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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
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346 - 360 of 488
Understanding at-the-moment stress for parents during COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions

Bridget Freisthler; Paul J. Gruenewald; Erin Tebben (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Social Science & Medicine

In spring 2020, many states in the United States enacted stay-at-home orders to limit the spread of COVID-19 and lessen effects on hospitals and health care workers. This required parents to act in new roles without much support. Although studies have asked parents about stress before and during the pandemic, none have examined how stress may have fluctuated throughout the day and the characteristics related to those daily changes. Our study assesses how time-varying (e.g., presence of a focal child) and day-varying (e.g., weekend vs. weekday) factors were related to parents’ level of stress.

Therapist experiences and attitudes about implementing internet-delivered parent-child interaction therapy during COVID-19

Miya L. Barnett; Marika Sigal; Yessica Green Rosas (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Cognitive and Behavioral Practice
It has been widely recognized that access to mental health treatment is imperative to address current and long-term stressors for children and parents during COVID-19. Internet-delivered Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (iPCIT, previously referred to as I-PCIT) is a strong model for remote service delivery during social distancing restrictions due to its empirical base.
Fathers matter: intrahousehold responsibilities and children's wellbeing during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy

Lucia Mangiavacchi; Luca Piccoli; Luca Pieroni

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economics & Human Biology
The lockdown imposed during the spring of 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic upset families lives, in addition to the health consequences of the virus, forcing parents to completely reorganize their labor, domestic work and childcare time. At the same time, school closures forced children to rearrange their lives and learning processes: in Italy, schools and nurseries were closed for four months, and the incidence and quality of distance learning activities was heterogeneous across education levels and among schools. Using real-time survey data on families with under-16 children collected in April 2020, which include information on parents’ market and household work, and their perception of their children's wellbeing, we estimate how the lockdown has affected children's use of time, their emotional status and their home learning, and whether the reallocation of intrahousehold responsibilities during the lockdown played a role in this process. Changes in the parental division of household tasks and childcare, mostly induced by the labor market restrictions imposed during the lockdown, point to a greater involvement of fathers in childcare and homeschooling activities. This positive variation in fathers’ involvement is accompanied by an increase in children's emotional wellbeing and by a reduction in TV and passive screen time. On the other hand, the quality of children's home learning does not appear to depend on which parent is overseeing their work, but rather on the type of distance learning activities proposed by their teachers.
Elevated levels of COVID-19-related stress and mental health problems among parents of children with developmental disorders during the pandemic

Randolph C. H. Chan; Suk Chun Fung

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
COVID-19 not only threatens people’s physical health, but also creates disruption in work and social relationships. Parents may even experience additional strain resulting from childcare responsibilities. A total of 129 parents participated in this study. Parents of children with developmental disorders showed higher levels of parenting stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms than did parents of children with typical development. Parenting stress and health worries were positively related to mental health symptoms. The association between having a child with developmental disorders and mental health symptoms was mediated by parenting stress. This study provides a timely investigation into the stress and mental health of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic
The dual role of nurses as mothers during the pandemic period: qualitative study

Melike Yavaş Celik

Published: April 2021   Journal: Early Child Development and Care

This study aims to determine the changing routines of nurses in maternal role due to Covid-19 outbreak. This is qualitative interview research and is based on the descriptions of the interviews with the participants. Interviews were recorded on the phone with nurses. It was semi-structured and used a snowball sample, and in-depth interviews were made. Three themes were determined in this research. The themes are 1. Imperatives of the Covid-19 pandemic, 2. Theme: Concerns about infecting their children with Covid-19, 3. Theme: Impaired communication with children. Also, nurses express difficulty about child care, communication with children and concerns about infecting their children. Nurses and their children have been adversely affected by this process and have a feeling of inadequate parental roles.

Children’s changing behaviours and routines, challenges and opportunities for parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Iskender Gelir; Nurullah Duzen

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education
This study examines the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on parents and preschool children from parents’ perspectives. We used an open-ended online questionnaire to reach parents (81: 60 mothers and 21 fathers). The questionnaire includes questions about gender, age, occupation and educational level, and questions about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. The ecological model is used as the theoretical construct to examine interactions between children and parents at home. Three main categories are identified: changing behaviours and routines, challenges and difficulties, and opportunities for parenting. The participants report that children’s 11 social and emotional behaviours change during the pandemic in general and the lockdown.
Caregivers’ joint depressive symptoms and preschoolers’ daily routines in Chinese three-generation families: does household chaos matter?

