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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 344
Maternal psychological distress and children’s internalizing/externalizing problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: the moderating role played by hypermentalization

AUTHOR(S)
Federica Bianco; Annalisa Levante; Serena Petrocchi (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
In order to explore the psychological impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the caregiver–child relationship, this study investigated the interplay among COVID-19 exposure and children’s internalizing/externalizing problems during the Italian lockdown, hypothesizing a mediation effect played by maternal distress. Additionally, it included maternal reflective functioning (i.e., hypermentalization) as a moderator factor among this interplay. A total of 305 Italian mothers of children aged 6–13 years (M = 10.3; SD = 2.4) filled in an online survey. Findings revealed an indirect effect of maternal COVID-19 exposure on children’s anxious/depressed (k2 = 0.46) and attention problems (k2 = 0.32) via maternal distress.
Studying at home: experience of parents and their young children in an underdeveloped area of Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Beatriks Novianti Bunga; R. Pasifikus Christa Wijaya; Indra Yohanes Kiling (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Childhood Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused school closures around the world, requiring home-based learning for millions of students. The transition into home-based learning might decrease young children’s access to quality education, especially in underdeveloped areas like East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia. This study aimed to explore how mothers and young children experience studying at home in an underdeveloped area. Data were gathered using the photovoice method. The participants of the study were 12 mothers of children younger than 8 years old. For seven days, participants used their phone cameras to take photos related to their experience of studying at home. Thematic analysis identified two main themes: the learning media for studying at home and challenges of studying at home. The first theme focuses several learning media, including digital and non-digital media, used by participants and their young children during the pandemic. The second theme focuses on issues faced by participants in studying at home, including time-management, disruption in routines, and lack of social interaction. Home-based learning can be improved using the findings of this study.
The impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents of children with externalising difficulties in Ireland: a longitudinal cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Berry; Tom Burke; Alan Carr

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Clinical Practice

This longitudinal cohort study aimed to examine the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ireland on parents of children with externalising difficulties, in comparison to parents of children without such difficulties. Parents of 159 children completed online self-report measures at three time points during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic; (a) Delay and Mitigation Phase (March 2020 to May 2020), (b) Reopening of Society Phase (June 2020 to July 2020) and (c) Wave 2 Case Acceleration Phase (September 2020 to October 2020). Participants were allocated to the clinical group if they met the clinical cut off point on the Conduct or Hyperactivity/Inattention subscales of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at Time 1.

Parent perceptions of pediatric oncology care during the COVID-19 pandemic: an Australian study

AUTHOR(S)
Maria C. McCarthy; Jessica Beamish; Catherine M. Bauld (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pediatric Blood & Cancer

This study examined parents’ perceptions of their child's oncology care during a period of significant COVID-19 restrictions in Australia. Parents of children, 0–18 years, receiving hospital-based cancer treatment, completed a survey examining their COVID-19 exposure and impact, information and knowledge, and perception of their child's medical care. Recruitment occurred between October and November 2020.

Experiences of children (ages 6–12) during COVID-19 pandemic from mothers' perspectives

AUTHOR(S)
Rabiye Akın Işık; Nebahat Bora Güneş; Yunus Kaya

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of child and adolescent Psychiatric Nursing

This study evaluated the experiences of children between ages 6 and 12 based on their mothers' perspectives during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten mothers living in Ankara, Turkey with children in the aforementioned age range, participated in this study. Data were collected through focus group interview with a qualitative phenomenological approach followed by thematic data analysis. Three categories were obtained relating to the pandemic, including negative effects, positive effects, and the resultant needs and expectations of parents.

What did COVID-19 change? The impact of COVID-19 on Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress

AUTHOR(S)
Joo-hyang Park; Ji-young Park; Kyong-sun Jin

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child Psychiatry & Human Development
The COVID-19 outbreak has not only posed a threat to physical health but has also changed our daily lives. This study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic affected Korean parents’ and children’s daily lives and stress levels. Parents’ childcare time, children’s screen time, the time spent for social interactions and learning, and parents’ and children’s stress levels before and after the pandemic were compared. The main caregivers’ childcare time increased significantly during the pandemic (4.00 h/day). For children, the time spent for screen time (1.76 h) and online interactions (0.95 h) increased significantly, whereas face-to-face interaction time (4.17 h) and time spent learning (2.16 h) decreased significantly.
The relationship between COVID-related parenting stress, nonresponsive feeding behaviors, and parent mental health

AUTHOR(S)
Leslie Ann Frankel; Caroline Bena Kuno; Ritu Sampige

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of families across the United States and all over the world. Stress is known to have a negative impact on parent–child feeding interactions; hence, the purpose of this study is to examine how COVID-related parenting stress, which was measured using a newly developed scale, is related to parent mental health, nonresponsive feeding, and children’s self-regulation of eating. 119 parents of children ages 2–7 years old filled out questions about COVID-related parenting stress, mental health, nonresponsive feeding behaviors, and children’s self-regulation of eating. A series of multiple regressions were run to predict parent anxiety and psychological distress from COVID-related parenting stress. COVID-related parenting stress was found to be a significant predictor of both parent anxiety and psychological distress. When COVID-related parenting stress was further broken down into COVID-Related Job/Financial Security Stress and COVID-Related Family Safety/Stability Stress, COVID-Related Job/Financial Security Stress predicted psychological distress while COVID-Related Family Safety/Stability Stress predicted parent anxiety.
COVID-19 pandemic shifts in food-related parenting practices within an ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of families of preschool-aged children

