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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Preschool education optimization based on mobile edge computing under COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Hongzhi Wei; Yuqian Yang; Zhijian Liu

Published: January 2022   Journal: Expert Systems
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought profound changes in people's live and work. It has also accelerated the development of education from traditional model to online model, which is particularly important in preschool education. Preschoolers communicate with teachers through online video, so how to provide high quality and low latency online teaching has become a new challenge. In cloud computing, users offload computing tasks to the cloud to meet the high computing demands of their devices, but cloud-based solutions have led to huge bandwidth usage and unpredictable latency. In order to solve this problem, mobile edge computing (MEC) deploys the server at the edge of the network to provide the service with close range and low latency. In task scheduling, edge computing (EC) devices have rational thinking, and they are unwilling to collaborate with MEC server to perform tasks due to their selfishness. Therefore, it is necessary to design an effective incentive mechanism to encourage the collaboration of EC devices.
Children during coronavirus: Israeli preschool children’ s perspectives

AUTHOR(S)
Or Perah Midbar Alter

Published: January 2022   Journal: Current Research in Ecological and Social Psychology
The corona pandemic has changed the lives of human beings in almost every corner of the globe. This study sought to explore how Israeli children aged 3-6 experienced the corona period, through semi-structured interviews conducted with a playing cards method. The study is based on the context-informed perspective theory (Nadan and Roer-Strier, 2020) which examines the different contexts in the lives of children growing up in different families, while striving to make children's voices heard as agents/experts of their lives (Corsaro, 1997Mayall, 2002). The interviews with the children revealed that the Corona period was indeed a challenging and complex period for them. At the same time, following the intensive stay at home, these children showed mental resilience and took responsibility in three main areas: (1) sibling relationships (2) supporting their parents (3) staying alone. Through taking responsibility for these roles, the children have become partners in coping with the challenges that the Corona and the frequent lockdowns have brought to their family’ s lives.
How parents spent time at home with their preschool-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic of 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Ayşe Duran; Esra Ömeroğlu

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have been seen in more than 120 countries, including Turkey, which took public health measures to reduce the spread of the novel virus. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the Turkish education system, where schools closed indefinitely on March 16, 2020, due to the pandemic. School closures immediately changed the lives of Turkish children and their parents, as children started to spend more time with their families at home during this pandemic. This article addresses how parents spent time with their children at home during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how their feelings changed during this time. Purposive sampling was used to select 25 parents whose children in preschool education during the spring semester of 2020. This study used qualitative methods, collecting data through a semi-structured interview form. Interviews were conducted over the telephone because of the social distancing guidelines during the pandemic.
Movement behaviors and mental health of caregivers of preschoolers in China during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jie Feng; Wendy Yajun Huang; Patrick Wing Chung Lau (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Preventive Medicine
This study aimed to examine the associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior (SB), sleep, and the mental health of caregivers of preschool children following the COVID-19 outbreak. From 5 October to 16 December 2020, responses from 2476 respondents in China were collated through an online survey or a written questionnaire. Movement behaviors (PA, SB, screen time, and sleep), mental health (depression, anxiety, and stress), and demographic information were self-reported by the respondents. Linear mixed models were used for data analysis.
The impact of COVID-19 on preschool-aged children’s movement behaviors in Hong Kong: a longitudinal analysis of accelerometer-measured data

AUTHOR(S)
Johan Y. Y. Ng; Qing He; Kar Hau Chong (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many preschool-aged children were forced to remain indoors due to social distancing measures and school closures. This study examined how children’s movement behaviors (sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and sleep) were affected by the pandemic. Children’s (N = 25, age = 4.4 years, SD = 0.3) movement behaviors were measured before and after the COVID outbreak, respectively. Data collected using accelerometers were analyzed using compositional data analyses. A significant change in the overall time-use composition (F = 5.89, p = 0.002) was found. Results suggested that children spent more time sleeping (8% increase) and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (16% increase), with less time spent in sedentary behaviors (9% decrease). However, parent reports suggested that children were less active and had more screen time. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that children’s physical activity is not negatively impacted by the pandemic.
Change in Japanese children’s 24-hour movement guidelines and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Kim Hyunshik; Ma Jiameng; Lee Sunkyoung (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Specialized guidelines are required for the health behaviors of vulnerable populations such as children. This is especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic, wherein major lifestyle changes have occurred, especially among young children. The present study aims to use longitudinal data to understand changes in the physical activity, screen time, sleep, and mental health of preschoolers in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to pre-pandemic period. Subjective and objective measures were used to assess the variables of interest longitudinally. It was found that physical activity, adherence to WHO-recommended screen time, and prosocial behaviors decreased significantly. On the other hand, sedentary time and hyperactivity increased. Our results are consistent with findings from other countries. The implications with respect to outdoor playtime, screen-time in the context of online learning during the pandemic, and the effects of parents’ mental health on preschool-aged children are discussed.
The impact of COVID-19 on preschool-aged children’s movement behaviors in Hong Kong: a longitudinal analysis of accelerometer-measured data

AUTHOR(S)
Johan Y. Y. Ng; Qing He; Kar Hau Chong (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many preschool-aged children were forced to remain indoors due to social distancing measures and school closures. In this study, we examined how children’s movement behaviors (sedentary behaviors, physical activity, and sleep) were affected by the pandemic. Children’s (N = 25, age = 4.4 years, SD = 0.3) movement behaviors were measured before and after the COVID outbreak, respectively. Data collected using accelerometers were analyzed using compositional data analyses. A significant change in the overall time-use composition (F = 5.89, p = 0.002) was found.
Prevalence and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in childcare facilities: a longitudinal study

AUTHOR(S)
Luise Haag; Judith Blankenburg; Manja Unrath (et al.)