Yongqiang Jiang; Ting He; Xiuyun Lin (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
This study aimed to investigate the associations of parents’ and grandparents’ depressive symptoms with preschoolers’ daily routines in Chinese three-generation families and to determine whether household chaos mediated or moderated the associations. The participants were from 171 urban three-generation families where mothers, fathers, and grandmothers (97 paternal and 74 maternal) were primary caregivers. Mothers, fathers, and grandmothers reported their depressive symptoms at Wave 1; at Wave 2 (during the COVID-19 pandemic), caregivers reported household chaos and child routines.
Stress, alcohol use, and punitive parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jennifer Price Wolf; Bridget Freisthler; Caileigh Chadwick

Published: April 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Emerging research suggests that parents are experiencing heightened stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental stress is a risk factor for harsh or punitive parenting, and this association may be exacerbated by the use of alcohol. We examine whether parental stress is associated with use of punitive parenting, as well as whether this association is modified by drinking pattern.

Comparing the initial impact of COVID-19 on burden and psychological distress among family caregivers of children with and without developmental disabilities

S. M. Chafouleas; E. A. Iovino

Published: April 2021   Journal: School Psychology
The current COVID-19 pandemic is presenting challenges for families, which may be exacerbated for caregivers of children with developmental disabilities (DDs; Center on the Developing Child, Stress, hope, and the role of science: Responding to the coronavirus pandemic, 2020). The purpose of this study was to explore caregiver burden and psychological distress among caregivers of children with DD as compared to caregivers of typically developing children across the United States as a result of COVID-19.
Homeschooling during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: the role of students’ trait self-regulation and task attributes of daily learning tasks for students’ daily self-regulation

Friederike Blume; Andrea Schmidt; Andrea C. Kramer

Published: April 2021   Journal: Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft
As a means to counter the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, schools were closed throughout Germany between mid-March and end of April 2020. Schooling was translocated to the students’ homes where students were supposed to work on learning tasks provided by their teachers. Students’ self-regulation and attributes of the learning tasks may be assumed to have played important roles when adapting to this novel schooling situation. They may be predicted to have influenced students’ daily self-regulation and hence the independence with which they worked on learning tasks. The present work investigated the role of students’ trait self-regulation as well as task difficulty and task enjoyment for students’ daily independence from their parents in learning during the homeschooling period.
Longitudinal patterns of food insecurity, the home food environment, and parent feeding practices during COVID-19

Elizabeth L. Adams; Laura J. Caccavale; Danyel Smith (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Obesiti Science and Practice

The economic impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) have drastically increased food insecurity in the United States. Initial data, collected a few months into the pandemic, showed that families, particularly those experiencing food insecurity, reported detrimental changes to their home food environment and parent feeding practices, compared to before COVID‐19. This follow‐up study obtained longitudinal data from a sample of parents in the United States to quantify changes in food security status, the home food environment, and parent feeding practices, from before to across COVID‐19 as the pandemic continued to persist.

Postpartum during COVID‐19 pandemic: Portuguese mothers' mental health, mindful parenting, and mother–infant bonding

Daniela V. Fernandes; Maria C. Canavarro; Helena Moreira

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Clinical Psychology

Millions of people worldwide have been diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19), which has impacted maternal mental health and mother–infant relationships during the postpartum period. To explore how mothers' anxious and depressive symptoms, parenting stress, mindful parenting, and mother–infant bonding vary as a function of the moment of the baby's birth (pre‐COVID‐19 or post‐COVID‐19) and to examine the contribution of those variables to mother–infant bonding.

Impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on parent, child, and family functioning

Mark E. Feinberg; Jacqueline A. Mogle; Jin‐Kyung Lee (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Family Process
To quantify the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic and public health interventions on parent and child mental health and family relationships, this study examined change in individual and family functioning in a sample of parents enrolled in a prevention trial; it examined change before the pandemic (2017–2019) when children were an average of 7 years old to the first months after the imposition of widespread public health interventions in the United States (2020) with paired t tests and HLM models.
Study problems and depressive symptoms in adolescents during the COVID-19 outbreak: poor parent-child relationship as a vulnerability

Jingyi Wang; Hao Wang; Haijiang Lin (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Globalization and Health
Little is known about the prevalence of and risk factors for adolescent mental health problems during the COVID-19 outbreak. This paper aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms, their association with study-relevant problems, and the moderating effect of parent-child relationship among Chinese adolescents during the school closures.
Parental perceptions of COVID-19–like illness in their children

A. Hodson; L. Woodland; L. E. Smith (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Public Health

The objective of the study is to explore parents' perceptions of COVID-19–like symptoms in their child and attitudes towards isolating from others in the household when unwell. The study used qualitative, semistructured interviews.

346 - 360 of 488

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.