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Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel
Allison C. Sylvetsky; Jasmine H. Kaidbey; Kace Ferguson (et al.)
Maria Chiara Gallotta; Giovanna Zimatore; Ludovica Cardinali (et al.)
Sarah Musa; Rowaida Elyamani; Ismail Dergaa
The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted governments around the globe to implement various restriction policies, including lockdown, social distancing, and school closures. Subsequently, there has been a surge in sedentary behaviour particularly screen time (ST) together with a significant decline in physical activity that was more marked amongst children and adolescents. Excessive screen exposure in adolescents has been correlated with cardio-metabolic risk factors including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, and glucose intolerance that may have adverse morbidity and mortality implications in adulthood. Thus, the current study aimed to synthesize the literature on the relationship between ST of various types and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adolescents in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. In August 2021, a systematic search of the literature was undertaken using electronic databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochran library.
Sarah Woo; Heonil Yang; YoonMyung Kim (et al.)
The coronavirus disease pandemic is predicted to have adverse health effects on children and adolescents who are overweight or obese due to restricted school activity and stay-at-home orders. The purpose of this observational study was to determine the factors associated with weight gain in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown. Ninety-seven participants (sex- and age-specific body mass index (BMI) ≥ 85th percentile) were included. A baseline examination was conducted pre-COVID-19 (August 2019 to January 2020), and re-examination was performed post-lockdown (June to September 2020) and the results were compared. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to investigate the association among changes in cardiometabolic markers and lifestyle behaviors with changes in BMI z-score.
Giuseppe Calcaterra; Vassilios Fanos; Luigi Cataldi (et al.)
A decline in sports activities among children and adolescents was noted during the stay-at-home restrictions imposed by COVID-19. With the easing of restrictions, physical activities are being resumed. A data search was conducted to identify the role of parents in resuming sporting activities, the risks and benefits of doing so, the physical examination to be conducted prior to physical activity, the existence of guidelines/protocols for return to sports and physical activity, the role of comorbidities in influencing the restart of the same.
Vicenta Martínez-Córcoles; Pilar Nieto-Gilb; Laura Ramos-Petersen (et al.)
Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused great changes in daily activities, especially in children. In Spain, to avoid infections, a home quarantine was declared, which caused a drastic reduction in daily or weekly physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyse the balance performance after the COVID-19-induced quarantine on children’s balance, through the use of balance tests, considering the type of sport practiced. An observational and longitudinal study was carried out with a sample size of 150 healthy children (69 boys and 81 girls) with a mean age of 10.02 ± 1.15 years. Postural control was evaluated under different equilibrium conditions before and after the quarantine period. Two data collections using the Gyko system were compared, with a difference of 8 months between them. In addition, the influence of foot type and physical activity was analysed.
Dylan Owen Blain; Martyn Standage; Thomas Curran
Ellen Haug; Silje Mæland; Stine Lehmann (et al.)
This paper aimed to examine the stability and change in internet and offline gaming and the association with physical inactivity among adolescents in Norway during the pandemic. A total of 2940 youth (58% girls) aged 12–19 years participated in an online longitudinal two-wave survey during the first Norwegian national lockdown in April 2020 (t1) and in December 2020 (t2). Gaming behavior and physical activity status were assessed at both time points. Age, gender, and socioeconomic status were included as covariates.
Shlomit Shalitin; Moshe Phillip; Michal Yackobovitch-Gavan (et al.)
The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has health, social, and economic implications. This study primary objective was to evaluate changes in body mass index (BMI) from the pre-pandemic to COVID-19 pandemic period among a large pediatric population in Israel. This retrospective cohort study is based on data from Clalit Health Services, the largest health maintenance organization in Israel. The data accessed included sociodemographic, anthropometric, and clinical parameters of persons aged 2–20 years with at least one BMI measurement during 2017–2019 (pre-pandemic period) and one between April 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 (pandemic period).
Jason M. Nagata; Catherine A. Cortez; Puja Iyer (et al.)
This study aimed to describe the agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports of adolescent moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) and to determine sociodemographic factors associated with MVPA reporting differences during the COVID-19 pandemic. It analyzed data collected in May 2020 from the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD, N = 4841), a U.S. prospective cohort study. It quantified past weekly adolescent MVPA levels as reported by the parent and adolescent (referent). Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots were used to examine the degree of agreement between parent- and adolescent- reports.
Hilary A. T. Caldwell; Matthew B. Miller; Constance Tweedie (et al.)
Alexandra Martín-Rodríguez; José Francisco Tornero-Aguilera; P. Javier López-Pérez (et al.)
Valentin Benzing; Patrice Gaillard; David Scheidegger (et al.)
S. Scapaticci; C. R. Neri; G. L. Marseglia (et al.)
The adverse effects of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are not limited to the related infectious disease. In children and adolescents, serious risks due to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are also related to its indirect effects. These include an unbalanced diet with an increased risk of weight excess or nutritional deficiencies, increased sedentary lifestyle, lack of schooling, social isolation, and impaired mental health. Pediatricians should be aware of the side effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children’s diet, physical mental health and advise the families according to their nutritional needs and financial resources. Moreover, the lack of a targeted therapy able to offer protection against the deleterious effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection should require a greater effort by scientific societies to find a more effective prevention strategy. In this context, much interest should be given to nutritional support, able to contrast malnutrition and to stimulate the immune system.
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
Read the latest quarterly digest on children and disabilities.
The second digest discussed children and violence during the pandemic.
The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response
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