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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Racial healing during the COVID-19 and anti-Asian pandemics through critical consciousness informed antiracist parenting practices (CCIARP)

Yuying Tsong; Sapna B. Chopra; Hsiu-Lan Cheng

Published: January 2023   Journal: Asian American Journal of Psychology
Pervasive anti-Asian racism and xenophobia during the COVID-19 pandemic pose risks to Asian Americans’ mental health and wellness. Parents and caregivers play a vital role in children’s identity development and beliefs about race and racism. This article offers an analysis of anti-Asian racism during the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on Asian American (AA) adults’ and children’s wellness. In addition, based on reviews and analyses of the literature, it proposes a framework of critical consciousness informed antiracist parenting (CCIARP) for AA parents, practitioners, and educators who work with them to understand and heal from existing and continuing racial trauma as well as strategies and tools to enact social change toward a more just future. CCIARP recommendations include (a) cultivating antiracist awareness, (b) building skills and engaging in activism, and (c) fostering an antiracist parent–child relationship. Limitations and future research needed to apply this framework are included in the discussions.
Factors associated with parental COVID-19 vaccine attitudes and intentions among a national sample of United States adults ages 18–45

Lakeshia Cousin; Stephanie Roberts; Naomi C. Brownstein (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: About Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This study explored factors associated with parents' attitudes and intentions to seek information about the COVID-19 vaccine for their children (ages 0–18) and intentions to vaccinate their age-eligible children. As part of an anonymous online cross-sectional survey, parents' vaccine attitudes, COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children, health literacy, health numeracy, and sociodemographic variables were assessed. Multivariable ordered logistic regression models identified factors associated with parents' COVID-19 vaccine intentions for their children.
Assessment of stress and sleep with respect to age in school going children confined to home curing Covid-19: an observational study

Neha ; Shubha Arora

Published: January 2023   Journal: Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy
In 2020 the World health organization declared the novel corona virus disease 2019 outbreak a pandemic. On March
2020, the government ordered a national lockdown to limit the viral transmission of COVID- 19 infection. The
lockdown included such measures as home confinement, restriction on movement, encourage and arrangement
to work from home. Aim of this study was to assess, stress and Sleep disturbances with respect to age. It was an
observational survey study with sample size of 100 school students .students divided in 2 groups based on ages
that was 8-11 yrs. And 14-15 yrs. Stress questionnaire (PSS) was given to students and sleep questionnaire (SDSC)
was given to parents.
Associations of parent-child exercise with family relations and parental mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

Takaya Koga; Ryo Okubo; Chong Chen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

Due to COVID-19 pandemic and behavior restrictions, deterioration of family relations and mental health in child-rearing households has been reported. This study examined whether frequent parent-child exercise (PCE) is associated with improved family relations and parental mental health under COVID-19. Using data from the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey (JACSIS), a nationwide survey conducted in August–September 2020, we extracted respondents with children aged 6 to 18 years (n = 2960). Logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between PCE frequency and changes in family relations and parental mental health.

Searching for online information on the fit of children's footwear during the COVID-19 pandemic: an analysis of Google Trends data

Carina Price; Stewart Morrison; Michael Haley (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Selecting footwear with appropriate fit in children is challenging due the changes with foot size and dimensions which occur throughout childhood. Access to appropriate footwear is important but recent challenges with the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in closure of retail stores for prolonged periods where parents/carers could not physically purchase footwear for their children and the footwear industry suffered disruption to their supply chain, and falls in retail sales. Simultaneously increased use of social media platforms for health information seeking throughout the pandemic have been documented. This likely would have included parents/carers seeking information online to support footwear purchases for their children. The primary aim of this work was to explore how searches for online fitting information for children changed throughout the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown periods. A secondary aim was to identify how searches were influenced by footwear style.
Impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic: pan-Canadian perspectives from parents and caregivers of youth with neurodevelopmental disabilities

Ash Seth; Brittany Finlay; Genevieve Currie (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
The COVID-19 pandemic brought unprecedented challenges for youth with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) and their families. Although health measures were implemented to contain the COVID-19 virus, they disrupted public service, profoundly impacting youth and their families’ access to services. This study sought to better understand the perspectives and experiences of parents and caregivers of youth with NDD across Canada in accessing services and their mental health needs during the pandemic. The study used a qualitative research design in which 40 parents and caregivers across Canada were interviewed.
Changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability among parents with children aged 6–35 months in China: repeated cross-sectional surveys in 2020 and 2021

Kechun Zhang; Xue Liang; Karen Lau Wa Tam (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Vaccines
China is considering to offer COVID-19 vaccination for children aged 6–35 months. This study investigated the changes in COVID-19 vaccine acceptability and associated factors among parents with children aged 6–35 months in 2020 and 2021. Two rounds of cross-sectional online surveys were conducted among adult factory workers in Shenzhen, China. A subset of 208 (first round) and 229 (second round) parents with at least one child aged 6–35 months was included in the study.
Alcohol use among Australian parents during the COVID-19 pandemic – April-2020 to May 2021

C. J. Greenwood; M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz; D. M. Hutchinson (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Addictive Behaviors

This study examined the trajectory of alcohol use frequency among parents from April-2020 to May-2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic in the state of Victoria, Australia (who experienced one of the longest lockdowns in the world), compared to parents from the other states of Australia (who experienced relatively fewer restrictions). We further examined the extent to which baseline demographic factors were associated with changes in alcohol use trajectories among parents. Data were from the COVID-19 Pandemic Adjustment Survey (2,261 parents of children 0–18 years). Alcohol use frequency was assessed over 13 waves. Baseline demographic predictors included parent gender, age, speaking a language other than English, number of children, partnership status, education, employment, and income.

