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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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211 - 225 of 236
Definition and categorization of the timing of mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2
Institution: World Health Organisation
Published: February 2021
This scientific brief was prepared based on results of evidence synthesis and a WHO expert consultation. The WHO COVID-19 LENS (Living Evidence Synthesis) working group consolidated available evidence, based on rapid reviews of the literature and results of a living systematic review on pregnancy and COVID-19 (up to October 7, 2020), on potential mechanisms of vertical transmission of infectious pathogens, feasibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, data related to interpretation of positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic and serologic neonatal tests, lessons from diagnosis of other congenital infections, and existing proposed definitions to classify timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. WHO convened a multidisciplinary, international panel of experts between October and November 2020 to review the evidence and propose a consensus initial classification system for the timing of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The panel included experts in obstetrics, neonatology, paediatrics, epidemiology, virology, infectious disease, congenital infections, and placental pathology. The selection of the panel ensured geographic representation, gender balance, and no important conflicts of interest, in accordance with WHO standard procedures.
Psychological impact and social support in pregnant women during lockdown due to SARS‐CoV2 pandemic: a cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Maia Brik; Miguel Angel Sandonis; Sara Fernández (et al.)

Published: February 2021   Journal: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Anxiety and depression during pregnancy can lead to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The SARS CoV‐2 pandemic, and the complete lockdown required during the first wave in most countries are stressors for pregnant women and can lead to anxiety and depression during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to explore depression and anxiety symptoms, and social support in pregnant women during the SARS CoV‐2 lockdown, as well as to explore demographic risk factors.
Assessment of knowledge and opinion regarding breastfeeding practices during COVID-19 pandemic among paediatricians and obstetricians in India: an online survey.

AUTHOR(S)
Sunil Malik; Payas Joshi; Pradeep Kumar Gupta (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a novel coronavirus infection that has a wide spectrum of disease severity. The virus has not been known to pass through the placenta and has not been reported in the breastmilk of affected mothers. As the cases are still on a rise, it is expected that the number of pregnant females would also rise in the coming times. Among many queries during pregnancy, to breastfeed or not is an important question that needs to be answered. We conducted this survey to assess the knowledge regarding breastfeeding practices among Indian paediatricians and obstetricians during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the outbreak of COVID-19 disease

AUTHOR(S)
Somayyeh Naghizadeh; Mojgan Mirghafourvand; Roghaye Mohammadirad

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women bear considerable physical and psychological stress because of their special conditions, which combined with other stress factors such as violence, makes their situation even more critical. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and influencing factors of anxiety among pregnant women in Wuhan during the outbreak of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Wenping Ding; Jianmei Lu; Yan Zhou

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Prenatal anxiety has been a significant public health issue globally, leading to adverse health outcomes for mothers and children. The study aimed to evaluate the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP), and anxiety level of pregnant women during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan and investigate the influencing factors for prenatal anxiety in this specific context.
Should COVID-19 mother breastfeed her newborn child? A literature review on the safety of breastfeeding for pregnant women with COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Harshil Bhatt

Published: January 2021   Journal: Current Nutrition Reports
Breastfeeding is beneficial to both the newborn and the mother. During the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised on whether the SARS-CoV-2 virus could be transmitted from COVID-19 positive mother to the newborn through breastmilk. The purpose of this review is to examine the available evidence on the risks of transmission of infection from COVID-19 mothers to their newborns through breastfeeding.
Association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy amid the COVID‐19 state of emergency

AUTHOR(S)
Yuko Kachi; Takeo Fujiwara; Hisashi Eguchi (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Journal of Occupational Health

Maternity harassment, known in English as pregnancy discrimination, remains prevalent in developed countries. However, research examining the mental health effects of maternity harassment is lacking. We aimed to examine the association between maternity harassment and depression during pregnancy in Japan. A cross‐sectional Internet survey was conducted on 359 pregnant employees (including women who were working at the time their pregnancy was confirmed) from May 22 to May 31, 2020, during which time a COVID‐19 state of emergency was declared. Maternity harassment was defined as being subjected to any of the 16 adverse treatments prohibited by national guidelines.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and perinatal health: a scoping review

AUTHOR(S)
Bethany Kotlar; Emily Gerson; Sophia Petrillo (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: Reproductive Health
The Covid-19 pandemic affects maternal health both directly and indirectly, and direct and indirect effects are intertwined. To provide a comprehensive overview on this broad topic in a rapid format behooving an emergent pandemic we conducted a scoping review. A scoping review was conducted to compile evidence on direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic on maternal health and provide an overview of the most significant outcomes thus far. Working papers and news articles were considered appropriate evidence along with peer-reviewed publications in order to capture rapidly evolving updates. Literature in English published from January 1st to September 11 2020 was included if it pertained to the direct or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical, mental, economic, or social health and well-being of pregnant people. Narrative descriptions were written about subject areas for which the authors found the most evidence. Results: Th
Pregnant women’s well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study

