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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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331 - 345 of 385
Exploring the impact of home-schooling on the psychological wellbeing of Irish families during the novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: a qualitative study protocol

AUTHOR(S)
Katriona O’Sullivan; Amy McGrane; Serena Clark (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: International Journal of Qualitative Methods
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed severe restrictions on people’s behavior worldwide with school closures in many countries. These closures have shifted education from the classroom to the home. This change is unprecedented, and home-schooling has placed substantial stress on families across the world. As of 9 April 2020, 1.57 billion children were being educated by families that had little or no experience of protracted home-schooling. An essential but neglected issue related to COVID-19 is the psychological impact of home-schooling on family wellbeing, especially considering the other stressors they are experiencing including social isolation, fears of infection, frustration, boredom, inadequate information, and financial stress. This study explores the impact of home-schooling on family psychological wellbeing during COVID-19. These findings will help develop supports and interventions for this population.
Shared decision‐making for infant feeding and care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Laura N. Haiek; Michelle LeDrew; Christiane Charette (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Maternal and Child Nutrition
Despite decades of research establishing the importance of breastfeeding, skin‐to‐skin contact and mother–infant closeness, the response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) pandemic has underscored the hidden assumption that these practices can be dispensed with no consequences to mother or child. This article aims to support shared decision‐making process for infant feeding and care with parents and health care providers during the unprecedented times of the pandemic.
Social media use and monitoring for adolescents with depression and implications for the COVID-19 pandemic: qualitative study of parent and child perspectives

AUTHOR(S)
Candice Biernesser; Gerald Montano; Elizabeth Miller (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting
Although youth report many positive experiences with social media (SM) use in their daily lives, adolescents with depression are more vulnerable to the risks of SM use than adolescents without depression. Parents protect adolescents with depression from the risks of SM use by monitoring their child’s SM activity; however, this comes into conflict with the adolescent’s need for autonomy in their web-based communication. The implications of SM use and monitoring for adolescents with depression and their parents are of particular relevance to the COVID-19 pandemic, as rates of SM use have increased in response to physical distancing measures. Objective: This study aims to explore parent and child perspectives regarding the use and function of SM in the daily lives of adolescents with depression and parents’ perceptions of and experience with monitoring their child’s SM use.
Measuring COVID-19 related anxiety in parents: psychometric comparison of four different inventories

AUTHOR(S)
Christian Kubb; Heather M. Foran

Published: December 2020   Journal: JMIR Mental Health

The COVID-19 outbreak and the measures to contain the global pandemic can have an impact on the well-being and mental health status of individuals. Parents of young children are particularly at risk for high levels of parental stress due to the current public health crisis, which can impact parenting behaviors and children’s well-being. Although different initial scales have been developed to measure COVID-19–related anxiety, they have not yet been tested sufficiently in parent samples. A brief measure of COVID-19–related anxiety is necessary for both quick assessment in practice and in larger epidemiological studies of parents. The purpose of this study is to compare the distributions, validities, and reliabilities of four different COVID-19 anxiety scales: Fear of COVID-19 Scale, Coronavirus Anxiety Scale, Pandemic Anxiety Scale, and one subscale of the COVID Stress Scales.

Perceived knowledge as [protective] power: parents’ protective efficacy, information-seeking, and scrutiny during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Johnson Avery; Sejin Park

Published: November 2020   Journal: Health Communication
During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents were issued numerous, sometimes changing, safeguarding directives including social distancing, mask use, hygiene, and stay-at-home orders. Enacting these behaviors for the parent presented challenges, but the responsibility for children to follow protocol properly was an even more daunting undertaking. Self-efficacy is one of the most power predictors of health behavior and has been adapted to a context-specific crisis self-efficacy scale conducted on March20, 2020, captures real-time perceptions of parents as coronavirus anxieties peaked. The study reveals a relationship between self- and protective efficacy that is mediated by parents’ assessments of how informed they are about COVID-19. It also examines the role of perceived knowledge on information-seeking and scrutiny of pandemic information found online.
Working from home vs learning from home: a critical investigation and analysis during the COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Afzal Sayed Munna; M. Sadeque Imam Shaikh

Published: November 2020   Journal: Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies
The article aimed to make a critical investigation and analysis on working from home vs learning from home during the COVID-19. Small-scale research was conducted only targeting parents (having at least one school going child) to capture the view of how they deem the concept of working from home vs learning from home and whether there are any reservations among both concepts. The findings from the 36 respondents’ feedback suggest that parents often prefer working from home (wherever possible) but the same parent does not want their child to learn from home. The research shows that most parents believe remote working leads to higher productivity and leads to cost-effectiveness and remote learnings deteriorate creativity.
Parental psychological distress associated with COVID-19 outbreak: a large-scale multicenter survey from Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Alperen Bıkmazer; Muhammed Tayyib Kadak; Vahdet Görmez (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
Pandemics can cause substantial psychological distress; however, we do not know the impact of the COVID-19 related lockdown and mental health burden on the parents of school age children. This study aims to comparatively examine the COVID-19 related stress and psychological burden of the parents with different occupational, locational, and mental health status related backgrounds.
Worry and permissive parenting in association with the development of internet addiction in children