Postpartum maternal anxiety and depression during COVID-19 pandemic: rates, risk factors and relations with maternal bonding

X. Benarous; C. Brocheton; C. Bonnay (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence

This study aims to determine the rates of clinically-significant anxiety and depressive symptoms during the immediate postpartum in a sample of women referred to a university maternity department, as well as the associated risk factors and the relations with the level of maternal bonding. During the third national lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic (February-April 2021), on days 2–3 after delivery 127 mothers were administrated the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS), the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-YA), the mother-to-infant bonding scale (MIBS) and questions issued from the coronavirus health impact survey questionnaire (CRISIS).

Parents' work arrangements and gendered time use during the COVID-19 pandemic

Thomas Lyttelton; Emma Zang; Kelly Musick

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Marriage and Family

This study uses time diaries to examine how parents' work arrangements shaped their time use at home and work during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic transformed home and work life for parents, disrupting employment and childcare. The shift to work from home offered more flexibility to manage increased care burdens, but the lack of separation between work and family also likely contributed to more challenging work environments, especially among mothers. This study relies on the 2017–2020 American Time Use Survey and matching to estimate changes in time use among parents working from home and on site in the pandemic relative to comparable parents prior to the pandemic.

Preventative practices and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on caregivers of children with pediatric pulmonary hypertension

Erik J. Nelson; Ella Cook; Megan Pierce (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a serious and life-threatening disease characterized by elevated mean arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. COVID-19 may exacerbate PH, as evidenced by higher mortality rates among those with PH. The objective of this study was to understand the unique burdens that the COVID-19 pandemic has placed upon families of children living with PH. Participants were recruited online through the “Families of children with pulmonary hypertension” Facebook group and asked to complete a survey about their experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The psychological impact of COVID-19 admission on families: results from a nationwide sample in Greece

Despoina Gkentzi; Konstantinos Mhliordos; Ageliki Karatza (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The aim of the present study was to assess the psychological impact of hospitalization during the COVID-19 pandemic on parents and their offspring. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional study in Greece based on an Internet questionnaire survey. A convenience sample of parents whose offspring had been hospitalized due to COVID-19 (including multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, MIS-C), diagnosed with COVID-19 but not hospitalized, and hospitalized for another reason during the pandemic were enrolled. Parental stress was assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Revised Impact of Event Scale (IES-R) tools, and childhood mental wellbeing with the Children’s Revised Impact of Event 13 (CRIES-13) scale.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Mental Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, mental stress, parents, psychological distress | Countries: Greece
Parental attitudes, intentions, decisions, and psychological wellbeing regarding COVID-19 vaccination: preschool, school-age, and adolescent caregivers

Liang-Jen Wang; Kuang-Che Kou; Kuo-Shu Tang (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The vaccination of all children may be one of the most important public health measures for preventing a wider spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the community. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the attitude, intention, decision making, and psychological well-being among the caregivers of children who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Taiwan. The caregivers of children (98 preschool children, 191 school-age children, and 154 adolescents) who received COVID-19 vaccination were invited to fill in the following questionnaires: Adopting Self-Protective Behavior Scale, Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale, Impact of Event Scale, Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Parental Bonding Instrument. Compared to the caregivers of adolescents, the caregivers of preschool children exhibited more protective behaviors toward the COVID-19 pandemic. The caregivers of preschool children also displayed a higher emotional impact than those of adolescents and took a greater interest in the family’s opinion about vaccination. Finally, we found that COVID-19 ideological invasion and protective parenting style were significantly related to the prevalence of mental illness among caregivers.
Assessment of parent–teacher relationships in early childhood education programs during the COVID-19 pandemic

Grace Keengwe; Ariri Onchwari

Published: December 2022   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
Relationships between families and schools are important in the educational experiences of young children. However, the COVID-19 pandemic that began in 2019 and spread rapidly around the world disrupted many families, teachers, early childhood programs, and other child-support institutions. There is much to be learned on how this pandemic specifically affected parent–teacher relationships. This study examined whether parent, teacher and other program characteristics had an impact on early childhood parents’ ratings of the quality of their relationships with teachers.
Associations between routine adolescent vaccination status and parental intent to get a COVID-19 vaccine for their adolescent

Cassandra Pingali; Fan Zhang; Tammy A. Santibanez (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Although COVID-19–associated illness is generally mild in adolescents, they can experience severe health outcomes, including hospitalization and death.1 COVID-19 vaccinations are effective for preventing serious COVID-19–associated illness in adolescents.1 The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends persons aged 6 months or older receive COVID-19 vaccination.2 As of April 14, 2022, among US individuals aged 12 to 17 years, COVID-19 vaccination coverage (≥1 dose) was 68%,3 lower than for other vaccines routinely recommended for adolescents.4 The ACIP recommends adolescents aged 11 to 12 years receive tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap), meningococcal conjugate (MenACWY), and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations.2 This cross-sectional study investigated associations between routine adolescent vaccination status and parental intent or hesitancy to get a COVID-19 vaccine for their adolescent. The National Immunization Survey–Child COVID Module (NIS-CCM) is a national telephone survey of households with children or adolescents aged 6 months to 17 years used to measure parent-reported COVID-19 vaccination coverage and intent to vaccinate their child.5 The NIS-CCM uses the NIS-Child sampling frame; for adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, it follows the NIS-Teen interview, allowing for analysis of both routine (HPV, MenACWY, and Tdap) and COVID-19 vaccination coverage.5 NIS-CCM interviews from July 22, 2021, through February 26, 2022, were analyzed. Survey respondents were those self-reporting being most knowledgeable about the child’s vaccinations (hereafter, parent). Vaccination status was based on parental report. Data were weighted to represent the noninstitutionalized population of US adolescents and calibrated to administered vaccinations data.3 Analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.4

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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