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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
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1 - 15 of 219
A cross-sectional study examining self-reported anthropometric measurements with adolescents' nutrition attitudes, obesity awareness and diet quality indices during the pandemic

Adem Sümen; Derya Evgin

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between adolescents' nutritional attitudes, obesity awareness, and diet quality with their self-reported anthropometric measurements taken during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional type of study was conducted in a district in the south of Turkey. The research was carried out online with 907 adolescents who agreed to participate voluntarily.

The association between sleep duration, breakfast routine and nutritional status in Indonesian adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic

Muhammad Nadzir Mushoffa Suja’I; Reny Noviasty; Eva R. Kurniawati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Jurnal Gizi Indonesia

Adolescents are susceptible to nutritional status issues, both undernutrition, and over-nutrition, becoming a public health concern promptly. There were 912 junior and high-school adolescents who were obese and 249 high-school adolescents who had low body mass index (BMI) in Samarinda City. During the COVID-19 pandemic, adolescents experienced changes in sleep duration, and many adolescents were skipping breakfast. Sleep duration and breakfast can affect the nutritional condition of adolescents. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between sleep duration, breakfast routine and BMI in Samarinda, Indonesian adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic.

Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, physical activity, screen use, and hours of sleep in children under 2 years during lockdown by the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile

Edson Bustos-Arriagada; Karina Etchegaray-Armijo; Ángelo Liberona-Ortiz (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Children
Infants and children are a risk group in terms of developing healthy habits, an important aspect if we consider that many of them were born during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study's objective was to evaluate compliance with lifestyle recommendations proposed at the national and international levels in children aged 0 to 23 months during confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and 211 online questionnaires were completed with sociodemographic and lifestyle information of children.
Physical activity and anxiety with complaints of PMS in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Ni Ketut Alit Armini; Arinda Naimatuz Zahriya; Laily Hidayati (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Public Health Science
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a menstrual cycle disorder that frequently appears in women. As a result of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus pandemic, the school from home program was implemented, which could affect physical activity and anxiety and therefore increase the incidence of PMS. This cross-sectional research analyzed the relationship between physical activity and anxiety with PMS in adolescents. The population was 221 adolescent girls in Surabaya, Indonesia. A consecutive sampling technique was used to select the 143 respondents. The independent variables were physical activity and anxiety while the dependent variable was PMS. The data was collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by the Spearman Rho test with a level of significance α<0.05. The results showed no significant correlation between physical activity and PMS among adolescents, however there was a significant correlation between anxiety and PMS in adolescents (p=0.000; r=0.463). Adolescents with anxiety have higher risk of PMS. The higher level of anxiety will be the more severe the symptoms of PMS.

Zoom-delivered physical activities can increase perceived physical activity level in children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

Erkan Yarımkaya; Oğuz Kaan Esentürk; Ekrem Levent İlhan (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
Although the benefits of regular physical activity are clearly expressed, children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are less physically active than their typically developing peers. Recent empirical studies have revealed that the level of physical activity of children with ASD has further decreased during the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, which has adversely affected the whole world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of a Zoom-delivered physical activities for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Twenty-two families (parent and child dyads) participated in the study. Families were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n = 11) and a control group (n = 11). Families in the experimental group were engaged in 10 weeks of the Zoom-delivered physical activities. Data were collected using multiple data collection strategies (Personal Information Form- Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire–Semi-Structured Interview). After the Zoom-delivered physical activities, a significant increase was observed in the physical activity level of children with ASD in the experimental group (F = 95.396, p = 0.000, Ƞ2 = 0.834). Parents reported that Zoom-delivered physical activities are a viable and useful intervention to increase the level of physical activity of children with ASD.
Cardiometabolic effects of a 12-month, COVID-19 lockdown-interrupted lifestyle education program for Arab adolescents

Nasser M. Al-Daghri; Kaiser Wani; Malak N. K. Khattak (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics

Childhood obesity and pediatric metabolic syndrome (MetS) have steadily increased during the last decade in Saudi Arabia. Intervention programs to prevent cardiometabolic disorders in Arab youth are needed. In this multi-school intervention study which was disrupted by COVID-19-imposed lockdowns (September 2019–April 2021), a 12-month lifestyle education program focused on improving the cardiometabolic status of Arab adolescents was investigated. A total of 2,677 Saudi students aged 12–18 years were recruited from 60 different secondary and preparatory year schools in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The intervention was initially in-person counseling sessions and the subsequent sessions conducted virtually post-pandemic. Baseline anthropometrics and fasting blood samples for glucose, HbA1c, and lipid assessments were collected at baseline and after 12 months (704 participants).

Effects of COVID-19 lockdown on physical performance, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life in professional youth soccer players

Jil Keemss; Johanna Sieland; Florian Pfab (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living

In March 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak led to the declaration of a pandemic. The accompanying restrictions on public life caused a change in the training routines of athletes worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 13-week supervised home training program on physical performance, sleep quality, and health-related quality of life in professional youth soccer players during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany. Eight professional soccer players (age range 16–19; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; body weight: 72.05 ± 6.96 kg) from a Bundesliga team in Germany participated in this study. During the lockdown, they trained 5–6 days per week with home-based training plans and were monitored via tracking apps and video training. To determine the effects of home training, measurements were taken before (March 2020) and after (June 2020) the home training period. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine body composition, and an isokinetic strength test and a treadmill step test, including lactate measurements, were used to measure physical performance. Two questionnaires were responded to in order to assess health-related quality of life [Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)] and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index).

Implementation of a coordinated approach to child health program at a rural elementary school during the COVID-19 pandemic

Melissa Perian; Marcia Cooke; Henna Muzaffar (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

A Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) is an evidence-based school health program focusing on increasing healthy eating and physical activity and reducing screen time. This project aimed to determine if CATCH program will have significant effects on self-rated knowledge, habits of physical activity, healthy eating (fruit and vegetable consumption), and screen time among 3rd and 5th-grade students at a rural elementary school during the 2020–2021 school year. To evaluate this 4-month project, a pre- and post-intervention School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey was distributed to 51 3rd and 5th-grade students. The program included six 30-minute education sessions specific to grade level and healthy snacks including fruits and vegetables. A family fun event (virtual 2K walk/run due to COVID-19) was organized. Prizes (i.e., water bottles, jump ropes) were given to students for participating in the family fun event and at Track and Field day to encourage healthy behavior.

Disparity in built environment and its impacts on youths' physical activity behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic restrictions

Xiangli Gu; Jean Keller; Tao Zhang (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities

Guided by the social ecological model, this study aimed to examine the relations of built environments (i.e., walking/cycling infrastructure, recreation facilities, neighborhood safety/crime), youth’s transition abilities, and changes of youth’s physical activity (PA) and play behaviors due to COVID-19-based restrictions. Ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities were also examined on studies variables during the COVID-19 restrictions. A cross-sectional research design was used to assess an anonymous online survey completed by US parents/guardians. The final sample had 1324 children and adolescents (Meanage = 9.75; SD = 3.95; 51.3% girls), and 35.5% the families were of upper socioeconomic class (income > $150,000). Parents reported the perceived built environment and neighborhood safety, child’s PA and play behaviors during COVID-19 pandemic shelter-in-place restrictions.

Nutrition status, activity patterns and stress level of school age children during the covid-19 pandemic

Komang Yogi Triana; Made Pande Lilik Lestari; Ni Made Ari Sukmandari

Published: May 2022   Journal: Media Keperawatan Indonesia
The pandemic due to the Covid-19 virus has brought many changes to the world's social, economic, educational and healthy life. This condition has an impact on people's lives, not only adults but also children. Children have to adapt to various rules that change their daily habits. The purpose of this study was to identify a description of the nutritional status, activity patterns, and stress levels of school children in Bali Province during the Covid-19 pandemic. The research method used in this study is a quantitative method with a descriptive observational approach. Sampling was carried out using a simple random sampling technique involving 150 samples of children aged 9-13 years from 5 districts in Bali.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 5 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, obesity, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Indonesia
Weight gain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the protective effect of lifestyle intervention in children with obesity.