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Chuen Yee Lo; Romance Nok Man Lai; Ting Kin Ng (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The recent COVID-19 pandemic and the preventive measures has led to increased use of the Internet in the daily lives of children. Therefore, Internet addiction has become an increasingly important public health issue worldwide. More than 90% of Hong Kong’s citizens use the Internet, and 70% of children in the age group of 6–17 years have daily access to it. However, internet addiction could pose serious social and health issues. The current study examined the relationship between worry and Internet addiction among children in Hong Kong and investigated the moderating effect of the permissive parenting style on such a relationship. 
Does the COVID-19 pandemic impact parents’ and adolescents’ well-being? An EMA-study on daily affect and parenting

AUTHOR(S)
Loes H. C. Janssen; Marie-Louise J. Kullberg; Bart Verkuil (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: PLoS One
Due to the COVID- 19 outbreak in the Netherlands (March 2020) and the associated social distancing measures, families were enforced to stay at home as much as possible. Adolescents and their families may be particularly affected by this enforced proximity, as adolescents strive to become more independent. Yet, whether these measures impact emotional well-being in families with adolescents has not been examined. The COVID-19 pandemic affected positive and negative affect of parents and adolescents and parenting behaviors (warmth and criticism) are investigated in this ecological momentary assessment study.
Relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Aslihan Ozturk Eyimaya; Aylin Yalçin Irmak

Published: October 2020   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

This study investigates the relationship between parenting practices and children's screen time following the COVID-19 outbreak. The population of the present cross-sectional study was the parents of children studying in three randomly-selected schools in the western, eastern and central regions of Turkey. The study data were collected between May 15 and 31, 2020, using a descriptive questionnaire form and the Parenting Practices Scale applied to 1115 parents of children between 6 and 13 years of age. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 21.0 software package, and with descriptive, correlation and multiple regression analyses.

Parents and children during the COVID-19 lockdown: the influence of parenting distress and parenting self-efficacy on children’s emotional well-being

AUTHOR(S)
Mara Morelli; Elena Cattelino; Roberto Baiocco (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
On March 10, 2020, Italy went into lockdown due to the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The World Health Organization highlighted how the lockdown had negative consequences on psychological well-being, especially for children. The present study aimed to investigate parental correlates of children’s emotion regulation during the COVID-19 lockdown. Within the Social Cognitive Theory framework, a path model in which parenting self-efficacy and parental regulatory emotional self-efficacy mediated the relationship between parents’ psychological distress and both children’s emotional regulation, and children’s lability/negativity, was investigated.
Vulnerability in facing the Covid-19 pandemic in the light of relational trauma

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Simonič; Christian Gostečnik; Tanja Repič Slavič (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: The Person and the Challenges

Coping with the COVID-19 pandemic has revealed different ways individuals react to frustrations they have experienced. Many times we have witnessed an increased level of aggression in interpersonal relationships and in the general social context. There are some differences in coping and responding according to gender, with men showing a higher level of vulnerability and risk of inappropriate regulation and expression of anger when frustrated. To a certain extent, the answer to why this happens is provided by neuroscientific research, which shows that already at an early age, boys’ brains develop differently from girls’, as it takes more time to develop their stress-regulating mechanism; consequently, due to slower development, boys are more vulnerable to early stressful situations and have more problems with self-regulation of affective states at this early age. Together with the possibility of relational trauma in the family, to which many children are exposed from the earliest period of their lives and which plays an important role in providing a context for the development of affect regulation, that means that boys and men are even more vulnerable and sensitive to stress, aggression and trauma later in life. It makes sense to take these neuroscience findings into account when building an understanding of responses to stressful challenges, such as coping with a pandemic, as well as when planning appropriate models to help individuals cope with different types of stress.

Family coping strategies during Finland’s COVID-19 lockdown

AUTHOR(S)
Milla Salin; Anniina Kaittila; Mia Hakovirta (et al.)

Published: October 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic and global lockdowns fundamentally changed families’ everyday lives. This study aims to examine how families with children coped during the COVID-19 lockdown in Finland and what kind of coping strategies they developed. An online survey including both qualitative and quantitative questions was conducted between April and May 2020 to gather Finnish families’ experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown. Huston’s social-ecological theory was used as an analytical framework. 
Stress, resilience, and well-being in Italian children and their parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Cusinato; Sara Iannattone; Andrea Spoto (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has forced parents and children to adopt significant changes in their daily routine, which has been a big challenge for families, with important implications for family stress. This study aims to analyze the potential risk and protective factors for parents’ and children’s well-being during a potentially traumatic event such as the COVID-19 quarantine. Specifically, it investigates parents’ and children’s well-being, parental stress, and children’s resilience. The study involved 463 Italian parents of children aged 5–17.
Testing the effects of COVID-19 confinement in Spanish children: the role of parents’ distress, emotional problems and specific parenting

AUTHOR(S)
Estrella Romero; Laura López-Romero; Beatriz Domínguez-Álvarez (et al.)

Published: October 2020   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.
The present study aimed to examine the effects of the Spanish confinement derived from the COVID-19 crisis on children and their families, accounting for child’s age. A range of child negative (e.g., conduct problems) and positive outcomes (e.g., routine maintenance) were examined, along with a set of parent-related variables, including resilience, perceived distress, emotional problems, parenting distress and specific parenting practices (e.g., structured or avoidant parenting), which were modeled through path analysis to better understand child adjustment.
331 - 345 of 385

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.