Published: July 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to evaluate the role of childcare facilities in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, we conducted a longitudinal study to gain further knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence, transmission and spread among preschool children, their parents and caretakers. Children between 1 and 6 years of age, their parents and caregivers in 14 childcare facilities in Dresden, Saxony/Germany were invited to participate in the KiTaCoviDD19-study between July 2020 and January 2021. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was assessed up to 4 times during the study period in all participating adults and personal characteristics as well as epidemiologic information of personal SARS-CoV-2 history were obtained. Samples for stool virus shedding of SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by PCR every 2-4 weeks in all participating children.
Will malnutrition, morbidities, and household environmental characteristics are risk factors of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among children under five in India?

AUTHOR(S)
Jay Saha; Pradip Chouhan

Published: July 2021   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

The novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (2019-nCoV) outbreak, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst serious global risk to humanity in the last century and linked with various risk factors. This study aims to find out the risk zone associated with Coronavirus disease among children under-five age using malnourished status, pre-existing morbidity conditions, poor household environmental conditions, and also with case fatality rate (CFR) and active case rate (ACR) of COVID-19 in India.

Cyber-safety and COVID-19 in the early years: a research agenda

AUTHOR(S)
Susan Edwards

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
Young children aged birth to 5 years are known users of the internet, both unsupervised and in collaboration with adults. Adults also use the internet to share details of children’s lives with others, via sharenting and educational apps. During COVID-19 internet use by children and families rose significantly during periods of enforced stay-home. Internet use by children, and by adults on behalf exposes children to conduct, contact and content risks online. These risks mean that cyber-safety in the early years is increasingly necessary, especially concerning increased internet usage during COVID-19. While cyber-safety is well developed for primary and secondary-school aged children this is not the case for young children, their families and educators. This paper proposes a research agenda for cyber-safety in the early years, using critical constructivism and internet studies to define the internet as a non-unitary technology. Three main objects of study concerning cyber-safety in the early years, including the reference to COVID-19 are identified for targeted research, including: technologies, context and policy.
Changes in emotional-behavioral functioning among pre-school children following the initial stage Danish COVID-19 lockdown and home confinement

AUTHOR(S)
Ina Olmer Specht; Jeanett Friis Rohde; Ann-Kristine Nielsen (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Unintended negative outcomes on child behavior due to lockdown and home confinement following the corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic needs highlighting to effectively address these issues in the current and future health crises. In this sub-study of the ODIN-study, the objectives were to determine whether the Danish lockdown and home confinement following the COVID-19 pandemic affected changes in emotional-behavioral functioning of pre-school-aged children using the validated Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) answered by parents shortly before lockdown and 3 weeks into lockdown, and moreover, to examine whether baseline family and social characteristics could predict change in child emotional-behavioral functioning during lockdown.
Preschool children’s drawings: a reflection on children’s needs within the learning environment post COVID-19 pandemic school closure

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah Omar Alabdulkarim; Sama Khomais; Ibtesam Yassin Hussain (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Childhood Education
This research analyzes the content of preschool children’s drawings as they reflect on aspects of their preschool environment that they missed most during COVID-19 pandemic-related school closures in Saudi Arabia. Children participated in collaboration with their mothers, who directed and collected their drawings. The participants were limited to a group of 41 children between 3–7 years old. The results revealed that most of their drawings were of people, followed by the school environment; the playground was the most prominent area drawn representing the physical environment. Other categories, from the most to the least drawn, include nature, daily scheduled activities, writing activities, food items, and methods of transportation. Through drawings, children showed their most important needs in the preschool environment, which provides some insight into what educators should plan for when children to return to school.
Preschool parents’ views of distance learning during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Michele L. Stites; Susan Sonneschein; Samantha H. Galczyk

Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
While research is beginning to emerge about the educational landscape during COVID-19, little attention has been paid to preschool. This mainly descriptive study examined U.S. parents’ views on distance learning for their preschool children during the COVID-19 crisis. Using a survey distributed via social media groups to U.S. parents of preschoolers (N = 166), it examined the following: the types of activities parents engaged in, obstacles to preschool distance learning, and the types of resources parents needed.
Safety education for children cannot stop for a pandemic: transitioning an injury prevention program to a virtual format

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Seegert; Taylor D. Meehan; Regina A. Veres

Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
In-person safety programs for pre-kindergarten children were not able to go on in their usual way during the summer of 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic. While some communities opted to cancel the programs, one organization in Northwest Ohio chose to reformat it, knowing that this education is a critical introduction to lifelong safety habits. Through social media, video-taped education from community safety professionals, and activity packets given to registrants, “Safety City” was able to go on. The new format incorporated all of the childhood safety topics normally presented in the live version of the program. The efforts described here indicate that it is feasible to alter presentation formats from in-person to virtual to connect even young children with important education. As such, similar programs needing to make this transition while the world continues to adjust to pandemic precautions may benefit from understanding the strengths, limitations, and insights from the process.
Virtual kindergarten readiness programming for preschool-aged children: feasibility, social validity, and preliminary impacts

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Dore; Laura Justice; Abigail K. Mills (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Early Education and Development
The global COVID-19 pandemic prevented the implementation of in-person summer learning programs designed to improve school readiness for entering kindergartners. Thus, we conducted the current study examining the feasibility, social validity, and preliminary impacts of a virtual summer learning program. Ninety-one preschoolers and their caregivers participated in a 4-week program involving one weekly teacher-caregiver meeting, two weekly Watch Together home learning activities, two weekly Play Together home learning activities, one or two weekly Read Together home learning activities, and one or two weekly teacher-child video chat lessons. Recruitment and participation indicated high levels of interest.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.