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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 128
When the bough breaks: a systematic review and meta-analysis of mental health symptoms in mothers of young children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nicole Racine; Rachel Eirich; Jessica Cooke (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
Parents have experienced considerable challenges and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may impact their well-being. This meta-analysis sought to identify: (1) the prevalence of depression and anxiety in parents of young children (<age 5) during the COVID-19 pandemic, and (2) sociodemographic (e.g., parent age, being racially minoritized) and methodological moderators (e.g., study quality) that explain heterogeneity among studies. A systematic search was conducted across four databases from January 1, 2020 to March 3, 2021. A total of 18 non-overlapping studies (8981 participants), all focused on maternal mental health, met inclusion criteria. Random-effect meta-analyses were conducted.
Maternal self-efficacy buffers the effects of COVID-19-related experiences on postpartum parenting stress

Hung-Chu Lin; Paula L. Zeanah; Amanda Koire (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing

This study aims to examine the associations of maternal self-efficacy (MSE) and perceived social 4 support with parenting stress during the postpartum period during the COVID-19 pandemic and 5 whether these two psychosocial factors account for variance in parenting stress in addition to the 6 effects of COVID-19-related experiences and sociodemographic factors.

Influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on parenting stress across Asian countries: a cross-national study

Sawa Kurata; Daiki Hiraoka; Aida Syarinaz Ahmad Adlan (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

A previous study demonstrated that the accumulation of parenting stress during prolonged school closures and restrictions on daily activities due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan indicates the need for mental health intervention for parents at higher risk of parenting stress. However, few studies have focused on parenting stress in other Asian countries, although they have experienced higher numbers of infections. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parenting stress among caregivers increased across Asia due to school closures and restrictions on activities during the COVID-19 pandemic and to examine whether there were any country-specific, cross-country, or cross-regional risk factors for increased parenting stress. An online survey immediately after the number of new cases in India significantly increased (September–November 2020) was conducted. It measured parenting stress, anxiety, and fear associated with the COVID-19 crisis, as evaluated by the Parenting Stress Index, Short-Form (PSI-SF), and the Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS), across three Asian countries—India (n = 142), Malaysia (n = 69), and Japan (n = 182)—in addition to the United States (n = 203). It also investigated whether respondents had adverse childhood experiences (ACE) as a risk factor for parenting stress.

Levels of uncertainty, fear and satisfaction with health professionals: experiences of parents whose children are hospitalized for COVID-19

Meryem Türkan Isik; Rana Can Özdemır; Elif Karadeniz (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Psychology, Health & Medicine
This study tried to determine the fear and tolerance of uncertainty levels of the parents of children hospitalized with COVID-19, and their satisfaction with the health care received during this time. Data were collected from 130 literate parents. A significant difference was found between the mean scores on the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS-12) and the age of the parents and the presence of COVID-19 in other family members and the IUS-12. Also, a significant correlation was found between parents’ fear of COVID-19 and IUS-12 scores. Parents had good levels of satisfaction with health care received and moderate fear of COVID-19 and intolerance of uncertainty levels. As parents’ fear of COVID-19 increased, intolerance of uncertainty increased. The demographic characteristics, levels of fear of COVID-19, and intolerance of uncertainty did not affect the satisfaction levels.
Parenting in a pandemic: parental stress, anxiety and depression among parents during the government-initiated physical distancing measures following the first wave of COVID-19

Miriam S. Johnson; Nora Skjerdingstad; Omid V. Ebrahimi (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Stress & Health
Drawing on the tenets of family stress theory, the aim of this study is to examine parents' perceived stress, symptoms of anxiety, depression, and associated risk- and protective factors across demographic subgroups during in the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Norwegian parents (N = 2868; 79.5% mothers) with >1 child under 18 years of age completed an online survey two weeks after the implementation of government-initiated distancing measures. The survey includes measures of COVID-related risk factors (parental stress, burnout, depression, anxiety, anger of parents towards children, difficulty working from home, and positive beliefs about worry) and protective factors (self-efficacy and social support).
Parental burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nora Skjerdingstad; Miriam S. Johnson; Sverre U. Johnson (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Family Process
Increased and long-term parental stress related to one's parental role can lead to parental burnout. In the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, families experienced intensified pressure due to the government-initiated contact restrictions applied to prevent the spread of the virus in the population. This study investigates the risk factors and predictors of parental burnout in a large sample of parents (N = 1488) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Norway. Demographic and psychosocial factors were assessed at two timepoints: at the beginning of the pandemic outbreak in March 2020 (T1) and at 3 months follow-up (T2). A hierarchical regression analysis was applied to identify the factors that contribute to parental burnout at T2. Parental burnout was additionally explored across subgroups
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and wellbeing of parents with young children: a qualitative interview study

Jo Dawes; Tom May; Alison McKinlay (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: BMC Psychology volume

Parents have faced unique challenges during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including mobility constraints, isolation measures, working from home, and the closure of schools and childcare facilities. There is presently a lack of in-depth qualitative research exploring how these changes have affected parents’ mental health and wellbeing. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 29 parents of young children. Interviews were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis.

