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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 76
The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant pswomen

Jose A. Puertas-Gonzalez; Carolina Mariño-Narvaez; Maria Isabel Peralta-Ramirez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Psychiatry Research
The aim was to examine the psychological effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women, as well as the factors influencing these effects. The study design was cross-sectional and the participants were 200 pregnant women. The first group called the Pandemic Group (PG) included 100 women who were evaluated with psychological assessment instruments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second group titled Pre-Pandemic Group (PPG) consisted of 100 women who were evaluated prior to the pandemic. Perceived stress, prenatal concerns and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated and compared.
Depression, anxiety, resilience, and coping: the experience of pregnant and new mothers during the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic

Patricia A. Kinser; Nancy Jallo; Ananda B. Amstadter (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Women's Health
It is well-documented that the mental health of pregnant and postpartum women is essential for maternal, child, and family well-being. Of major public health concern is the perinatal mental health impacts that may occur during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It is essential to explore the symptom experience and predictors of mental health status, including the relationship between media use and mental health. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the experiences of pregnant and postpartum women (n = 524) in the United States in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Follow-up care for premature children: the repercussions of the COVID-19 pandemic

Rosane Meire Munhak da Silva; Letícia Pancieri; Adriana Zilly (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem

This study aimed to analyze elements of the follow-up care provided to premature children amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative study from the perspective of philosophical hermeneutics, interpreting experiences with childcare provided at home. Twelve mothers and 14 children aged two years old were interviewed online via a text messaging application. Data were analyzed by interpreting meanings.

The COVID-19 outbreak increases maternal stress during pregnancy, but not the risk for postpartum depression

Myrthe G. B. M. Boekhorst; Lotte Muskens; Lianne P. Hulsbosch (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Women's Mental Health
The COVID-19 pandemic affects society and may especially have an impact on mental health of vulnerable groups, such as perinatal women. This prospective cohort study of 669 participating women in the Netherlands compared perinatal symptoms of depression and stress during and before the pandemic. After a pilot in 2018, recruitment started on 7 January 2019. Up until 1 March 2020 (before the pandemic), 401 women completed questionnaires during pregnancy, of whom 250 also completed postpartum assessment. During the pandemic, 268 women filled out at least one questionnaire during pregnancy and 59 postpartum (1 March–14 May 2020). Pregnancy-specific stress increased significantly in women during the pandemic.
A systematic review of pregnant women with COVID-19 and their neonates

Mona Mirbeyk; Amene Saghazadeh; Nima Rezaei

Published: April 2021   Journal: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
In December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China, with an incredible contagion rate. However, the vertical transmission of COVID-19 is uncertain. This is a systematic review of published studies concerning pregnant women with confrmed COVID-19 and their neonates
Short-term developmental outcomes in neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 from Wuhan, China

Ling‑Kong Zeng; Hua‑Ping Zhu; Tian‑Tian Xiao (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: World Journal of Pediatrics
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) is an emerging disease. The consequences of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in infants remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate whether neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 have adverse brain development. This multicenter observational study was conducted at two designated maternal and children’s hospitals in Hubei Province, mainland China from February 1, 2020 to May 15, 2020. Neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 were enrolled. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fndings, and volumes of grey and white matters, and physical growth parameters were observed at 44 weeks corrected gestational age.
Motherhood and COVID-19: a digital psychoeducational booklet for the coping with the pandemic stressors

Cassia Patricia Barroso Perry; Ana Cristina Barros da Cunha; Karolina Alves de Albuquerque (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Trends in Psychology
During the pandemic of COVID-19, the Brazilian Health Ministry declared that 2-week postnatal women are a high-risk population that demands special assistance. Considering that women at the postnatal period are more susceptible to anxiety and stress symptoms, the objective of this study is to present a digital psychoeducational booklet analyzing its validity to help this target population to cope with the stress from the new coronavirus crisis. Based on the dispositional coping theory and positive psychology, this proposal was developed as a digital booklet to promote the maternal mental health and well-being based on informational and psychoeducational approaches.
Women perception of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination during pregnancy and subsequent maternal anxiety: a prospective observational study

Ilenia Mappa; Maria Luviso; Flavia Adalgisa Distefano (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine

The use of Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine in pregnant women is controversial and still not performed in Italy. Our objective was to evaluate the propensity of a population of Italian women to receive the vaccine and its psychological impact. A prospective, observational study was performed on pregnant women attending Ospedale Cristo Re Università Roma TorVergata. A multi-section questionnaire was sent to each included woman on the first day of available SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Part-A was finalized to acquire maternal characteristics and to test the women’s perception of vaccinations in pregnancy and their fear-induced by vaccines. Part-B included the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI) a validated test for scoring trait anxiety (basal anxiety, STAI-T) and state anxiety (STAI-S). An abnormal value of STAI was considered when ≥40. Comparisons of maternal variables were performed according to their vaccine attitude.