Judith Lubrecht; Lisanne Arayessa; Dorien Reijnders (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Obesity Facts
School closures due to the COVID-19 pandemic affect children’s daily structure, mealtimes, physical activity, and sleeping habits, possibly exacerbating weight gain, particularly in vulnerable children with overweight and obesity. This study aimed to evaluate both perceived and objectively measured weight gain in children in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic and the effect of prior lifestyle intervention. A total of 150 children of the Children, Obesity and Lifestyle during COVID-19 (COLC) study (cohort A) reported perceptions of weight change during the COVID-19 pandemic. Anthropometric data of 65 children with overweight and obesity were collected at the expertise Centre for Overweight Adolescent and Children’s Healthcare in the same period (COACH; cohort B).
The side-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic: increased BMI z-score in children with overweight and obesity in a personalised lifestyle intervention one year after the start of the pandemic in the Netherlands

Lisanne Arayess; Nienke Knockaert; Bjorn Winkens (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nutrients
Early research showed weight gain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper aimed to compare changes in BMI z-score of children with overweight and obesity in a personalised lifestyle intervention before and during the pandemic. Changes in BMI z-score half a year (T6) and twelve months (T12) after the first lockdown were included for 71 children in the ‘2020 during COVID’ group and compared to 48 children in the ‘2019 before COVID’ group, using a marginal model for repeated measures (model 1). Model 2 corrected for lifestyle intervention characteristics, and model 3 corrected additionally for family characteristics.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 14 | Issue: 9 | No. of pages: 12 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, obesity, physical activity, social distance | Countries: Netherlands
The impact of online-schooling during COVID-19 on device-measured 24-hour movement behaviours among high school students: a compositional data analysis

Petra Starbek; Kaja Kastelic; Nejc Šarabon (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Children
The COVID-19 measures have unfavourably affected the movement behaviours of youth. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of online-schooling during COVID-19 on device-measured sleep (SL), sedentary behaviour (SB), light physical activity (LPA), and moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among high school students. A total of 51 students (26 female) from Slovenia wore an activity monitor activPAL4 during the weekdays of onsite-schooling and during the weekdays of online-schooling. Data on movement behaviours were analysed using compositional data analysis. During the onsite-schooling (and online-schooling), students spent on average 432 min/day (469 min/day) in SL, 731 (755) in SB, 253 (202) in LPA, and 25 (15) in MVPA.
A longitudinal analysis comparing the proportion of children with excess weight before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Gillian Santorelli; John Wright; Duncan Cooper (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Wellcome Open Research
The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) reported an increase in the prevalence of children in Reception (4-5 years) and Year 6 (10-11 years) with overweight/obesity during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic compared to the previous year. This longitudinal analysis aims to compare weight status before and during the pandemic. Ite compared the change in overweight/obesity status of children in Year 1 (Y1) (during the pandemic) who had also been measured as part of the NCMP in Reception (the year before the pandemic), with the change in a sample of children during a two-year ‘pre-pandemic’ period.
Changes in physical activity and sedentary time among children with asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic and influencing factors.

Sandra Lee; Ai Zhang; Lei Liu (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

Regular physical activity is essential for asthma control in children, but it remains understudied within the context of COVID-19. Physical activity and sedentary time levels before and during the COVID-19 pandemic among children with asthma were documented and differences by characteristics were explored. This was a cross-sectional self-administered online survey study of 5- to 17-year-old children with asthma from the United States between December 2020 and April 2021.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.