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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 236
COVID-19 and pregnancy: lessons from 2020

Serena Girardelli; Edward Mullins; Christoph C. Lees

Published: September 2021   Journal: Early Human Development
The outbreak and spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to an unprecedented wealth of literature on the impact of human coronaviruses on pregnancy. The number of case studies and publications alone are several orders of magnitude larger than those published in all previous human coronavirus outbreaks combined, enabling robust conclusions to be drawn from observations for the first time. However, the importance of learning from previous human coronavirus outbreaks cannot be understated. This narrative review, describes what is considered to be the major learning points arising from the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in relation to pregnancy, and where these confound what might have been expected from previous coronavirus outbreaks.
The role of mothers’ self-compassion on mother–infant bonding during the COVID-19 pandemic: A longitudinal study exploring the mediating role of mindful parenting and parenting stress in the postpartum period

Daniela V. Fernandes; Maria C. Canavarro; Helena Moreira

Published: August 2021   Journal: Infant Mental Health Journal
The current COVID-19 pandemic is a challenging time for postpartum mothers, and associated challenges may have a negative impact on their parenting and, consequently, on mother–infant bonding. This study aimed to longitudinally explore whether mothers’ self-compassion was associated with mother–infant bonding and whether this relationship was mediated by mindful parenting and parenting stress. A total of 125 Portuguese mothers of infants aged between 0 and 12 months completed an online survey at two assessment points during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (T1: April–May 2020; T2: June–July 2020). The survey included several questionnaires assessing sociodemographic, clinical, and COVID-19 information; self-compassion; mindful parenting; parenting stress; and mother–infant bonding.
Parental and staff experiences of restricted parental presence on a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit during COVID-19

Harriet Garfield; Briony Westgate; Rajiv Chaudhary (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on parental presence in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during the first wave. The NICU team at the Rosie Hospital, Cambridge, endeavoured to explore the impact on parent and staff experiences of supporting parents throughout the period when visiting was restricted, between 13th August and 11th September 2020. Bespoke surveys were designed following the first lockdown to gather information on the impact on staff and parents. The questions were developed in the context of initial observations and conversations with staff and parents.

Factors affecting breastfeeding practices under lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand: a cross-sectional survey

Chanodom Piankusol; Wachiranun Sirikul; Krongporn Ongprasert (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A COVID-19 lockdown and restrictive order has had a large impact on the lives of people. This cross-sectional study was conducted to identify factors affecting breastfeeding among mothers living in Thailand during the lockdown. Data were collected from 903 mothers with infants ages 0–12 months from 17 July 2020 to 17 October 2020 after the first nationwide COVID-19 lockdown period by an online platform and interview questionnaire survey. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between the effect of lockdown and breastfeeding practices with potential confounder adjustment including maternal age, ethnicity, newborn age <6 months, family income below $16,130 per annum, education below undergraduate level, and working status.
Predictors of pregnant women’s intention to vaccinate against coronavirus disease 2019: a facility-based cross-sectional study in southwest Ethiopia

Shewangizaw Hailemariam; Besufekad Mekonnen; Nigusie Shifera (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: SAGE Open Medicine
Ethiopia is planning to vaccinate 20% of its population against the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic by the end of 2021—however, there is no single piece of evidence regarding pregnant women’s intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019; hence, the objective of this study was to investigate predicting factors of intention to be vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019 among pregnant women in Bench-Sheko Zone, southwest Ethiopia. Methods: Facility-based cross-sectional study was undertaken from 1 February to 1 March 2021 in southwest Ethiopia. The study was carried out among pregnant women who came for antenatal care service in the selected public health facilities. Interviewer-administered structured tool was used to collect the data. Data were entered into EpiData (version 3.1) and then analyzed using SPSS (version 20).
Relationship of depression, anxiety and stress levels with religious coping strategies among Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic

Nazife Bakır; Pınar Irmak Vural; Cuma Demir

Published: August 2021   Journal: Journal of Religion and Health
The aim of this study was to investigate the depression, anxiety, stress levels, and religious coping strategies of Turkish pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the pregnant women involved in this study (N = 327), 74.6% were concerned about their health, whereas 85.9% had concerns about the health of the fetus during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was found that 19.9% had extremely severe depression, 97.9% had extremely severe anxiety, and 52.3% had severe stress symptoms. Religious coping scores of the pregnant women included in the study were found to be high. There was a weak positive correlation between positive religious coping and depression and a very weak negative correlation between negative religious coping and depression.
Pregnancy and birth outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy

Regan N. Theiler; Myra Wick; Ramila Mehta (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
 SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is associated with significant maternal morbidity and increased rates of preterm birth. For this reason, COVID-19 vaccine administration in pregnancy has been endorsed by multiple professional societies including ACOG and SMFM despite exclusion of pregnant women from initial clinical trials of vaccine safety and efficacy. However, to date little data exists regarding outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination of pregnant patients. A comprehensive vaccine registry was combined with a delivery database for an integrated healthcare system to create a delivery cohort including vaccinated patients. Maternal sociodemographic data were examined to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Pregnancy and birth outcomes were analyzed, including a composite measure of maternal and neonatal pregnancy complications, the Adverse Outcome Index.
Changes in pregnancy outcomes during the COVID-19 lockdown in Iran

Fahimeh Ranjbar; Leila Allahqoli; Soheila Ahmadi (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

The Covid-19 pandemic response is influencing maternal and neonatal health care services especially in developing countries. However, the indirect effects of Covid-19 on pregnancy outcomes remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare pregnancy outcomes before and after the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic in Iran. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of 2,503 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies, admitted to the maternity department of a women’s hospital in Tehran, Iran, during the pre-Covid-19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2019) and the intra-Covid- 19 pandemic (February 19 to April 19, 2020) period.

