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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 140
Parenting practices, stressors and parental concerns during COVID-19 in Pakistan

Naeem Zafar; Mehek Naeem; Andleeb Zehra (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 is a global crisis that has added fear, uncertainty, and stress to parents. Parents are going through several challenges related to school closure, financial insecurity and working remotely. These stressors are affecting the mental health of parents. This study aimed to observe major stressors along with the impact of COVID-19 on parental concerns and practices during lockdown.

Parents’ perceptions of children’s behavioral difficulties and the parent–child interaction during the COVID-19 lockdown

Avital Laufer; Mally Shechory Bitton

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The study examined parents’ perceptions of their children’s behavioral difficulties (CBD) and positive parent–child interaction (PCI) during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Israel, as well as the associations among parents’ psychological distress, parents’ COVID-19–related worries, parents’ coping, and parents’ resilience. Participants were 437 parents of minor children. Parents reported more behavioral and emotional difficulties alongside with more quality time with their children. Parents’ distress and COVID-19–related worries were positively related to CBD. Emotion-focused coping mediated the association between psychological distress and CBD, while resilience mediated the association between distress and PCI.
Actor–partner association of work–family conflict and parental depressive symptoms during COVID-19 in China: does coparenting matter?

Shengqi Zou; Xinchun Wu; Yizhen Ren (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being
Parental depressive symptoms and their related factors have not been widely examined during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the current study examined the actor and partner associations of work–family conflict and parental depressive symptoms. Considering the new demands and challenges for families during the COVID-19 pandemic, we further explored the moderation effect of coparenting. A cross-sectional online survey with 985 paired fathers and mothers was conducted in Mainland China. In 11.6% of families, only mothers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 10.6% families, only fathers reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; in 9.5% families, the mother and father reported mild to moderate depressive symptoms.
Concerns and effects of COVID-19 in families with babies: results of a nationwide survey in Finland

J. Lammi-Taskula; R. Klemetti; M. Vuorenmaa (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Public Health,

The COVID-19 has changed the everyday life of families. The aim of this study was to examine the concerns and effects of the pandemic on the everyday life of families with babies. The data consist of mothers (n = 4550) and fathers (n = 2955) with 3-6-month-old babies who participated in the national FinChildren survey in autumn 2020. The results were analyzed separately for mothers and fathers according to the number of children. One-child parents were compared to parents with several children by logistic regression adjusted for parents' age, education and economic situation.

The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on families’ mental health: the role played by parenting stress, parents’ past trauma, and resilience

Eleonora Marzilli; Luca Cerniglia; Renata Tambelli (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
International research has evidenced the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families, and the key role played by parenting stress levels. Although significant associations with parents’ past trauma and resilience have been shown, this study aimed to explore their complex interplay on the relationship between parents’ peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, and children’s psychopathological difficulties. We recruited 353 parents with children aged two to 16 years via an online survey during the Italian second wave of COVID-19. Parents’ peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, past trauma and resilience, and children’s psychological difficulties were assessed through self-report and report-form questionnaires. Parents’ past traumas significantly predicted peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19 and children’s psychological difficulties. The relationship between past traumas and children’s psychological difficulties was serial mediated by parents’ peritraumatic distress and parenting stress. Direct and total effects of parent’s resilience on parent’s peritraumatic distress were not significant, but there were significant indirect effects via parenting stress and via parents’ peritraumatic distress and parenting stress, indicating inconsistent mediation.
The behavioural outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities as perceived by parents during the COVID-19 lockdown

Kathleen Franz; Michelle E. Kelly

Published: October 2021   Journal: Disabilities
The COVID-19 lockdown and closure of schools, clinics, and community-based services put children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other developmental disabilities (DDs) at increased risk of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate parents’ perceptions of their children’s behavioural outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown, parents’ satisfaction with services during this time, and willingness to engage in telehealth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ireland. Parents (n = 89) completed an online questionnaire that included the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ-P). Results demonstrated that children with ASD/DDs were vulnerable to negative outcomes including hyperactivity, emotional symptoms, problems with peers and fewer prosocial behaviors.
The relationship between COVID-related parenting stress, nonresponsive feeding behaviors, and parent mental health

Leslie Ann Frankel; Caroline Bena Kuno; Ritu Sampige

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Psychology
COVID-19 has disrupted the lives of families across the United States and all over the world. Stress is known to have a negative impact on parent–child feeding interactions; hence, the purpose of this study is to examine how COVID-related parenting stress, which was measured using a newly developed scale, is related to parent mental health, nonresponsive feeding, and children’s self-regulation of eating. 119 parents of children ages 2–7 years old filled out questions about COVID-related parenting stress, mental health, nonresponsive feeding behaviors, and children’s self-regulation of eating. A series of multiple regressions were run to predict parent anxiety and psychological distress from COVID-related parenting stress. COVID-related parenting stress was found to be a significant predictor of both parent anxiety and psychological distress. When COVID-related parenting stress was further broken down into COVID-Related Job/Financial Security Stress and COVID-Related Family Safety/Stability Stress, COVID-Related Job/Financial Security Stress predicted psychological distress while COVID-Related Family Safety/Stability Stress predicted parent anxiety.
COVID-19 pandemic shifts in food-related parenting practices within an ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse sample of families of preschool-aged children

K. A. Loth; Z. Jib J. Wolfson; J. M. Berge (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Appetite
This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on food parenting practices used by parents of young children. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) was used to evaluate parents’ use of coercive, indulgent, structured, and autonomy supportive food parenting practices before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a diverse racial/ethnic sample (n = 72) of parents of preschool-aged children. The impact of parent and child mood/behavior on use of specific food parenting practices was also evaluated during both time periods.
Lessons learned in COVID-19: mothers with problematic substance use and involvement with child protective services need support to promote family well-being