COVID-19 pandemic: impacts on mothers' and infants' mental health during pregnancy and shortly thereafter

Noa Vardi; Gil Zalsman; Nir Madjar (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
The COVID-19 pandemic brought about a global crisis, with profound implications on public mental health. The current review focuses on the impact of the pandemic on the mental health of mothers and their infants during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. Literature shows that in similar disaster situations, mothers’ stress reaction and mental health have a critical impact on infant development. Research data on perinatal mental health during the current COVID-19 pandemic is reviewed in conjunction with studies on the relationship between maternal stress, infant development, and psychopathology. Recommendations for perinatal mental health enhancement are discussed and topics for future research suggested.
The severity of COVID-19 among pregnant women and the risk of adverse maternal outcomes

Parisa Samadi; Zahra Alipour; Maryam Ghaedrahmati (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics

This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) during pregnancy and the risk of adverse maternal outcomes. A descriptive‐analytical cross‐sectional study conducted on 258 pregnant women who were hospitalized due to confirmed COVID‐19 from March 2020 to January 2021 at the Forghani Hospital in Qom, Iran. Demographic and obstetric characteristics, laboratory findings, and adverse maternal outcomes were recorded from the patients’ medical records. The Fisher exact test, one‐way analysis of variance, and regression logistics were used to assess the relationship between variables.

Relationship between viral load, infection‐to‐delivery interval and mother‐to‐child transfer of anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 antibodies

L. C. Poon; B. W. Leung; T. Ma (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
This study aims to investigate the association between SARS‐CoV‐2 viral load and infection‐to‐delivery interval with maternal and cord sera anti‐SARS‐CoV‐2 IgG antibody levels in pregnant women with active or recovered SARS‐CoV‐2 infection.
Stress and coping among pregnant black women during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jenna M. Wheeler; Dawn P. Misra; Carmen Giurgescu

Published: April 2021   Journal: Public Health Nursing

This study explored stress and coping among pregnant Black women prior to and during the COVID‐19 pandemic. It is a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

Depression and anxiety in pregnancy during COVID-19: a rapid review and meta-analysis

Lianne M. Tomfohr-Madsen; Nicole Racine; Gerald F. Giesbrecht (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Psychiatry Research
The study rapidly reviewed and meta-analyzed the worldwide prevalence of depression and anxiety among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of the literature and meta-analyses were conducted from December 2019 – February 2021 with a total of 46 studies meeting inclusion criteria. Depression was assessed in 37 studies (N = 47,677), with a pooled prevalence of 25.6%. Anxiety was assessed in 34 studies (N = 42,773), with a pooled prevalence of 30.5%; moderation by time showed that prevalence of anxiety was higher in studies conducted later in the pandemic.
Were pregnant women more affected by COVID-19 in the second wave of the pandemic?

Suraj Kadiwar; Jonathan J. Smith; Stephane Ledot (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: The Lancet Journal
At the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, there was justified concern that this disease might have similar effects on pregnant women as influenza or other coronavirus infections. During the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, influenza mortality in pregnant women in the USA was 4·3%. In global analyses, maternal deaths from severe acute respiratory syndrome or Middle East respiratory syndrome have been reported in 13% (n=24) and 40% (n=10) of published case reports, respectively. Reassuringly, US data from the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (from January to June, 2020) show that death from COVID-19 during pregnancy was low (0·19%) and consistent with that of non-pregnant women of childbearing age (0·25%). However, by September, 2020, findings from a systematic review and meta-analysis of global data suggested that pregnancy is a significant risk factor for hospitalisation and more severe illness, with a critical care admission odds ratio for pregnant women with COVID-19 compared with infected women of childbearing age of 2·13 (95% CI 1·53–2·95) and an invasive ventilation odds ratio of 2·59 (2·28–2·94).
Safety of immunization during pregnancy: a review of the evidence: global advisory committee on vaccine safety
The Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) of WHO asked the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS) to provide support to a review of evidence on the safety of vaccinations in pregnant and lactating women. This request related to uncertainties about the safety of vaccination – whether intended or inadvertent – of pregnant women during mass vaccination campaigns. Such evidence would be particularly important in situations where manufacturers do not recommend the vaccination of pregnant women on solely precautionary grounds. However, evidence related to this issue is limited, as pre-licensing clinical trials of vaccines do not usually include pregnant and lactating women. Reports available also provide limited post-licensing data, as once again, pregnant women are usually not included in clinical trials. This in turn has limited the ability to make evidence-based decisions and provide optimal guidance on the use of vaccines in this population.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.