COVID-19 related psychological distress and fears among mothers and pregnant women in Saudi Arabia

Abdulkarim M. Meraya; Mamoon H. Syed; Ayesha Yasmeen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Plos One

This study objectives were to investigate maternal psychological distress, mothers’ fear of their children contracting COVID-19, mothers’ perceptions of the information available regarding children and COVID-19, changes in children’s behavior during lockdown, and concerns of pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. This cross-sectional study surveyed women aged 18 years and older who either had children under 10 years of age or were pregnant at the time of the survey. The outcomes included psychological distress, mothers’ fear of their children contracting COVID-19, change in children’s behaviors during COVID-19 lockdown and pregnant women’s concerns. Multivariable ordinary least squares regression models were employed to examine the adjusted associations between sociodemographic factors and psychological distress, as well as fear of COVID-19.

Indirect effects of COVID-19 on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services in Kampala, Uganda

Jessica Florence Burt; Joseph Ouma; Lawrence Lubyayi (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: BMJ Global Health
Background COVID-19 impacted global maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. This study hypothesised that the early, strict lockdown that restricted individuals’ movements in Uganda limited access to services. An observational study, using routinely collected data from Electronic Medical Records, was carried out, in Kawempe district, Kampala. An interrupted time series analysis assessed the impact on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services from July 2019 to December 2020. Descriptive statistics summarised the main outcomes before (July 2019–March 2020), during (April 2020–June 2020) and after the national lockdown (July 2020–December 2020).
Emergency and disaster response strategies to support maternal-infant dyads in times of COVID

Felipe Aros-Vera; Ilana R. Azulay Chertok; Semyon Melnikov

Published: August 2021   Journal: International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction
The COVID-19 pandemic has produced an unprecedented global health crisis. Vulnerable populations, such as breastfeeding mother-infant dyads, are in a particularly delicate situation. Before, during, and after birth mothers and their infants could be exposed to the virus. Due to fear of infection transmission, there has been an increase in separation of COVID-positive mothers and their infants and a decline in breastfeeding, despite research supporting the provision of mother's milk for her infant. During this crisis, evidence-based education counseling and resources can support healthful infant feeding which is necessary for short- and long-term infant growth and development. Using a framework of disaster preparedness and response, this study delineates operational guidelines and policy recommendations to support maternal-infant dyads during the COVID pandemic outbreak. Key recommendations include promotion of breastfeeding and milk expression, avoiding the use of formula, engaging healthcare providers in supporting lactation, and incorporating evidence-based breastfeeding and lactation protocols and practices in disaster preparedness and disaster response plans.
Socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight risk before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

Eduardo Cuestas; Martha E. Gómez-Flores; María D. Charras (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may have exacerbated existing socioeconomic inequalities in health. In Argentina, public hospitals serve the poorest uninsured segment of the population, while private hospitals serve patients with health insurance. This study aimed to assess whether socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) risk changed during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This multicenter cross-sectional study included 15929 infants. A difference-in-difference (DID) analysis of socioeconomic inequalities between public and private hospitals in LBW risk in a pandemic cohort (March 20 to July 19, 2020) was compared with a prepandemic cohort (March 20 to July 19, 2019) by using medical records obtained from ten hospitals.

Stigma, guilt and motherhood: experiences of pregnant women with COVID-19 in Brazil

Juliana Vasconcellos Freitas-Jesus; Odette Del Risco Sánchez; Larissa Rodrigues (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Women and Birth

The COVID-19 pandemic raises health issues worldwide. Infected pregnant women may have negative mental health outcomes, but little is known about their emotional experiences.This study aimed to understand the experience of women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy, regarding their feelings, their relationships, and the influence of social media.

COVID-19 in pregnancy: what we know from the first year of the pandemic

Anya Lara Arthurs; Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos; Claire Trelford Roberts

Published: August 2021   Journal: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease

The COVID-19 pandemic has infected nearly 178 million people and claimed the lives of over 3.8 million in less than 15months. This has prompted a flurry of research studies into the mechanisms and effects of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection in humans. However, studies examining the effects of COVID-19 in pregnant women, their placentae and their babies remain limited. Furthermore, reports of safety and efficacy of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy are limited. This review concisely summarises the case studies and research on COVID-19 in pregnancy, to date. It also reviews the mechanism of infection with SARS-CoV-2, and its reliance and effects upon the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Acceptance and willingness to pay for COVID-19 vaccines among pregnant women in Vietnam

Long Hoang Nguyen; Men Thi Hoang; Lam Duc Nguyen (et al.)

Published: August 2021   Journal: Tropical Medicine & International Health

The aim of this study was to assess acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination and the willingness to pay (WTP) for it, and investigate associated factors among pregnant women in Vietnam.Cross-sectional survey of pregnant women in two obstetric hospitals in Hanoi and Ca Mau provinces, Vietnam. Data on acceptance and WTP for COVID-19, demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, and risk perceptions toward COVID-19 were collected. Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were performed to identify factors associated with the acceptance and WTP for the vaccine.

16 - 30 of 236

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.