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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Parental refusal and hesitancy of vaccinating children against COVID-19: findings from a nationally representative sample of parents in the U.S.

Thadchaigeni Panchalingam; Yuyan Shi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The uptake rate of COVID−19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children.
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and hesitancy amongst parents of school-aged children during the pediatric vaccine rollout

Alexandra Byrne; Lindsay A. Thompson; Stephanie L. Filipp (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The United States has the highest number of total cases and deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide (Johns Hopkins COVID Dashboard, 2021). Despite COVID-19 vaccine availability, uptake in the United States has been slow and vaccine hesitancy has been a significant barrier to achieving widespread vaccine uptake. Understanding determinants of vaccine acceptance is essential to implement successful population health interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccination. This study developed an anonymous cross-sectional parent survey to assess factors associated with parent and child COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy during the initial pediatric vaccine rollout amongst adolescents 16 years +. The survey was sent via email to 25,308 parents registered to the Alachua County Public School System in May 2021 and remained active until July 2021.

The iImpact of distance learning on parental sStress during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Germany

Isabelle May; Lena Hoerl

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Family Journal
Parental stress caused by monthlong school closures was measured as early as spring and summer of 2020. The present study investigated parental resilience during the second lockdown in Germany in January/February 2021 (n = 2,804). Based on an online questionnaire, parental stress, resilience, self-efficacy, children’s school abilities, and the perceived quality of lesson design in distance teaching were queried. Multiple linear regression analysis identified significant relationships between the experienced stress perception and the time spent supporting children in distance learning. We identified parental resilience as a predictor of stress experiences. It was possible to demonstrate the considerable influence of child variables and perceived lesson design on parental stress levels.
Perceived Covid-19-crisis intensity and family supportive organizational perceptions as antecedents of parental burnout: A study conducted in Italy in March/April 2021 and 2022

Marta Redaelli; Marloes L. van Engen; Stéfanie André

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent perceived Covid-19-crisis intensity (PCCI) leads to the experience of parental burnout (PB), a syndrome characterized by exhaustion, emotional detachment from one’s own children and a sense of inefficacy in the role as parent. Furthermore, the mediating role of work–family conflict (WFC) is examined. The buffering effect of family supportive organizational perceptions during the pandemic (FSOP-p) on the relationship between work–family conflict and parental burnout is also explored. Data were collected in March–April 2021 and March/April 2022. In spring 2021, 222 Italian working parents with at least one minor child living at home filled out the questionnaire.
Parental anxiety and form of parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic

Elfan Fanhas Fatwa Khomaeny; Erika Setyanti Kusumaputeri

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy
The massive development of information technology based on big data, internet, and artifcial intelligence has brought fundamental changes to human patterns and lifestyles, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic that hit globally, has added to a large and complex problems in parenting, as well as demanding people to take care of their children. Parents must be able to adapt and reposition themselves with new and efective forms of parenting, this can increase parental anxiety. To determine the level of parental anxiety, this research was conducted using a quantitative descriptive method through the distribution of questionnaires based on the GAD-7 instrument. This study focuses on eforts to capture the level of parental anxiety and the need for a new form of parenting.
Parents of children with congenital heart defects during the COVID-19 pandemic: an examination of mental health variables, risk factors, and protective factors

Kayla Harvey

Published: September 2022   Journal: Heart & Lung: The Journal of Cardiopulmonary and Acute Care
Little is known about the mental health burden or the factors that contribute to mental health variables in parents of children with congenital heart defects (CHD) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine risk and protective factors associated with anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and perceived stress in parents of young children with CHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. A nonexperimental design was used in this study of 127 parents of children aged newborn to five years with CHD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between COVID-19 stressors, CHD care-related factors, parental resilience, external support, and mental health variables.
The factor structure among primary school children of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire of Parents (SDQ-PR) in Malaysia during COVID-19

Hon Kai Yee; Chua Bee Seok; Crystal Ling

Published: September 2022   Journal: Cogent Social Sciences
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most widely used questionnaires to measure psychosocial adjustment in children. SDQ has been translated into more than 60 languages. However, a published review of 48 studies from 17 different cultural settings reported that the mean and cut-off scores of the SDQ have shown some variation across cultural settings. The discrepancies found in the existing literatures for the factor structure require further investigation. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of parent rating SDQ in the Malaysian context, especially during the pandemic. A total of 315 Malaysian parents of children in the age range of 9 to 11 years old who responded to the online survey participated in this study.
Parental perceptions of service access for transition-aged youth with autism during COVID-19

Meghan M. Burke; W. Catherine Cheung; Chak Li (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Services are critical for youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially during the transition to adulthood. Under the best of circumstances, though, it can be difficult to access needed adult services. With COVID-19, services were more difficult to obtain and retain. In this study, we explored parent perceptions of accessing new services and maintaining current services during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Structured interviews were conducted with 65 parents of transition-aged youth (aged 16–26) with ASD living in three states (IL, TN, and WI) in the United States. None of the participants reported receiving new services during the pandemic, and many struggled to access services via online applications. In addition, participants reported that service suspensions and changes in modality (e.g., from in-person to telehealth) were spearheaded by professionals and not families. Participants, especially those in TN, were more likely to pay out-of-pocket for services during the COVID-19 pandemic to compensate for service disruptions. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
The impact and lived experience of Covid-19 restrictions for vulnerable children and families in a low-income Irish community

