's social adjustment and relationship with parental coping with children's negative emotions during the COVID‐19 pandemic in China

AUTHOR(S)
Yining Wang; Wen Liu; Weiwei Wang (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: International Journal of Psychology
Using data collected from two provinces in China through an online survey, the current study aimed to investigate left‐behind children's emotional and academic adjustment during the COVID‐19 pandemic in China. The participants included 1780 left‐behind (960 boys) and 1500 non‐left‐behind (811 boys) children in elementary and junior high school with a mean age of 11.23. Self‐reported questionnaires concerning children's depression, loneliness, anxiety, and academic adjustment, and parents' coping with children's negative emotions were completed.
The experiences of mothers of children and young people with intellectual disabilities during the first COVID‐19 lockdown period

AUTHOR(S)
Gemma Rogers; Gisela Perez‐Olivas; Biza Stenfert Kroese (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities

Recent COVID‐19 lockdown restrictions resulted in reduced access to educational, professional and social support systems for children with intellectual disabilities and their carers. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the ways mothers of children with intellectual disabilities coped during the first 2020 lockdown period.

Maintaining momentum in infant mental health research during COVID-19: adapting observational assessments

AUTHOR(S)
Stephanie Tesson; Dianne Swinsburg; Nadine A. Kasparian

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Understanding the potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the developing parent-infant relationship is a priority, especially for medically-fragile infants and their caregivers who face distinct challenges and stressors. Observational assessments can provide important insights into parentchild behaviors and relational risk; however, stay-at-home directives and physical distancing measures associated with COVID-19 have significantly limited opportunities for in-person observational parent-infant assessment. To maintain momentum in our research program during the pandemic, this study rapidly pivoted to remote, technology-assisted parent-infant observational assessments. This commentary offers a series of strategies and recommendations to assist researchers in adapting observational parent-infant paradigms.
Risk and protective factors related to children’s symptoms of emotional difficulties and hyperactivity/inattention during the COVID-19-related lockdown in France: results from a community sample

AUTHOR(S)
Flore Moulin; Tarik El‑Aarbaoui; Joel José Herranz Bustamante (et al.)

Published: March 2021   Journal: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
The COVID-19 epidemic has spread worldwide since December 2019. To contain it, preventive measures including social distancing, economic shutdown, and school closures were introduced, carrying the risk of mental health burden in adults and children. Although the knowledge base regarding children’s response to trauma and adverse events in general has broadened, descriptions of their mental health during epidemics remain scarce. In particular, the role of family socioeconomic characteristics and parental mental health are poorly understood.
Study of parent’s satisfaction for online classes under lockdown due to COVID-19 in India

AUTHOR(S)
Itisha Sharma; Deepti Kiran

Published: March 2021   Journal: Journal of Statistics and Management Systems
The Coronavirus pandemic has severely impacted all the operations that demanded physical presence. In the process of encouraging social distancing, the didactic sector has also undergone huge transformation by shifting online. There has been an orbital shift in the instructional and pedagogical technology to keep pace with the current dynamic crisis. The teachers and administration of K-12 schools are working hard to ensure quality education to students but the major stakeholder who is the parent of the child might not be satisfied. Following an extensive literature review, we realized that there is limited research on parent satisfaction with respect to online classes by schools, especially in Indian context. Parents are the ultimate stakeholders and contributors to a child’s life and future, therefore understanding their level of contentment is paramount. The research aims at understanding the level of contentment of parents with online classes offered by schools to their wards during the corona pandemic lockdown in India.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.