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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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A win-win for all of us: COVID-19 sheds light on the essentialness of child care as key infrastructure

AUTHOR(S)
Owusua Yamoah; Sarah Balser; Callie Ogland-Hand (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Child care centers in the United States allow many parents and caregivers to work in and outside of the home and support the growth and development of children. Child care closures and COVID-19 mitigation measures at the onset of the pandemic heightened the need for and awareness of the role of child care as core infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role and benefits of child care based on the lived experiences of parents/caregivers and staff navigating child care during the pandemic. It conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with parents/caregivers (n = 20) of children who attended child care and staff (n = 12) who were working at child care programs in Ohio from September to November 2020. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed through the lens of four frameworks (i.e., capabilities, developmental, economics, and mutualism) related to child well-being.
Parental decision-making on summer program enrollment: a mixed methods Covid-19 impact study

AUTHOR(S)
Roddrick Dugger; Layton Reesor-Oyer; Michael W. Beets (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Evaluation and Program Planning

The closure of childcare organizations (e.g. schools, childcare centers, afterschool programs, summer camps) during the Covid-19 pandemic impacted the health and wellbeing of families. Despite their reopening, parents may be reluctant to enroll their children in summer programming. Knowledge of the beliefs that underlie parental concerns will inform best practices for organizations that serve children. Parents (n = 17) participated in qualitative interviews (October 2020) to discuss Covid-19 risk perceptions and summer program enrollment intentions. Based on interview responses to perceived Covid-19 risk, two groups emerged for analysis- “Elevated Risk (ER)” and “Conditional Risk (CR)”. Themes were identified utilizing independent coding and constant-comparison analysis. Follow-up interviews (n = 12) in the Spring of 2021 evaluated the impact of vaccine availability on parent risk perceptions. Additionally, parents (n = 17) completed the Covid-19 Impact survey to assess perceived exposure (Range: 0–25) and household impact (Range: 2–60) of the pandemic. Scores were summed and averaged for the sample and by risk classification group.

Mother-infant emotional availability through the COVID-19 pandemic: examining continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations

AUTHOR(S)
Nila Shakiba; Gal Doron; Avigail Gordon-Hacker (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Infancy
The COVID-19 pandemic may impact the development of infants' social communication patterns with their caregivers. The current study examined continuity, stability, and bidirectional associations in maternal and infant dyadic Emotional Availability (EA) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants were 110 Israeli mother-infant dyads (51% girls) that were assessed prior to (Mage = 3.5 months) and during (Mage = 12.4 months) the pandemic.
How parental internet use impacted parenting practices and children's behavior during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Demetris Hadjicharalambous; Loucia Demetriou; Elena Michael–Hadjikyriakou

Published: December 2022   Journal: British Journal of Multidisciplinary and Advanced Studies

This survey aimed to investigate how online parental behavior affects their parenting practices and how such practices may affect their family relations, their children’s social competencies, school achievements, and self–esteem. It examined a sample of 357 Greek-speaking parents (77.3% mothers and 22.7% fathers). It applied Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Questionnaire, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), and Kontopoulou's (2008) questionnaire to assess children's school performance and social competencies, their self-esteem, and family relationships.

The changes in family functioning and family happiness during the COVID-19 pandemic: the situation in Thailand

AUTHOR(S)
Nida Limsuwan; Thanavadee Prachason; Pattarabhorn Wisajun

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on family well-being and functioning were generally a concern for healthcare providers in many countries. This study aimed to explore the changes in family functioning and family happiness during the pandemic in Thailand and to investigate factors associated with the changes in family happiness. This was a cross-sectional study conducted between November and December 2021. Online questionnaires regarding family functioning, family happiness, domestic violence, and COVID-19-related experiences were used.

A qualitative study about how families coped with managing their well-being, children's physical activity and education during the COVID-19 school closures in England

AUTHOR(S)
Lisa Woodland; Ava Hodson; Rebecca K. Webster (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Plos One
In 2020, schools in England closed for six months due to COVID-19, resulting in children being home-schooled. There is limited understanding about the impacts of this on children’s mental and physical health and their education. Therefore, This study explored how families coped with managing these issues during the school closures. 30 qualitative interviews with parents of children aged 18 years and under (who would usually be in school) were conducted between 16 and 21 April 2020. Three themes and eight sub-themes that impacted how families coped whilst schools were closed were identified.
Parents' competence, autonomy, and relatedness in supporting children with special educational needs in emergency remote teaching during COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Kaisa Pihlainen; Serja Turunen; Anitta Melasalmi (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Actions to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as emergency remote teaching (ERT), affected the lives of school children, their parents, and schooling in spring 2020. Rapid changes in routines due to lockdown and ERT were challenging, especially for many children with special needs (SEN). This article focuses on parents’ perspectives regarding their basic psychological needs, i.e. competence, autonomy, and relatedness, in relation to the schooling of their children with SEN. Questionnaire data consisted of the views of 120 parents who described 179 resources and 151 challenges concerning their basic psychological needs during ERT of their children. Data were analysed following the principles of theoretical categorising.
The association of families' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics with parents' perceived barriers to returning to youth sport following the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Daniel J. M. Fleming; Travis E. Dorsch; Sarfaraz Serang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Psychology of Sport and Exercise
Developmentally appropriate sport contexts have the potential to positively influence young people’s physiological, psychological, and social outcomes. However, little is known about how families returned to sport in the wake of COVID-19-related restrictions or how socioeconomic and demographic factors influenced parents’ perceptions of barriers to returning. A nationally representative sample (N = 6183) of American youth sport parents completed a questionnaire in which they provided demographic information and answered questions related to the barriers they perceived in returning to sport, such as the risk of their child getting sick. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among a range of socioeconomic and demographic factors and these barriers to returning.
Knowledge, attitude and practice of hand hygiene among parents: a post COVID-19 pandemic survey