Margaret Curtin; Maria O’Shea; Claire Hayes

Published: September 2022   Journal: Child Care in Practice
The Covid-19 pandemic has impacted on all aspects of life. The physical health burden predominately impacts adults. However, the psychological burden has impacted significantly on the development and wellbeing of babies and young children. The aim of this research was to explore the impact of Covid-19 restrictions on vulnerable children (aged 0–6) and their families who were registered with a prevention and early intervention programme in an area of socio-economic disadvantage in southern Ireland. A convenience sample of 15 mothers were contacted by the staff from the multidisciplinary Infant Mental Health home visiting team.
Mental health impact of COVID-19 on Saudi families and children with special educational needs and disabilities in Saudi Arabia: a national perspective

Shuliweeh Alenezi; Mohamad-Hani Temsah; Ahmed S. Alyahya (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

The COVID-19 pandemic revealed a multidimensional impact on mental health due to health concerns, social distancing and lockdowns, job loss, and limits in institutional support. Accordingly, COVID-19 may disproportionally impact families with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) due to the already high prevalence of mental health conditions in children with SEND and their parents. Hence, it is essential to determine the short-term impact of the pandemic on the mental health of families with SEND to identify their ongoing health, including psychological wellbeing and support needs. The current study examines the anxiety level and concerns of children with SEND and their parents living in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional national study design was utilized as a part of an international consortium using an online Arabic survey. Data were collected from the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Development beneficiaries from May to July 2020. The sample consisted of 1,848 parents of children with SEND aged between 1 and 18 years (mean = 9.66; SD = 4.31). A descriptive and bivariant analysis is reported.

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in parents of infants with colic and on health care use

Karola de Graaf; Robin Hartjes; Claudia Barbian (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

This study aims to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of parents of infants with colic and on healthcare use. It is a retrospective cohort study. Data of 64 parents of infants with colic prepandemic and 43 parents of infants with colic during the pandemic were analysed using validated questionnaires on parental stress, depression and anxiety.

Comparing COVID-19 vaccination outcomes with parental values, beliefs, attitudes, and hesitancy status, 2021–2022

Tuhina Srivastava; Angela K. Shen; Safa Browne (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Despite the availability of safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine acceptance has been low, particularly among parents. More information is needed on parental decision-making. A prospective cohort study was conducted from October 2021 to March 2022 among 334 parents in a large urban/suburban pediatric primary care network and linked longitudinal survey responses about attitudes and beliefs on vaccination, social norms, and access to vaccination services for COVID-19 to electronic health-record-derived vaccination outcomes for their eldest age-eligible children in June 2022. The odds of accepting two doses of COVID-19 vaccine for their child was higher in respondents who indicated the COVID-19 vaccine would be very safe (aOR [CI]: 2.69 [1.47–4.99], p = 0.001), as well as those who previously vaccinated their child against influenza (aOR [CI]: 4.07 [2.08–8.12], p < 0.001). The odds of vaccinating their child were lower for respondents who attended suburban vs. urban practices (aOR [CI]: 0.38 [0.21–0.67], p = 0.001). Parents in the cohort were active users of social media; the majority (78%) used their phone to check social media platforms at least once per day.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 10 | No. of pages: 14 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, pandemic, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Exclusive breastfeeding and women's psychological well-being during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy

Louise Marron; Annamaria Ferenczi; Katie M. O'Brien (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Vaccine
Vaccination of children aged 5 years and older is recommended as part of a multifaceted strategy to protect children against SARS CoV-2 infection and serious disease, and to control the spread of infection. COVID-19 vaccine trials in children aged less than5 years are underway, however, parental acceptance of vaccines for this age group is unknown. Between June and August 2021, a cross-sectional national survey of parental attitudes towards childhood vaccination in Ireland was conducted. Parents of children aged 0–48 months were surveyed to determine their attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines for their children. A total of 855 parents were surveyed. Overall, 50.6 % reported that they intend to vaccinate their child, 28.7 % reported that they did not intend to vaccinate and 20.2 % were unsure. Among those who stated that they did not intend to vaccinate their child, concern about risks and side effects of vaccination was the primary reason reported (45.6 %). The most frequently reported information needs related to side effects of the vaccine (64.7 %) and vaccine safety (60.3 %).
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 40 | Issue: 39 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, immunization, immunization programmes, infectious disease, pandemic, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Ireland
Location matters: Regional variation in association of community burden of COVID-19 with caregiver and youth worry

Andrew T. Marshall; Daniel A. Hackman; Eric Kan (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Health & Place
This study characterized associations between three indicators of COVID-19's community-level impact in 20 geographically diverse metropolitan regions and how worried youth and their caregivers in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development℠ Study have been about COVID-19. County-level COVID-19 case/death rates and monthly unemployment rates were geocoded to participants’ addresses. Caregivers’ (vs. youths’) COVID-19-related worry was more strongly associated with COVID-19's community impact, independent of sociodemographics and pre-pandemic anxiety levels, with these associations varying by location. Public-health agencies and healthcare providers should avoid adopting uniform “one-size-fits-all” approaches to addressing COVID-19-related emotional distress and must consider specific communities’ needs, challenges, and strengths.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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