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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and preference from caregivers and healthcare workers in China: a survey experiment

Zhiyuan Hou; Kuimeng Song; Qian Wang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
With approval of more COVID-19 vaccines for children, vaccine attributes may influence parental acceptance and choices. This study aimed to assess effects of vaccine attributes and information on herd immunity on childhood COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. A survey experiment was conducted with caregivers of children aged 6 months to 11 years old and health care workers (HCWs) in China from September 14 to November 18, 2021. Respondents were randomly assigned to receive differing information on herd immunity (> 80% of the entire population must be vaccinated; or no information). Respondents then completed eight discrete choice tasks to assess vaccine acceptance based on attributes. 2331 (90.07%) of 2588 surveyed caregivers and 1576 (92.71%) of 1700 surveyed HCWs would accept COVID-19 vaccination for children, respectively.
Listening to Filipino parents' voices during distance learning of their children amidst COVID-19

Abdul Wahid I Tocalo

Published: July 2022   Journal: Education 3-13
Given that the experiences of Filipino parents around distance learning education amid the COVID-19 pandemic have been overlooked in research, this study used an embedded mixed methods design to survey 837 Filipino parents’ needs regarding distance learning of their children under primary level during the pandemic.
Parent–teacher interactions during COVID-19: experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities

Grace L. Francis; Alexandra R. Raines; Alexandra S. Reed (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Education Sciences
In 2020, COVID-19 disrupted all aspects of society across the globe including healthcare, employment, social interactions, and education. In many parts of the world, abrupt school closures caught teachers off guard, as they were forced to immediately shift their practices from in-person to online instruction with little-to-no preparation. Furthermore, during this time, many parents of school-aged children vacillated between multiple roles associated with their employment, household caregiving activities, and supporting their children at home. These challenges were especially challenging for teachers and parents of students with severe disabilities. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of U.S. teachers of students with severe disabilities regarding interacting with parents during the COVID-19 pandemic, including when schools initially closed in March 2020 and then reopened in September of 2020. This manuscript outlines six key themes highlighting parent–teacher interactions: (a) parents directing school decisions, (b) teacher inability to meet parent expectations, (c) parent–teacher communication, (d) parents as teachers, (e) parent exhaustion, and (f) teacher helplessness.
How The child with hearing loss and their parents affected during the Covid-19 pandemic?

Deniz Tuz; Filiz Aslan; Esra Yucel

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
This study aimed to determine parents’ perception of the behavioral and auditory performance differences of children with hearing loss and anxiety levels of children and their parents during the pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study. The study included 75 parents who have preschool-aged children with hearing loss. The inclusion criteria were being a family member of a child with hearing loss between the ages of one and six years. The children’s mean age was 4.09 (± 1.42). The evaluation forms included the control list to determine how the children with hearing loss and their parents were affected during the pandemic, the Parents' Evaluation of Aural Performance of Children rating scale to measure children's auditory performance, the Preschool Behavior.
Caregiver perspective on the impact of COVID-19 on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD in the United States: a questionnaire-based survey

Dominique Schwartz; Prageet K. Sachdev; Laura Hewitson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: COVID
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) were particularly vulnerable to disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we conducted an anonymous caregiver survey to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the psychosocial and behavioral health of children with ASD. Data from 700 responses identified several significant factors predicting greater difficulties for the child including pre-existing behavioral challenges (OR = 5.179; 95% CI: 2.696, 9.951), disrupted sleep (OR = 2.618; 95% CI 1.341, 5.112), and a diagnosis of depression (OR = 3.425; 95% CI: 1.1621, 4.116). Greater difficulties for caregivers in managing their child’s behaviors were associated with sleep disturbances (OR = 1.926; 95% CI: 1.170, 3.170), self-injurious behavior (OR = 3.587; 95% CI: 1.767, 7.281), and managing the child’s school activities (OR = 3.107; 95% CI: 1.732, 5.257) and free time (OR = 3.758; 95% CI: 2.217, 6.369). However, being under the care of a neuropsychiatrist was associated with less difficulty in managing the child’s behaviors (OR = 2.516; 95% CI: −1.046, −5.382). Finally, the presence of comorbidities (OR = 2.599; 95% CI: 1.053, 4.067) and a greater difficulty in managing the child’s school activities (OR = 2.531; 95% CI: 1.655, 3.868) and free time (OR = 1.651; 95% CI: 1.101, 2.478) were associated with an increased likelihood of caregiver desire for their child to return to in-person school in the fall. The COVID-19 pandemic had a wide-ranging impact on the behaviors of children with ASD and challenges for their caregivers.
Attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for own children in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

Sawsan Abuhammad; Yousef Khader; Shaher Hamaideh

Published: July 2022   Journal: Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

This study aimed to evaluate parents' attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination for their children and determine predictors of parents’ attitudes towards their children receiving the Vaccine against COVID-19. This study used a cross-sectional design. The subjects were Jordanian parents with a child less than 18 years old. The survey was made available on different social media platforms and other networks such as community organizations, academic posts, and private groups.

