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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 240
It's time to talk fathers: The impact of paternal depression on parenting style and child development during the COVID-19 pandemic

Joshua Paul Roberts; Rose-Marie Satherley; Jane Iles

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
This study aimed to understand the relationship between paternal depression, parenting behavior and child developmental outcomes during the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID) pandemic. In addition, the paternal experience of the pandemic, such as the impact of lockdowns, was explored. Fathers of children aged 6–11 years old (n = 87) were recruited for an online cross-sectional survey. Data was collected through questionnaires and open-ended comments. Regression analysis indicated a higher level of self-reported depressive symptomology in fathers more severely impacted by the pandemic across financial, familial and health domains. Further, COVID-19 impact, but not paternal depression, was linked to fewer authoritative parenting behaviors, characterized as lower warmth and responsiveness. Paternal pandemic impact and depression symptoms were independently predictive of child cognitive scores, and both were associated with emotional and behavioral outcomes.
The role of parents in shaping the school age children's behavior regarding the prevention of COVID-19 transmission

Tri Widyastuti Handayani; Dyah Dwi Astuti

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal of Health Sciences

The COVID-19   pandemic   has   had   both physical and psychological impacts on school-age children. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the impact of the roles of parents on the behaviour  of  school-age  children  in  preventing  the  transmission  of COVID-19. This   cross-sectional   study   used   a   random sampling technique that collected a sample of 346 parents. The survey was  carried  out  by  distributing  questionnaires  to  the  samples  with school-age  children  6-12  years.

Parental perception of distance learning and homeschooling during COVID-19 pandemic: an empirical analysis in Sri Lanka

A. K. Hasith Priyashantha; N. Pratheesh; P. Pretheeba

Published: November 2022   Journal: Asian Association of Open Universities Journal

Many countries around the world were compelled to adhere to rigorous practices of school closures due to the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). During the lockdown period, distance teaching and learning have become the only form to keep students on track. Reports have revealed that during this period, parents and students have strived hard to cope up with the learning method, which is new to the school education system in Sri Lanka. Against this background, this study explored the perceptions of parents in distance learning and homeschooling of their children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sri Lanka. In addition, this study also attempted to assess the success of such educational practices in the country during the pandemic. A quantitative research approach was used, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed via Google Forms to a sample of 587 respondents through snowball sampling across Sri Lanka.

A social cognitive theory approach to understanding parental attitudes and intentions to vaccinate children during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ying Zhu; Michael Beam; Yue Ming (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine represents a path towards global health after a worldwide pandemic. Yet, the U.S. response to the vaccination rollout has been politically polarized. The aim of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of the contextual factors that influence parents’ attitudes towards health officials and their intention to vaccinate children, focusing on communication behaviors, personal factors, and geographic locations. It uses Bandura’s triadic reciprocal determinism (TRD) model which posits reciprocal influence between personal factors, environmental factors, and behaviors.
Video-feedback approach improves parental compliance to early behavioral interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic: a pilot investigation

Stefania Aiello; Elisa Leonardi; Antonio Cerasa (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Children
In the field of autism intervention, a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that parent-mediated interventions are effective in promoting a child’s learning and parent caring skills. Furthermore, remote delivery treatments are feasible and can represent a promising opportunity to reach families at distance with positive results. Recently, the sudden outbreak of COVID-19 dramatically disrupted intervention services for autism and forced an immediate reorganization of the territory services toward tele-assisted intervention programs, according to professional and local resources. This study aimed to conduct a retrospective pilot exploratory investigation on parental compliance, participation, and satisfaction in relation to three different telehealth intervention modalities, such as video feedback, live streaming, and psychoeducation, implemented in the context of a public community setting delivering early autism intervention during the COVID-19 emergency. It found that parents who attended video feedback expressed the highest rate of compliance and participation, while parental psychoeducation showed significantly lower compliance and the highest drop-out rate.
Parental refusal and hesitancy of vaccinating children against COVID-19: findings from a nationally representative sample of parents in the U.S.

Thadchaigeni Panchalingam; Yuyan Shi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The uptake rate of COVID−19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children.
Identifying parent anxiety and family distress of critically ill children in response to changes in hospital visitation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jodi J. Bloxham; Paula Levett; Jihye Lee (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This research study describes parent anxiety and family distress among three study groups of varying restrictions in parent presence for children in the PICU during a pandemic. A retrospective study was conducted to describe differences in parent anxiety and family distress for parents of children hospitalized before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants fell into three study groups based on the dates of the child's hospital stay and the level of parent and family presence or restriction they experienced. Participants were asked to complete a survey that included basic demographic information along with utilization of the GAD-7 and FDI measures. The data were assessed using descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test.
Determination of depression, anxiety, stress and Coronavirus anxiety levels of parents waiting for PCR test results

Esra Güney; Mevhibe Çoban

Published: October 2022   Journal: Genel Tıp Dergisi
This study was aimed to determine the depression, anxiety, stress and coronavirus anxiety levels of parents waiting for PCR test results. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted between April-October 2021. The sample of the study consisted of 372 parents determined by power analysis. Data were collected from parents awaiting their children's PCR test results in the pediatric COVID service of the Training and Research Hospital in a province in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Data were collected using a personal information form, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale.
Parents' willingness to vaccinate themselves and their children with the booster vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a cross-sectional study in Puyang city, China

