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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Therapy service delivery for children with disabilities during COVID‐19: parent perceptions and implementation recommendations

Linzy M. Pinkerton; Ashley Murphy; Ellie Bruckner (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Community Psychology
This study identifies challenges and advantages parents faced in navigating therapy service delivery for their child with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of an online survey, 171 parents of children with disabilities answered four, free response questions regarding the therapy services their children received during the pandemic. A grounded theory approach was used to identify top challenges, barriers, advantages, and recommendations. Challenges included children's poor response to telehealth services, lack of parent training, and technological challenges. Advantages included fewer barriers to service access and increased family involvement. Parents largely recommended shorter, more frequent teletherapy sessions, and resuming in-person services. To improve parent engagement in, and the sustainability of, services, parent feedback should inform service delivery design and implementation. Incorporating parent feedback about service delivery can decrease disparities in access and increase parent engagement in child services both generally, and during periods of service disruption.
Parents' and caregivers' role toward childhood vaccination in Albania: assessment of predictors of vaccine hesitancy.

E. Gjini; S. Moramarco; M. C. Carestia (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunità

Vaccination has saved millions of lives through the protection of individuals and populations from communicable diseases. Vaccine hesitancy, defined as the delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite the availability of vaccination services, has become a growing global concern. The objective of this study was to investigate parents'/caregivers' hesitancy toward childhood vaccination and its predictors in Albania. The data comes from a survey conducted on a sample of parents/caregivers (89.6% mothers) of children aged 6 months to 8 years at health care vaccination centers in seven Albanian cities from December 2020 to February 2021. Parents/caregivers (one per child) were interviewed by trained healthcare staff using a standardized questionnaire on six main content domains, including immunization behavior, beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy, attitudes about vaccines, vaccination confidence, estimation of vaccine delay, and the intention to immunize children against SARS-CoV-2, and a self-reported hesitancy.

Satisfaction of parents in the implementation of PdPR on special education during the Covid-19 pandemic

Livesha A. P. Singgaravi; Syar Meeze Bin Mohd Rashid

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development
This study aims to identify the level of parental satisfaction in the implementation of Special education PdPR during the Covid-19 pandemic. The implementation of PdPR played a very important role in improving the quality of education during the Covid-19 pandemic. The design of this study used a quantitative method that used a questionnaire instrument distributed through Google Form. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, which is demographic information, the second part on the level of parental satisfaction and the third part on the barriers to the implementation of PdPR. A total of 50 respondents consisting of parents of primary school special education students were involved in this study. The study data obtained were analyzed descriptively in the form of frequency and percentage which were categorized into two parts, the analysis of parental satisfaction with PdPR learning and the barriers faced by parents to implement PdPR.
Second wave of the study of Taiwanese caregivers of children with ADHD in the COVID-19 pandemic: intentions to vaccinate their children for COVID-19, and related factors

Ching-Shu Tsai; Liang-Jen Wang; Ray C. Hsiao (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The second wave of the Study of Taiwanese Caregivers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the COVID-19 Pandemic was conducted at the time of a severe COVID-19 outbreak. The aims of this study were to compare the level of the intentions of caregivers of children with ADHD to vaccinate their children between the first and second waves of study, as well as to examine the COVID-19 pandemic and non-COVID-19 pandemic factors related to caregivers’ intentions. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD completed the structured questionnaires, including the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale; the Risk Perception of the COVID-19 Scale; caregivers’ Difficulties in Asking Their Children to Adopt Self-Protective Behavior Scale; the Brief Symptom Rating Scale; the Parental Bonding Instrument; the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham version IV Scale; and the questionnaires for the intentions to vaccinate their children and child’s medication use for treating ADHD.
Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children

Krista Salo-Tuominen; Tamara Teros-Jaakkola; Laura Toivonen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009–2010. This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008–2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother’s and father’s individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA).

Maternal attitudes and intentions about the COVID-19 vaccine for children 5 to 11 years

Christine A. Limbers; Rachel Thompson

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

The current study assessed maternal attitudes and intention about the COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 5 to 11 years since the onset of the Delta variant and examined if the Delta variant changed maternal perceptions about COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19 precautions for children. Participants were 821 mothers (mean age = 40.11 years; 84.3% White) from the United States who had at least one child ages 5 to 11 years old. They were recruited online and completed questionnaires on Qualtrics about their youngest child ages 5 to 11 years. The majority of mothers (n = 595; 72.6%) reported they were very likely to have their child vaccinated for COVID-19 once a vaccine is available for children. After controlling for maternal and child factors, maternal trust in the COVID-19 vaccine development and approval process (Odds Ratios = 35.07; p <0.001), trust in the child’s physician (Odds Ratios = 1.65; p <0.01), and trust in the local public health department (Odds Ratios = 1.87; p <0.05) were associated with maternal likelihood of having one’s child vaccinated for COVID-19.