Hanna Valeriote; Karen Milligan

Published: September 2021   Journal: Community, Work & Family
The universal experience of COVID-19 and its associated public health response presents an opportunity to see inequities that exist within our population when accessing community services and supports. This article casts a spotlight on one group who is at risk for experiencing such inequity: women with problematic substance use who are pregnant or parenting. Motherhood offers an opportunity for development of the self, child and family and can be pivotal in helping women to address challenges they and their family may be experiencing. This is a shared opportunity and requires communities to see these families in their complexity of strengths and needs and to support them on this journey. The pandemic has uncovered inequities in our systems of care and barriers faced by families. As the pandemic situation improves, citizens and communities must resist the temptation to push aside the evidence of social disparity and challenge and engage in social action and change.
Grandparents’ Mental Health and Lived Experiences while Raising Their Grandchildren at the Forefront of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia

Nazik M .A. Zakari; Hanadi Y. Hamadi; Chloe E. Bailey (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Understanding grandparents’ lived experiences and healthy aging is essential to designing efficient, effective, and safe services to support a family structure in which grandparents care for their grandchildren. However, no study to date has explored this concept in an Arab and Muslim country during a pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine grandparents’ experiences raising their grandchildren to provide recommendations for needed mental health interventions during and after COVID-19. To gain a detailed and in-depth understanding of the lived experiences of 15 grandparents caring for their grandchildren a phenomenological approach was usewd. This study shows the need for support service interventions (support groups, health professional support, and respite care) for grandparents in Saudi Arabia, especially during global crises like COVID-19, that enhance social distance and social isolation. Raising grandchildren affects the physical, mental, and social wellbeing of the grandparents.
The impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers of autistic children and youth: A scoping review

Vivian Lee; Carly Albaum; Paula Tablon Modica (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Autism Research
Caregivers and families of autistic people have experienced stress and increase in demands due to the COVID-19 pandemic that may have long-term negative consequences for both their own and their children's mental health. A scoping review was conducted to identify pandemic related demands experienced by caregivers and families of autistic children and youth. The review also consolidated information on coping strategies and parenting-related guidelines that have emerged to help parents meet these demands. Search strategies were approved by a research librarian and were conducted in peer-reviewed and gray literature databases between May 2020 and February 2021. Additional resources were solicited through author networks and social media. All articles were published between December 2019 and February 2021. Article summaries were charted, and a thematic analysis was conducted with confirmation of findings with our knowledge users. Twenty-three published articles and 14 pieces of gray literature were included in the review.
Lessons from lockdown: parent perspectives on home-learning mathematics during COVID-19 lockdown

Lisa Darragh; Nike Franke

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many parents suddenly had to assume responsibility for their children’s learning at home. Research conducted before the pandemic showed that mathematics homework is often unsuccessful or stressful for both parents and children and that tension exists between home and school in the learning of mathematics. Understanding parents’ experience of home-learning mathematics during lockdown has implications for positive learning relationships between home and school in the future. During the lockdown, we sent an online survey to New Zealand parents and received 634 responses. We found that parents were generally very engaged in the home learning of mathematics. They reported a range of opinions about the quality of mathematics work and teacher support, and there was a correlation between general stress levels and negative opinions. To further support their child’s mathematics learning, many parents turned to online mathematics programs, about which they were very positive.
Social and environmental effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children

Thiago Wendt Viola; Magda Lahorgue Nunes

Published: September 2021   Journal: Jornal de Pediatria

This study aimed to review the literature, summarizing the existing evidence on the effects of the pandemic on children, adolescents and parents, with an emphasis on the psychological, emotional, and sleep quality consequences. Empirical studies identified in the following databases: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, and preprint servers.

“Poison” or “protection”? A mixed methods exploration of Australian parents' COVID-19 vaccination intentions

S. Evans; A.KlasabA.Mikocka-Walus Klas; A. Mikocka-Walus (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Journal of Psychosomatic Research

The success of COVID-19 vaccination programs relies on community attitudes, yet little is known about parents' views. This study aimed to explore the reasons behind Australian parents' vaccine intentions for themselves and for their children. This mixed methods study relates to Wave 13 (January 2021) of a longitudinal study of Australian parents' experiences during COVID-19 and contained 1094 participants (83% mothers). We used multinomial logistic regression to understand demographic predictors of vaccine intention, and a descriptive template thematic analysis to analyse open-ended questions about parents' reasons for vaccine intentions for themselves and their children.

Increased maternal mental health burden in a representative longitudinal community cohort coinciding with COVID-19 lockdown

Amy Loughman; James Hedley; Craig A. Olsson (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Australian Journal of Psychology
Measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic have disrupted social networks and employment security worldwide. Longitudinal data in representative samples are required to understand the corresponding mental health impacts. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Australian women raising young families during the first Victorian lockdown and to identify risk factors. Participants comprise 347 mothers of children aged 7 (mean age: 32·11 years [4·27]), from the Barwon Infant Study (BIS). Mothers had previously completed Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at child ages zero, two, four. Following the lock down, mothers again completed EPDS along with questions regarding current household and employment demographics. Depressive symptoms were substantially more prevalent in the lockdown sample than at any prior assessment (EPDS10+; 30·6%); and were particularly high in women with previous poor mental health.
46 - 60 of 140

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.