Yiguo Zhou; Guo-Xing Li; Tian-Shuo Zhao (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Medical Virology
This study aimed to investigate the hesitancy and willingness of parents to vaccinate themselves and their children with a booster dose against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and related factors. It conducted a cross-sectional study in Puyang city, China. The information was collected, including demographic characteristics, willingness to receive a booster dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine, and attitudes and concerns toward COVID-19 and vaccines. Vaccine hesitancy was assessed in individuals completing the first two doses and booster eligible, while vaccine willingness was assessed in those completing the first two doses and not yet booster eligible.
Parental health beliefs, intention, and strategies about covid-19 vaccine for their children: a cross-sectional analysis from five Arab countries in the Middle East

Ali Haider Mohammed; Bassam Abdul Rasool Hassan; Abdulrasool M. Wayyes (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The issue around vaccination of children has brought divergent opinions among the populations across the globe and among the Arab population. There has been a low response rate to the calls for vaccination of children and this is reflective of the sentiments which parents may have towards their children being vaccinated. This study aims to explore the parents’ health beliefs, intentions, and strategies towards the COVID-19 vaccine for their children among Arab population. A cross-sectional study using an online survey from October to December 2021, was carried out in five Arab countries in the Middle East. A reliable health belief model (HBM) including five domains: severity, susceptibility, benefits, barriers and cues to action, was adopted. Chi-square, Mann–Whitney test, and multivariable logistic regression were performed for data analysis.

COVID-19 vaccine perceptions and hesitancy amongst parents of school-aged children during the pediatric vaccine rollout

Alexandra Byrne; Lindsay A. Thompson; Stephanie L. Filipp (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Vaccine

The United States has the highest number of total cases and deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide (Johns Hopkins COVID Dashboard, 2021). Despite COVID-19 vaccine availability, uptake in the United States has been slow and vaccine hesitancy has been a significant barrier to achieving widespread vaccine uptake. Understanding determinants of vaccine acceptance is essential to implement successful population health interventions to increase COVID-19 vaccination. This study developed an anonymous cross-sectional parent survey to assess factors associated with parent and child COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy during the initial pediatric vaccine rollout amongst adolescents 16 years +. The survey was sent via email to 25,308 parents registered to the Alachua County Public School System in May 2021 and remained active until July 2021.

The iImpact of distance learning on parental sStress during the second COVID-19 lockdown in Germany

Isabelle May; Lena Hoerl

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Family Journal
Parental stress caused by monthlong school closures was measured as early as spring and summer of 2020. The present study investigated parental resilience during the second lockdown in Germany in January/February 2021 (n = 2,804). Based on an online questionnaire, parental stress, resilience, self-efficacy, children’s school abilities, and the perceived quality of lesson design in distance teaching were queried. Multiple linear regression analysis identified significant relationships between the experienced stress perception and the time spent supporting children in distance learning. We identified parental resilience as a predictor of stress experiences. It was possible to demonstrate the considerable influence of child variables and perceived lesson design on parental stress levels.
Perceived Covid-19-crisis intensity and family supportive organizational perceptions as antecedents of parental burnout: A study conducted in Italy in March/April 2021 and 2022

Marta Redaelli; Marloes L. van Engen; Stéfanie André

Published: October 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent perceived Covid-19-crisis intensity (PCCI) leads to the experience of parental burnout (PB), a syndrome characterized by exhaustion, emotional detachment from one’s own children and a sense of inefficacy in the role as parent. Furthermore, the mediating role of work–family conflict (WFC) is examined. The buffering effect of family supportive organizational perceptions during the pandemic (FSOP-p) on the relationship between work–family conflict and parental burnout is also explored. Data were collected in March–April 2021 and March/April 2022. In spring 2021, 222 Italian working parents with at least one minor child living at home filled out the questionnaire.
Parental anxiety and form of parenting during the COVID-19 pandemic

Elfan Fanhas Fatwa Khomaeny; Erika Setyanti Kusumaputeri

Published: October 2022   Journal: International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy
The massive development of information technology based on big data, internet, and artifcial intelligence has brought fundamental changes to human patterns and lifestyles, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic that hit globally, has added to a large and complex problems in parenting, as well as demanding people to take care of their children. Parents must be able to adapt and reposition themselves with new and efective forms of parenting, this can increase parental anxiety. To determine the level of parental anxiety, this research was conducted using a quantitative descriptive method through the distribution of questionnaires based on the GAD-7 instrument. This study focuses on eforts to capture the level of parental anxiety and the need for a new form of parenting.
Sociodemographic factors associated with parenting stress during Covid-19 pandemic

Fitri Ariyanti Abidin; Syipa Husni Fadilah; Vidya Anindhita (et al.)

Published: September 2022   Journal: Jurnal Ilmu Keluarga dan Konsumen

The  Covid-19  pandemic  is  a  phenomenon  that  mental  health  scholars  have  not  fully  understood,  which  might adversely affect parenting. Previous studies have found that sociodemographic factors influence parenting stress in  non-pandemic  conditions.  However,  no  study  has  discussed  parenting  stress  during  the  Covid-19  pandemic. Therefore,  the  present  study  investigates  the  sociodemographic  factors  influencing  parenting  stress  during  the Covid-19 pandemic. Using a cross-sectional approach, we applied convenience sampling using online platforms to recruit the participants. Seven hundred ninety parents aged 20-57 participated in this study (mothers = 740, fathers = 50). The validated Indonesian version of the Parenting Stress Scale was administered online to measure parenting stress.


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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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