Parenting a child with a chronic illness during a pandemic

Cara Gallegos; Michael D. Aldridge; Kelley Connor (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

Nearly 20% of children in the United States experience one or more chronic health conditions. Parents of a child with a special healthcare need (CSHCN) experience increased stress caring for a child with chronic illness. The purpose of this descriptive study is to describe stress in parents of a child with chronic illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents of CSHCN (n = 34) were asked to fill out the Pediatric Inventory for Parents (PIP) and answer two questions related to caring for their child during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Child protection social workers facing the Covid-19 challenge

Valentina Calcaterra; Camilla Landi

Published: May 2022   Journal: International Social Work
The Covid-19 pandemic forced social workers to rethink how they perform their functions. This process was particularly challenging for child protection social workers, who had to understand how to continue to support families and children despite social distancing rules and the suspension of some activities. Three online focus groups were conducted with 18 child protection social workers to explore the Italian child protection social workers’ functions during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study presents the reflections shared by these social workers on their experiences and the new awareness they acquired while performing their work in support of families during the pandemic.
Routine pediatric vaccination during pandemic: attitudes of parents

Sibel Baktır Altuntaş; Gizem Kara Elitok

Published: April 2022   Journal: Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
This study aimed to examine the effects of a pandemic on children’s routine vaccination between 0 months and 24 months and to determine the affecting factors on vaccination during the pandemic. It was conducted between July 17, 2020, and August 1, 2020, among 513 mothers whose children were aged between 0 months and 24 months old. A total of 21 questions were asked to participants’ sociodemographic characteristics and attitudes and behaviors towards pediatric vaccines during the pandemic.
Acceptance and attitude of parents regarding COVID-19 vaccine for children: a cross-sectional study

Remiya Mohan; Vandna Pandey; Ashok Kumar (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Medical Journeys

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed millions of lives worldwide. India also launched a COVID-19 vaccination drive, and clinical trials for a pediatric COVID-19 vaccine are in development. The study aims to assess the acceptance and attitude of parents regarding the COVID-19 vaccine for children in India. The study also aims to find the association between selected demographic variables and acceptance and attitudes in parents regarding the COVID-19 vaccine for children.

Parents' hesitancy to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, a country-wide survey

Sultan F. Alhazza; Ali M. Altalhi; Khaled M. Alamri (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Parents' hesitancy (PH) toward childhood vaccination, including the vaccine of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is one of the top public health threats. We aim to assess the PH toward children COVID-19 vaccination as compared to PH toward children routine vaccination among the residents of Saudi Arabia. Before the official approval of children's COVID-19 vaccination in the country, a cross-sectional study using an electronically distributed survey was performed. Responses from parents of children younger than 18 years of age were accepted. The Oxford COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy scale (OC19-VHS) and the routine vaccination hesitancy scale (R-VHS) were used. Parents were classified as hesitant, non-hesitant, and unsure.

Parental stress of children with autism spectrum disorder during the Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19): experience from Serbia.

Aleksandra Djuric-Zdravkovic; Mirjana Japundza-Milisavljevic; Dijana Perovic (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie
Taking care of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as of children with other developmental disorders, is associated with greater parental stress. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and impact of integrative and co-morbid ASD-related symptoms on parental stress levels during the COVID-19 pandemic at four time points. Testing was performed during significant changes related to the state of the COVID-19 pandemic in Serbia.
Parents of young infants report poor mental health and more insensitive parenting during the first Covid-19 lockdown

Marion I. van den Heuvel; Stefania V. Vacaru; Myrthe G. B. M. Boekhorst (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

The Covid-19 pandemic has put an unprecedented pressure on families with children. How parents were affected by the first Covid-19 lockdown during the early postpartum period, an already challenging period for many, is unknown. This study aims to investigate the associations between Covid-19 related stress, mental health, and insensitive parenting practices in mothers and fathers with young infants during the first Dutch Covid-19 lockdown. The Dutch Covid-19 and Perinatal Experiences (COPE-NL) study included 681 parents of infants between 0 and 6 months (572 mothers and 109 fathers). Parents filled out online questionnaires about Covid-19 related stress, mental health (i.e. anxiety and depressive symptoms), and insensitive parenting. Hierarchical regression models were used to analyze the data.

Mood, emotions, and behaviors of children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Autonomous City of Buenos Aires

Laura Cohen Arazi; Mariela García; Débora Berdecio Salvatierra (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Archivos argentinos de pediatría

Changes in daily routine and social fabric resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic had an effect on children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to know the mood, emotions, and behaviors of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 lockdown. This was a prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Parents and/ or caregivers of children and adolescents aged 3-15 years in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires were asked about their perceptions of the mood, behaviors, and emotions of children and adolescents during the lockdown.

Factors that differentiate COVID-19 vaccine intentions among Indiana parents: implications for targeted vaccine promotion

Katharine J. Head; Gregory D. Zimet; Constantin T. Yiannoutsos (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
Given low rates of uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine for children 12–17 and 5–11 years old, research is needed to understand parental behaviors and behavioral intentions related to COVID-19 vaccination for their children. In the state of Indiana, this study conducted a non-random, online survey of parents or caregivers (N = 10,266) about their COVID-19 vaccine intentions or behaviors, demographic characteristics, and potential motivating reasons for getting the vaccine.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.