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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Vulnerable preschoolers mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic in Argentina: a cross-sectional study

Agustina Aragón-Daud; Andrea Abadi; Pablo López (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Early Child Development and Care
Since the Covid-19 pandemic began, children have presented with increased psychiatric symptoms. Little research has been done regarding early childhood mental health, particularly those from vulnerable socioeconomic contexts who are exposed to adversity. This study aimed to assess mental health and the impacts of the pandemic on this population. A survey and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire were administered to the caregivers of preschoolers who were enrolled in a food-assistance programme. The participants were 807 preschoolers from the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina, which was ranked among the cities with the longest lockdown.
Factors influencing parents' willingness to vaccinate their preschool children against COVID-19: results from the mixed-method study in China

Mengmou Zheng; Wanzhen Zhong; Xiyue Chen (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
During the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about parental hesitancy to receive the COVID-19 vaccine for preschool children who are the potential vaccinated population in the future. The purpose of this mixed-method study was to explore the factors influencing Chinese parents’ decision to vaccinate their children aged 3–6 years old against COVID-19. In July 2021,  semi-structured interviews (n = 19) and a cross-sectional survey (n = 2605) were conducted with parents of kindergarten children in an urban-rural combination pilot area in China. According to the qualitative study, most parents were hesitant to vaccinate their children with the COVID-19 vaccine.
The impact of COVID-19 measures on parent-reported restricted and repetitive behaviours in pre-school children with autism

Sofie Boterberg; Arianna Zanatta; Floor Moerman (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Heliyon
COVID-19 restrictive measures have had a considerable impact on daily life routines, which may be especially challenging for families of children with autism. In pre-schoolers with autism, it is likely that the disruption of routines mainly impacts the presence of restrictive and repetitive behaviours (RRBs). Furthermore, influence of comorbid conditions, secondary behavioural difficulties and home environment characteristics on RRBs was explored. A cross-sectional online survey design was used to collect parent-report data on 254 children with autism (2.5–6 years) during lockdown in the early months of the pandemic. RRBs were assessed using the Repetitive Behaviour Scale-Revised (RBS-R).
Lockdown due to COVID-19 in Spanish children up to 6 years: consequences on diet, lifestyle, screen viewing, and sleep

Mercedes Díaz-Rodríguez; Jesús Carretero-Bravo; Celia Pérez-Muñoz (et al.)

Published: June 2022

This study aimed to record how the habits of children under 6 years of age in Cadiz have changed during lockdown, in order to identify those that could be a handicap for the problem of overweight and obesity. It developed a new questionnaire to analyse family living habits. The questionnaire was administered online to parents of children aged zero-six years. Eating habits, sedentary lifestyles, screen viewing, and sleep changes were evaluated.

Effect of COVID-19 infection on psychological aspects of pre-schooler children: a cross-sectional study

Gellan K. Ahmed; Sayed Mostafa; Khaled Elbeh (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Middle East Current Psychiatry
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had a tremendous effect on individual’s lives worldwide. The pandemic’s significant socioecological impact is one of the many burdens children confront in the current crises. As a result, this study was designed to determine the psychological impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on preschoolers, particularly the consequences of COVID-19 infection. This study involved 138 children aged 2–5.11 years old who were classified into two groups based on their COVID-19 infection history, which was documented via a PCR test. All participants were assessed by the Socioeconomic Scale and The Children’s Behavior Checklist (CBCL).
Impact of a focus education in Zoom on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Hong Kong parents of the preschoolers