Parenting during the COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal: changes in daily routines, co-parenting relationships, emotional experiences, and support networks

Ana P. Antunes; Silvana Martins; Laura Magalhães (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Children
The COVID-19 pandemic challenged parental resources pertinent to coping with lockdowns. The main objective of this work was to study parenting during the COVID-19 lockdown. Specifically at focus were parental behaviors concerning key domains for the family (daily routine, co-parenting, emotional experience, and support network) and changes related to the pandemic and associated with the parents’ employment statuses. An online survey was carried out through an ad hoc questionnaire where participants completed questions about their sociodemographic data and rated how much their family routines, their co-parenting relationship, their emotional experiences, and the support available in the family network varied on a 5-point scale. The participants included 1384 parents, of which 286 responded to open questions regarding impactful experiences during the lockdown.
Mediating mechanisms for maternal mental health from pre- to during the COVID-19 pandemic: mediators of maternal mental illness during COVID-19

Nicole Racine; Sheila McDonald; Suzanne Tough (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders Reports

Mothers have experienced a near doubling of depression and anxiety symptoms pre- to during the COVID-19 pandemic. The identification of mechanisms that account for this increase can help inform specific targets for mental health recovery efforts. The current study examined whether women with higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms pre-pandemic, reported higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms during the pandemic, and whether these increases were mediated by perceived stress, strained relationships, coping attitudes, participation in activities, alcohol use, and financial impact. Mothers (n = 1,333) from an ongoing longitudinal cohort (All Our Families; AOF) from Calgary, Alberta, Canada, completed online questionnaires prior to (2017–2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (May-July 2020). Mothers reported on depressive and anxiety symptoms pre- and during the pandemic, as well as perceived stress, engagement in physical and leisure activities, coping, alcohol use, and financial impact of the pandemic.

The COVID-19 pandemic: an assessment of the emergency remote education program based on providing at-home support to parents of children with down syndrome

S. Çelika; G. Tomris; D. M. Tuna

Published: December 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
With the COVID-19 pandemic, preparing emergency remote education programs for young children with “Down Syndrome” who have learning difficulties and intense health problems and their parents has become a necessity. The present study examines how parents and children were affected by the “applied emergency remote education program”, which was prepared to address the needs of parents who have children with Down Syndrome and to offer them at-home support. It is a case study that utilizes quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods and includes 11 parents of children with Down Syndrome whose ages range between 11 and 35 months.
Emotion regulation during the COVID-19 pandemic: risk and resilience factors for parental burnout (IIPB)

Dana Vertsberger; Isabelle Roskam; Anat Talmon (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Cognition and Emotion
The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted families’ lives around the world. The measures used to contain transmission have led to increased stress and put parents at increased risk for parental burnout (PB). The aim of the current study was to examine the association between COVID-related parental stress and PB, and to test whether emotion regulation (ER) moderated this association.
Counselling support for the mental health of children in Hong Kong’s international schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: parents’ perspectives

Mark G. Harrison; Chloe Ka Yi Tam; Susanna Siu-sze Yeung

Published: November 2021   Journal: Educational and Developmental Psychologist

This study investigated how school counsellors in international schools in Hong Kong supported the wellbeing of students and families during the period of school closure caused by the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of parents.Sixteen parents with children in eleven different international schools in Hong Kong were interviewed and the data were analysed thematically.

An evaluation of knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors regarding COVID-19 among parents of pediatric dental patients

Derya Ceyhan; Zuhal Kirzioglu; Feyza Yildirim (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Clinical Pediatrics
Children infected with COVID-19 have a critical part in community-based viral transmission. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors of parents of pediatric dental patients on COVID-19 and to present required actions to prevent its spreading. A total of 524 parents took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was prepared for determining sociodemographic characteristics and socioeconomic status of parents, along with their COVID-19-related knowledge, awareness, attitudes, and behaviors. In total, 90.6% of parents were unaware that disease may show no symptoms; 61.1% and 32.6% did not know roles of “close contact with asymptomatic patients” and “dentistry practices” in transmission, respectively; 30.2% thought it could be transmitted to their children at dental clinics, and only 16.4% stated their children as carriers. Parents need to be informed on COVID-19 transmission through contact with asymptomatic individuals, risks associated with dentistry practices, and role of children in transmission.
Isolation, uncertainty and treatment delays: parents’ experiences of having a baby with cleft lip/palate during the Covid-19 pandemic

Bruna Costa; Danielle McWilliams; Sabrina Blighe (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal

Previous literature finds that having a child with a cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) may pose social and emotional challenges for parents. For parents of children born during the Covid-19 pandemic, such challenges may be heightened. Further, novel demands brought about by the pandemic could have caused additional hardships. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the pandemic on new parents through qualitative exploration of their experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 parents of children born in the United Kingdom with CL/P between January and June 2020, around the start of the pandemic. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis.

Prevalence and factors associated with parents’ non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean

Diego Urrunaga-Pastor; Percy Herrera-Añazco; Angela Uyen-Cateriano (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Vaccines
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with parents’ non-intention to vaccinate their children and adolescents against COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). It performed a secondary analysis using a database generated by the University of Maryland and Facebook (Facebook, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA). It included adult (18 and over) Facebook users residing in LAC who responded to the survey between 20 May 2021 and 14 July 2021. It included sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental health, economic and food insecurity, compliance with mitigation strategies against COVID-19, and practices related to vaccination against this disease. The study estimated the crude (cPR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios with their respective 95%CI. It analyzed a sample of 227,740 adults from 20 LAC countries.
16 - 30 of 128

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.