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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Socioeconomic impacts of COVID-19 in four African countries

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Josephson; Talip Kilic; Jeffrey D. Michler

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2020
This paper provides some of the first evidence on the socioeconomic impacts of and responses to the pandemic among households in Sub-Saharan Africa. Econometric methods are applied to longitudinal household survey data from Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Uganda. Results show that 256 million individuals are estimated to live in households that have lost income due to the pandemic. Attempts to cope with this loss are exacerbated by the inability to access medicine and staple foods among 20 to 25 percent of the households in each country, and food insecurity is disproportionately borne by households that were already impoverished prior to the pandemic. Finally, student-teacher contact has dropped from a pre-COVID-19 rate of 96 percent to just 17 percent among households with school-age children. These findings can help inform decisions by governments and international organizations on measures to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and reveal the need for continued monitoring.
A Lifeline at Risk: COVID-19, Remittances and Children
Millions of children around the world, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, live in households that receive money and other forms of support from a family member who has moved abroad, or to another part of the same country, to work. This form of assistance, or ‘remittances’, can alleviate household poverty and is often a key support for children’s development. In times of global economic uncertainty, however, remittances can be an unstable source of income for families. The COVID-19 pandemic is disproportionately affecting migrant workers’ job security, making it more difficult to send remittances. At the same time, families receiving remittances are facing their own economic and health challenges, meaning that the continuation of remittances is vital to keep them from slipping into poverty. This briefing paper outlines the potential risks of reduction in remittances due to the pandemic for children in households receiving remittances and what can be done to minimize these risks.
COVID-19 pandemic: the impact on vulnerable children and young people in Australia

AUTHOR(S)
Benjamin Jones; Susan Woolfenden; Sandra Pengilly (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
This article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of children and young people (CYP) during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups were identified: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing financial hardship; within the child protection system; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP. Recommendations for action are required at the level of governments, health professionals and researchers and include enhancing access to health and social supports, prioritising vulnerable CYP in resuming health activity and elevating the voice of CYP in designing the response.
This
article aims to present the reasons for vulnerability of CYP during the pandemic, and to focus on actions by health professionals that mitigate
additional challenges to their health and well-being. Using a rapid review of the literature and team-based discussions, eight vulnerable groups
were identied: CYP with disabilities, mental health conditions and chronic diseases; CYP facing nancial hardship; within the child protection sys-
tem; Aboriginal; migrant and refugee; in residential care; rural; and isolated CYP.
Screening for economic hardship for child welfare-involved families during the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid partnership response

AUTHOR(S)
Barbara Fallon; Rachael Lefebvre; Delphine Collin-Vézina (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect
Given the range of negative consequences related to the pandemic and the evolving supports available to families, child protection workers needed a clinical tool to guide and support work with families informed by an understanding of economic hardship. The objective of this paper is to report on the development and implementation strategy of a tool to be used for practice intervention during the pandemic.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Child Protection | Tags: child care, child care services, family assistance, poverty | Countries: Canada
Parental perceptions of COVID-19 pandemic: adherence to laid down containment measures

AUTHOR(S)
Ezeonwu Bertilla; Joseph Ajanwaenyi; Uwadia Omozele (et al.)

Published: September 2020   Journal: American Journal of Pediatrics
This article aims to ascertain, the perceptions of caregivers of children on covid-19 containment measures, the need for adherence to the measures to understand the reasons for poor compliance. The interviewees expressed their difficulties and frustrations in maintaining the rigors of application of these measures but would that government should expedite action towards the discovery of Protective vaccines because of the effect these measures had on their economic means of livelihoods.
Cite this research | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 357-361 | Language: English | Topics: Child Protection, Social Protection, Well-being and Equity | Tags: community participation, poverty, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: Nigeria
The social safety net in the wake of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Marianne Bitler; Hilary W. Hoynes; Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 crisis has led to spiking unemployment rates with disproportionate impacts on low-incomefamilies. School and child-care center closures have also meant lost free- and reduced-price schoolmeals. Food prices have increased sharply leading to reduced purchasing power for families’ limited income. Real time data show significant distress – notably food insecurity rates have increased almost three times overthe pre-COVID rates and food pantry use has also spiked. In this paper, we explore why there is so much unmet need despite a robust policy response.
Coronavirus and rising threat of malnutrition among children in India

AUTHOR(S)
Gupta Surabhi

Published: September 2020   Journal: Asian journal of research in social sciences and humanities

This article focuses on the impact of COVID- 19 on food security and nutrition among children in India. India is already one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition and more than one third of the world's malnourished children live in India. The novel coronavirus risks is undermining the efforts of humanitarian and food security organizations to reduce hunger and scale down the efforts in this direction In this paper, I would largely focus on the impact of COVID- 19 on food security and nutrition among children in India.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 10 | Issue: 8 | No. of pages: 32 | Language: English | Topics: Nutrition, Child Poverty | Tags: child malnutrition, poverty | Countries: India
COVID-19 and maternal and child food and nutrition insecurity: a complex syndemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rafael Perez-Escamilla; Kenda Cunningham; Victoria Hall Moran

Published: July 2020   Journal: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has already led to major increases in unemployment and is expected to lead to unprecedented increases in poverty and food and nutrition insecurity, as well as poor health outcomes. Families where young children, youth, pregnant and lactating women live need to be protected against the ongoing protracted pandemic and the aftershocks that are very likely to follow for years to come. The future wellbeing of the vast majority of the world now depends on reconfiguring the current ineffective food, nutrition, health, and social protection systems to ensure food and nutrition security for all. Because food, nutrition, health, and socio-economic outcomes are intimately inter-linked, it is essential that we find out how to effectively address the need to reconfigure and to provide better intersecoral coordination among global and local food, health care, and social protection systems taking equity and sutainability principles into account. Implementation science research informed by complex adaptive sytems frameworks will be needed to fill in the major knowledge gaps. Not doing so will not only put the development of individuals at further risk, but also negatively impact on the development potential of entire nations and ultimately our planet.
Fiji gender, disability and inclusion analysis COVID-19 and TC Harold

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Cowley; Sally Baker; Charlie Damon

COVID-19 and TC Harold have severely affected Fijians’ short and long-term resilience as many are resorting to the use of detrimental coping strategies such as reduction in food intake, barter of assets, reduction of expenditure on health or education. Social protection schemes for marginalised groups exist but are limited and access was restricted by COVID-19 preventative measures, particularly for people with disabilities.
Impact of COVID-19 on informal workers
The COVID-19 pandemic is a major economic and labour market shock, presenting significant impacts in terms of unemployment and underemployment for informal workers. In rural areas, the livelihoods of especially the self-employed and wage workers are at risk, because agrifood supply chains and markets are being disrupted due to lockdowns and restrictions of movement. Families might resort to negative coping strategies such as distress sale of assets, taking out loans from informal moneylenders, or child labour. Specific groups of workers, including women, youth, children, indigenous people, and migrant workers, who are over represented in the informal economy, will experience further exacerbation of their vulnerability. Response measures should foster the expansion of social protection coverage to informal workers in agriculture and rural sectors, including timely cash transfers, food or in-kind distributions. Specific measures should be tailored towards women workers with care responsibilities at home, families that may resort to child labour as a coping strategy, as well as other vulnerable subgroups. Efforts should be made to maintain agricultural supply chains and strengthen the market linkages for local producers, while promoting decent work.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.