Wilfred Hing-sang Wong; Hung-kwan So; Jaime S. Rosa Duque (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Parental vaccine hesitancy is a major barrier to achieving high vaccination uptake among children, particularly in young children during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Developing herd immunity is a critical concept for overcoming the current pandemic. The purpose of this study is to reduce parental vaccine hesitancy through a focused educational seminar in ZOOM and to empower parents who are concerned about vaccinating their children to communicate with medical experts during live seminars. Parents of preschoolers, teachers, and kindergarten principals from three local pre-school education and services associations attended live seminars. After attending seminars, parental willingness to vaccinate their children increased by 65%. The live Zoom seminar led by medical experts resulted in a decrease in vaccine hesitancy. Our findings support the creation of seminars that allow clients and medical specialists to communicate directly with one another. Offering an open and honest forum for people to express their concerns to medical experts could be a useful strategy for dealing with not only vaccination apprehension, but also other health-related emergencies.
Impact of COVID-19-related stress on preschool children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors: the indirect effect of mother's depression and parenting behavior

Young Sun Joo; Woon Kyung Lee

Published: June 2022   Journal: Child Indicators Research
The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting families and children worldwide. Experiencing the pandemic leads to stress in families resulting from fear of infection and social isolation derived from social distancing. For families raising preschoolers, the prolonged closure of childcare centers puts additional childcare burden on family members, especially mothers. Due to the limited research exploring the impact of COVID-19 on preschool children’s problem behaviors, this study examines the association between stress due to COVID-19 and preschool children’s internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors related to mother’s depression and parenting behavior. The study sample included data collected from 316 South Korean mothers raising preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5.
Preschool children with asthma during the Covid-19 pandemic: fewer infections, less wheezing

Zülfikar Akelma; Sema Çetin; Nevzat Başkaya (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Journal of Asthma

A few studies have already investigated preschool children with asthma during the pandemic. The purpose of this research was to investigate how preschool children with asthma were affected by the precautionary measures adopted during the pandemic. Preschool children with asthma aged 18–60 months evaluated in our clinic in March–May 2019, before the Covid-19 pandemic, were included in the study. The lockdown continued during March, April, and May 2020. The questionnaires and asthma symptom control tests for preschool children with asthma in 2019 and 2020 were then evaluated.

Association of regular mealtimes with a balanced diet among Japanese preschool children: a study of lifestyle changes after the spread of COVID-19 infection

Yuki Tada; Yukari Ueda; Kemal Sasaki (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

This study examines whether preschool children who maintained regular mealtimes after the spread of COVID-19 infection have better lifestyle habits, like waking up and sleeping early and a more balanced diet, than those who did not. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,000 individuals who provided meals to preschool children aged 2 to 6 years. The Healthy Diet Score (HDS), on a 40-point scale, was developed to comprehensively assess the dietary balance of preschool children based on their frequency of food intake from 13 food groups. The analysis included data on 1,850 children, excluding those who failed to answer the main questions. The participants were classified into four groups based on their responses regarding the regularity of mealtimes after the spread of COVID-19: ‘regular mealtimes (n = 125),’ ‘originally regular and remains unchanged (n = 1514),’ ‘irregular mealtimes (n = 63),’ and ’originally irregular and remains unchanged (n = 148).’ Multiple regression analysis was conducted with HDS as the dependent variable, and regularity of mealtimes and confounding factors as independent variables.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: Supplement 1 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition | Tags: behavioural change, child health, child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown, preschool children, social distance | Countries: Japan
A cross-sectional investigation of psychosocial stress factors in German families with children aged 0-3 years during the COVID-19 pandemic: initial results of the CoronabaBY study

Catherine Buechel; Ina Nehring; Clara Seifert (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

Psychosocial stress during the COVID-19 pandemic is increasing particularly in parents. Although being specifically vulnerable to negative environmental exposures, research on psychosocial stress factors in infants’ and toddlers’ families during the pandemic is so far sparse. The CoronabaBY study investigates the perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress and parent and child mental health problems in families with children aged 0–3 years in Bavaria, Southern Germany. Further, the relationships between these psychosocial stressors are examined and sociodemographic characteristics that may be predictive of these factors will be explored. Participants were cross-sectionally surveyed via smartphone app. Standardized questionnaires on perceived pandemic burden, parenting stress, parental symptoms of depression and anxiety, infants’ crying, sleeping and feeding problems or toddlers’ emotional and behavioral problems were applied.