AUTHOR(S)
Shalinawati Ramli; Anis Hafizah Azmi; Nurul Azmawati Mohamed (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Hand hygiene is one of the effective measures to prevent infectious diseases such as hand, foot and mouth disease and COVID-19. Parents involvement as the child's first educator in establishing the child's sanitary behavior are crucial in nurturing good hand hygiene habit. This study aimed to assess parents' knowledge, attitudes, and practice on hand hygiene in relation to childcare during the endemic phase of COVID-19. This cross-sectional study involved parents of pre-school children from the Sepang district of Selangor, Malaysia. The parents were given a set of pre-tested, self-administered questionnaires about their knowledge, attitude, and practice of personal hand hygiene, hand hygiene practice while caring for children, and diseases caused by inadequate hand hygiene.
Parents' pandemic stress, parental involvement, and family quality of life for children with autism

AUTHOR(S)
Shengli Cheng; Sanyin Cheng; Shushan Liu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Research has shown that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) suffered high levels of stress during the COVID-19 pandemic and faced poor family quality of life (FQOL). However, little is known about the inherent dynamic interaction between pandemic stress and FQOL, especially in the Chinese cultural context. This study provides preliminary evidence by examining the relationships among pandemic stress, parental involvement, and FQOL for children with autism in mainland China. A total of 709 parents of children with autism completed measures of FQOL, parental involvement, and pandemic stress. Structural equation modeling was employed to examine the interrelations among these variables.

Parental intervention strategies and operating mechanism on adolescent social media use: the concept of literacy improvement based on interaction

AUTHOR(S)
Bowei Wang; Jiali Chen

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study focuses on a realistic picture of parental intervention in the use of social media among teenagers in the post-pandemic era. First, based on a questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews, and under the guidance of the concept of interactive literacy improvement, we propose a conceptual model and a verifiable measurement dimension of parental-mediated intervention. Second, based on the comparison of parent–child samples, it was found that parental-mediated intervention strategies are often used in families, and parents and children have roughly the same cognition and preference for the four intervention strategies. However, parents reported that they use intervention strategies much more frequently than perceived by their children. Third, we constructed and verified the prediction model of “individual technical characteristics-online family environment-parental-mediated intervention,” namely, the hierarchical progressive logic of parental-mediated intervention, and realized the systematization of influencing factors.
Giving a lot of ourselves: How mother leaders in higher education experienced parenting and leading during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Boche

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Education
This qualitative interpretative phenomenological analysis explored the lived experience of mother executive administrators in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing the philosophical underpinnings of the Heideggerian phenomenological approach, the following research question guided this study: What are the lived experiences of mother executive administrators in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic? Participants included nine self-identified mother executive administrators from one Midwest state at a variety of institution types and locations within the state. Data collection involved two focus groups and individual interviews with all nine participants. After data analysis, three recurrent themes emerged from the data: (1) Burnout and Exhaustion, (2) Never Enough: Responsibility Generated Feelings of Guilt, and (3) Receiving Support: Importance of Gender, Family Role, and Agency.
Family functioning and quality of life among children with nephrotic syndrome during the first pandemic wave

AUTHOR(S)
Nowrin F. Aman; Jessica Fitzpatrick; Isabel de Verteuil (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Pediatric Nephrology

During the SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic, one of the longest lockdowns worldwide occurred in Ontario, Canada, during the first wave. For parents and children managing care at home and at risk for COVID-19, the impact on their psychosocial functioning is unknown. A total of 122 families of children aged 2–18 years were enrolled as part of the prospective cohort of childhood nephrotic syndrome and completed a survey during the first wave of the pandemic (August 21–December 10), 2020. In a subset, 107 families had data available pre-pandemic to assess change. Validated measures included the McMaster Family Assessment Device (FAD) for parents and children ≥ 12 years for family functioning, the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) for both parent and child, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PEDSQL™-V4) for children only. Scores were compared using Student’s t-test or the Mann–Whitney U test, as appropriate.

The change in children's subjective relational social cohesion with family and friends during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multinational analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Oliver Nahkur; Dagmar Kutsar

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sociology
As a response to the COVID-19 pandemic, social-distancing measures have been implemented worldwide, including school closures. Previous studies indicated that children's relational social cohesion with family (RSC-Fa) and friends (RSC-Fr) may have decreased during the pandemic, but some children described that positive experiences were gained from the confinement measures of social distancing. Mostly, these studies are qualitative or capture a single country and have an exploratory character. Using data collected in 2021 of more than 20,000 children primarily aged 9–13 years as part of the International Children's Worlds COVID-19 Supplement Survey from 18 countries (Germany, Turkey, Bangladesh, Italy, Albania, Romania, Chile, Wales, Taiwan, Belgium, Algeria, Israel, Russia, South Korea, Indonesia, Estonia, Finland, and Spain), this study aimed to examine how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected children's RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr and explore the role of relational factors. RSC-Fa and RSC-Fr are measured through satisfaction in relationships with family members and friends before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, respectively. This study employed descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis.
The effect of duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during COVID-19 isolation in China

AUTHOR(S)
Weijian Hu; Cuiyun Deng; Zhaoquan Liu

Published: December 2022   Journal: School Psychology International
The current study examines the mediating roles of self-efficacy and sleep disturbance and the moderating role of gender in the association between the duration of youth/parent communication on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 isolation period in China. It used the self-designed demographic variable questionnaire, General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale with 1,772 youths aged 15–24 from 26 provinces in China during the COVID-19 lockdown. It performed demographic variable analysis, correlation analysis, mediation analysis, and moderated analysis.
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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.