Parents' perception towards the national COVID-19 immunisation programme for children (PICKids): a cross-sectional, internet-based survey

Ishak Mas’ud; Surina Mohamad Shafi; Mohd Zulkifli Awang (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Human and Health Sciences
The Ministry of Health Malaysia’s (MOH) National COVID-19 Immunisation Programme for Children (PICKids) is a public health initiative aimed at achieving herd immunity and prevent illness among Malaysian children. The COVID-19 outbreak and the efficacy of the COVID-19 immunisation programme for children are facing tremendous stress among parents. The purpose of this study was to see how parents in Klang Valley, Malaysia viewed and accepted the COVID-19 vaccination for their children. Parents were distributed a set of questionnaires over social media via Qualtrics XM. A simple random sampling technique was used to choose the participants. The total number of participants in the study was 88, with 30 males (34.09%) and 58 females (65.91%). The findings show a statistically significant correlation between parents’ knowledge of COVID-19 and their willingness to vaccinate their children.
Parents' perceptions on COVID-19 vaccination as the new routine for their children ≤ 11 years old

Robin M. Humble; Hannah Sell; Sarah Wilson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Canadian children 5–11 years old became eligible for COVID-19 vaccination on November 19, 2021, with
eligibility for younger children expected later. This study aimed to descriptively assess parents' COVID-19 vaccine in-
tentions and acceptability of future doses, including co-administration and annual vaccination for their children.
A cross-sectional Canadian online survey of parents was conducted from October 14–November 12, 2021, just
prior to authorization of the pediatric formulation of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine for children aged 5–11
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign: risk perception, emotional states, and vaccine hesitancy in a sample of adolescents' vaccinated parents in Southern Italy

Giulia Savarese; Luna Carpinelli; Anna De Chiara (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The international strategic plan for COVID-19 vaccines remains the practical option for the protection of health. However, vaccine hesitancy remains an obstacle to full population vaccination, with rapid developments in COVID-19 vaccines and concerns about efficacy acting as influencing factors. The present study investigated the perception of vaccine hesitancy among parents of adolescents in order to explore the reasons and related emotional states. In January–March 2022, an online questionnaire was administered to a sample of parents who brought their children to the vaccine center of a local health unit, ASL Salerno (Campania, Italy).
Parental evaluation of teachers' competences and characteristics during COVID-19 pandemic homeschooling

Verena Letzel; Marcela Pozas; Kris-Stephen Besa

Published: June 2022   Journal: Social Psychology of Education
With the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, school-related closures and the hasty transition into homeschooling, parents were required to take a more active and positive role than ever before in collaboration with their children’s educators. Thus, with this unprecedented situation, parents became an important source of information during the pandemic. Considering this unique event, the study at hand aims to explore parents’ perspectives regarding primary and upper secondary school teachers’ digital competence, digital differentiated instruction, and feedback during the first SARS-CoV-2 school shutdown in Germany. Additionally, the study examined parents’ evaluation of teachers’ characteristics.
Knowledge & attitude of parents towards pediatric dental treatment for their child in COVID-19 pandemic

Suyash Joshi; Nupur Ninawe; Ritesh Kalaskar (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences
The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knowledge & Attitude of parents towards Pediatric dental treatment for their child in view of covid-19 pandemic in India. A Cross sectional study. A online cross-sectional study containing a structured self-administered questionnaire was designed in English language consisting of total 16 close ended multiple choice questions that were divided based on the demographic data, knowledge and attitude of participating parents.
Examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on service providers working with children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities and their families: results of a focus group study.

David B. Nicholas; Wendy Mitchell; Jill Ciesielski (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities
The COVID-19 pandemic has imposed unprecedented service interruptions in many sectors including services for children and youth with neuro-developmental disabilities (NDD). This study examined the experiences of service providers as they supported this population during the pandemic. Five focus groups were convened with 24 service providers offering support to children/youth with NDD and their families.
Therapy service delivery for children with disabilities during COVID‐19: parent perceptions and implementation recommendations

Linzy M. Pinkerton; Ashley Murphy; Ellie Bruckner (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Psychology
This study identifies challenges and advantages parents faced in navigating therapy service delivery for their child with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of an online survey, 171 parents of children with disabilities answered four, free response questions regarding the therapy services their children received during the pandemic. A grounded theory approach was used to identify top challenges, barriers, advantages, and recommendations. Challenges included children's poor response to telehealth services, lack of parent training, and technological challenges. Advantages included fewer barriers to service access and increased family involvement. Parents largely recommended shorter, more frequent teletherapy sessions, and resuming in-person services. To improve parent engagement in, and the sustainability of, services, parent feedback should inform service delivery design and implementation. Incorporating parent feedback about service delivery can decrease disparities in access and increase parent engagement in child services both generally, and during periods of service disruption.
Self-efficacy and parents' perspectives of elementary school students in online learning during Covid-19

Yani Fitriyani; Aan Yuliyanto; Eli Hermawati (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Jurnal Basicedu
This study intends to investigate the self-efficacy and perspectives of primary school parents in an online learning during COVID-19. The survey method was applied in this study with a random sampling technique for parents in West Java. Participants included in this study were 95 parents of elementary school students. The instruments applied were open and closed questionnaires.
Caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age against COVID-19: a cross-sectional multi-center study in Milan, Italy

Maurizio Lecce; Gregorio Paolo Milani; Carlo Agostoni (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the pediatric population is increasingly recognized. A widespread vaccination in childhood would provide benefits for children and might help ending the pandemic by enhancing community protection. Following recent approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) of Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 5–11 years, this study aimed to investigate caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children <12 years of age against COVID-19. A structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children aged <12 years visiting the Emergency Department or the outpatient clinics in three major hospitals of Milan, Italy, from 20 September to 17 October 2021. A total of 612 caregivers were invited to participate and 604 accepted (response rate >98%). Three questionnaires were excluded due to compiling errors and 601 were included in the analysis.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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