AUTHOR(S)
Forough Mortazavi; Maryam Mehrabadi ; Roya Kiaee Tabar

Published: January 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

COVID-19 caused some worries among pregnant women. Worries during pregnancy can affect women’s well-being. We investigated worry and well-being and associated factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 484 pregnant women using an online questionnaire. Sampling was performed in a period between May 5 and Aug 5, 2020. Inclusion criteria were having a single healthy fetus and having no significant psychological disorder.

Exercise routine change is associated with prenatal depression scores during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women across the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Theresa E. Gildner; Elise J. Laugier; Zaneta M. Thayer

Published: December 2020   Journal: Plos One
The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively affected physical and mental health worldwide. Pregnant women already exhibit an elevated risk for depression compared to the general public, a pattern expected to be exacerbated by the pandemic. Certain lifestyle factors, including moderate exercise, may help support mental health during pregnancy, but it is unclear how the pandemic may impact these associations across different locations. This study tested whether: (i) reported exercise routine alterations during the pandemic are associated with depression scores; and, (ii) the likelihood of reporting pandemic-related exercise changes varies between women living in metro areas and those in non-metro areas.
Mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Hernán López-Morales; Macarena Verónica Del Valle; Lorena Canet-Juric

Published: November 2020   Journal: Psychiatry Research
Several studies have reported the susceptibility of pregnant women to emotional instability and stress. Thus, pregnancy may be a risk factor that could deepen the already negative effects of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze longitudinally the psychopathological consequences of the pandemic in pregnant women, and to explore differences with non-pregnant women. The participants in this study were 102 pregnant women, and a control group of 102 non-pregnant women (most of them reported having university studies and little financial impact from the pandemic). 
Birth and infant outcomes following laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy

AUTHOR(S)
Kate R. Woodworth; Emily O’Malley Olsen; Varsha Neelam (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report

Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at increased risk for severe illness compared with nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth and pregnancy loss have been reported. Among 3,912 infants with known gestational age born to women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than a national estimate of 10.2%. Among 610 (21.3%) infants with testing results, 2.6% had positive SARS-CoV-2 results, primarily those born to women with infection at delivery. These findings can inform clinical practice, public health practice, and policy. It is important that providers counsel pregnant women on measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Favorable outcomes among neonates not separated from their symptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers

AUTHOR(S)
Antoine Martenot; Imad Labbassi; Amélie Delfils-Stern (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Pediatric Research
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting from infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can affect pregnant women. Their newborns are at a higher risk of prematurity and early separation from their mothers, who may subsequently require intensive care for their own health. Although neonates born of mothers infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy are seemingly vulnerable to infection, studies have found that they were not at a high risk for severe infection and were very rarely affected by COVID-19. The presence of virus by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been reported in newborns before H 12 of life. In addition, antiviral immunoglobulin M has been detected in newborns at birth, suggesting that mother-to-infant viral transmission may occur. To date, however, only one case of vertical transmission has been clearly demonstrated. In several cases of early neonatal infection, postnatal contamination cannot be excluded. Moreover, only one case report found that the virus could pass from mother to infant through the mother’s breast milk.
COVID-19 in pregnancy: the foetal perspective: a systematic review

AUTHOR(S)
Rajani Dube; Subhranshu Sekhar Kar

Published: October 2020   Journal: BMJ Paediatrics Open
We aimed to conduct a systematic review of the available literature to determine the effects of confirmed cases of COVID-19 in pregnant women from the foetal perspective by estimation of mother to child transmission, perinatal outcome and possible teratogenicity.
Spiritual health and stress in pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Reza Jafari Nodoushan; Hadi Alimoradi; Mahsa Nazari

Published: October 2020   Journal: SN Comprehensive Clinical Medicine
Stress is one of the effective factors in the occurrence of negative effects during pregnancy that can cause adverse outcomes such as preterm delivery and reduced intrauterine growth of the fetus in pregnant women. Therefore, one of the serious concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic is the physical health and mental health of pregnant women. This study aimed to evaluate the physical health status with the spiritual and mental health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a descriptive study in 2019–2020 and the samples were randomly selected from all pregnant women who referred to hospitals and private maternity centers before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and performed all pregnancy and fetal health tests.
211 - 225 of 236

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.