An examination of bedtime media and excessive screen time by Canadian preschoolers during the COVID-19 pandemic

C. Fitzpatrick; M. L. Almeida; E. Harvey (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: BMC Pediatrics

Risky media use in terms of accumulating too much time in front of screens and usage before bedtime in early childhood is linked to developmental delays, reduced sleep quality, and unhealthy media use in later childhood and adulthood. For this reason, this study examines patterns of media use in pre-school children and the extent to which child and family characteristics contribute to media use during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study of digital media use by Canadian preschool-aged children (mean age = 3.45, N = 316) was conducted at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic between April and August of 2020. Parents completed a questionnaire and 24-h recall diary in the context of an ongoing study of child digital media.

An analysis of parents' perceptions about using smart gadgets by pre-school students during pandemic-19

Iqra Almas; Muhammad Salman Abbas; Abdul Waheed

This research examines the implementation of technology-based learning, such as the use of android, personal computers, and IPads. The action of this research is the use of digital technology for early childhood on the role of parents during the COVID-19 pandemic. This method was chosen because the researcher wanted to identify the parents' responses through a questionnaire on the use of technology as well as some of the roles of parents towards their children during taking advantage of this technology. That way, the survey method is considered very suitable to be used and in line with the function of survey research, namely to collect and explain opinions or opinions from a group of people (samples) on a particular topic. The number of samples in this study was 385 respondents (parents). The simple random technique is the sampling technique of choice used by researchers in sampling. Location research is Bahawalpur City. This research data was obtained online through the google forms platform. The instrument used is a questionnaire regarding the use of technology through the role of parents. The statements in this research questionnaire are 10 statements. There are five Likert scales used, namely very often (5), often (4), sometimes (3), never (2), and never (1).
Uptake of infant and preschool immunisations in Scotland and England during the COVID-19 pandemic: an observational study of routinely collected data

Fiona McQuaid; Rachel Mulholland; Yuma Sangpang Rai (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Plos Medicine

In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic and lockdown control measures threatened to disrupt routine childhood immunisation programmes with early reports suggesting uptake would fall. In response, public health bodies in Scotland and England collected national data for childhood immunisations on a weekly or monthly basis to allow for rapid analysis of trends. The aim of this study was to use these data to assess the impact of different phases of the pandemic on infant and preschool immunisation uptake rates. This study conducted an observational study using routinely collected data for the year prior to the pandemic (2019) and immediately before (22 January to March 2020), during (23 March to 26 July), and after (27 July to 4 October) the first UK “lockdown”. Data were obtained for Scotland from the Public Health Scotland “COVID19 wider impacts on the health care system” dashboard and for England from ImmForm.

COVID-19: psychological symptoms and coping strategies in preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents

Elisa Delvecchio; Mireia Orgilés; Alexandra Morales (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
The present study aimed to compare psychological symptoms and coping strategies in 1480 preschoolers, schoolchildren, and adolescents during home confinement due to COVID-19. It enrolled parents from Italy, Portugal, and Spain who completed a survey between the second and fourth week of lockdown. The results showed that preschoolers displayed more sleeping difficulties, temper tantrums, and dependency while adolescents' reactions were more related to COVID-19 worries and uncertainty. Schoolchildren showed more difficulty in concentrating. Adolescent girls showed higher anxiety levels than schoolchildren boys.
Socioemotional competencies of Indonesian preschoolers: comparisons between the Pre-Pandemic and pandemic periods and among DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta and West Java Provinces

Sri Indah Pujiastuti; Sofia Hartati; Jun Wangb

Published: January 2022   Journal: Early Education and Development
Despite being the largest archipelago and the fourth populous country in the world, Indonesia has received limited research attention to the socioemotional development of its diverse child populations. As the corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic significantly interrupted the life of individuals and families all over the world, it is also critical time to better understand the status and need of Indonesian young children’s socioemotional development to inform corresponding practices and policies. This study investigated the differences in Indonesian preschoolers’ socioemotional competencies between the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods, as well as across three representative provinces of DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, and West Java.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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