AUTHOR(S)
K. A. Loth; Z. Jib J. Wolfson; J. M. Berge (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Appetite
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on food parenting practices used by parents of young children. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to evaluate parents’ use of coercive, indulgent, structured, and autonomy supportive food parenting practices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse racial/ethnic sample (n = 72) of parents of preschool-aged children. The impact of parent and child mood/behavior on use of specific food parenting practices was also evaluated during both time periods.
Children's behavioral problems, screen time, and sleep problems' association with negative and positive parenting strategies during the COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil

AUTHOR(S)
T. D. O. Oliveira; D. S. Costa; A. Alvim-Soares (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Families' health, safety, and economic stability were jeopardized during the pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for hostile and less supportive parenting. Parenting styles are a set of attitudes, feelings and behaviors related to parenting that modulate the child's psychosocial functioning and might impact on the adaptability to a stressful time. This study aims to investigate the group differences among children raised by negative and positive parenting families during COVID-19 pandemic.

Canadian parents’ perceptions of COVID-19 vaccination and intention to vaccinate their children: results from a cross-sectional national survey

AUTHOR(S)
Robin M. Humble; Hannah Sella; Eve Dubé (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccine

Vaccinating children (≤17 years old) is important for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. As parents are primary decision makers for their children, this study aimed to assess parents’ perceptions and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination for their children, including for some underserved populations (e.g., newcomers, Indigenous peoples, and visible minority groups). It conducted a cross-sectional national survey of Canadian parents in December 2020, just as COVID-19 vaccines were approved for adults, to assess intention to vaccinate their children (aged 0–17 years) against COVID-19, perceptions of COVID-19 disease and vaccines, previous uptake of influenza and routine vaccines, and sociodemographic characteristics. Binomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between parents' lack of COVID-19 vaccination intention for their children and various independent variables.

Retraditionalisation? Work patterns of families with children during the pandemic in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Elisa Brini; Mariya Lenko; Stefani Scherer

Published: October 2021   Journal: Demographic Research

 During the COVID-19 pandemic, employment declined and real incomes fell worldwide. The burden of childcare on families increased and, in many countries, women’s employment fell more than men’s. From a couple-level perspective, changing employment patterns could lead to a retraditionalisation of gender roles between partners, especially for families with dependent children. This study focused on couples with children under 16 and used quarterly large-scale micro data (the Italian Labour Force Survey) to examine, through descriptive statistics and multinomial logistic regressions, the changes and composition of couples’ work patterns between 2019 and 2020.

Mental health and social support of caregivers of children and adolescents with ASD and other developmental disorders during COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Chongying Wang

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

Previous studies showed that caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders had higher levels of parenting stress, anxiety and depression. In the present study, the author examined the caregivers’ mental health and investigated the mediating role of social support between symptoms severity and parenting stress during COVID-19. During 20 March to 8 April 2020, 1932 caregivers of children and adolescents with ASD and other developmental disorders from China were enrolled to fill in a sociodemographic questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and Social Support Rating Scale. The author also collected children's disability severity symptoms and behavioral problems.

Innovative methods for remote assessment of neurobehavioral development

AUTHOR(S)
Hanna C. Gustafsson; Anna S. Young; Gayle Stamos (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, research institutions across the globe have modified their operations in ways that have limited or eliminated the amount of permissible in-person research interaction. In order to prevent the loss of important developmentally-timed data during the pandemic, researchers have quickly pivoted and developed innovative methods for remote assessment of research participants. This manuscript describes methods developed for remote assessment of a parent child cohort with a focus on examining the perinatal environment, behavioral and biological indicators of child neurobehavioral development, parent-child interaction, as well as parent and child mental and physical health.
The impact of COVID-19 on families’ home literacy practices with young children

AUTHOR(S)
Kirsten Read; Grace Gaffney; Ashley Chen (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The practice of shared book reading is a nurturing support for early language, literacy, and socio-emotional development within young children’s typical care. However, the closures of childcare, early education programs, and centers for family activities in the Spring of 2020 due to COVID-19 brought many sudden changes to the everyday lives of families with young children. In order to explore the impact of COVID-19 on shared reading, this study surveyed parents of children between the ages of 2 and 5 (n = 85) about their children’s frequency of shared reading engagement in February and October, 2020 as well as the frequency of screen-mediated reading, the number of readers their children read with, and book preferences at both time points. Parents were also asked about changes in their children’s regular care and whether and how they had tried new kinds of (virtual) literacy activities during their increased time at home.
Lessons learned in COVID-19: mothers with problematic substance use and involvement with child protective services need support to promote family well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Hanna Valeriote; Karen Milligan

Published: September 2021   Journal: Community, Work & Family
The universal experience of COVID-19 and its associated public health response presents an opportunity to see inequities that exist within our population when accessing community services and supports. This article casts a spotlight on one group who is at risk for experiencing such inequity: women with problematic substance use who are pregnant or parenting. Motherhood offers an opportunity for development of the self, child and family and can be pivotal in helping women to address challenges they and their family may be experiencing. This is a shared opportunity and requires communities to see these families in their complexity of strengths and needs and to support them on this journey. The pandemic has uncovered inequities in our systems of care and barriers faced by families. As the pandemic situation improves, citizens and communities must resist the temptation to push aside the evidence of social disparity and challenge and engage in social action and change.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.