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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 34
Parent–child conflict during homeschooling in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: a key role for mothers' self-efficacy in teaching

AUTHOR(S)
Peter F. de Jong; Bieke G. M. Schreurs; Marjolein Zee

Published: July 2022   Journal: Contemporary Educational Psychology
To contain the COVID-19 pandemic schools have been closed in many countries. Children stayed at home and were assisted by their parents with their schoolwork. Evidently, homeschooling puts extra demands on parents. This research presumed that parents’ sense of efficacy in teaching would play a key role in how they cope with this extra task of homeschooling. In particular, it hypothesized that parental characteristics (level of parental education and stress) and social contextual factors (household chaos and school support) would contribute to parents’ teaching self-efficacy and that, in turn, a lower efficacy would result in more parent–child conflict during home schooling. Participants were 173 mothers of children in kindergarten or early elementary schools, who provided information for one of their children about interpersonal conflicts around schoolwork before and during school closure.
The rate of reading poverty after the COVID-19 pandemic school shutdown and specific intervention strategies for lower primary school pupils in the Southern Province and Western Area of Sierra Leone

AUTHOR(S)
Philip F. Y. Thulla; Samba Moriba; Dickson Adom (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Language Teaching and Research
The study investigates the rate of reading poverty after the COVID-19 pandemic school shutdown and specific intervention strategies for lower primary school pupils in the southern province and western area of Sierra Leone. Randomised experiments of mixed-methods reading interventions for 100 struggling readers in class 5 and 20 English teachers selected from 10 primary schools (5 in the south and 5 in the Western Area) were carried out. The rate of reading poverty and proficiency was first determined in the selected classes using the Access Center method of reading assessment. Two intervention strategies were administered, and the scores for each intervention strategy were measured and compared.
Parenting self-efficacy and time involvement in remote schooling of elementary school children with and without hearing and/or speech disorders

AUTHOR(S)
Koraljka Bakota; Lucija Punjek; Katarina Pavičić Dokoza (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Hrvatska revija za rehabilitacijska istraživanja
During the COVID-19 pandemic, remote schooling was conducted on several occasions in the Republic of Croatia. The aim of this study is to compare the remote schooling experiences of parents of elementary school children with hearing and/or speech and language disorders and those of parents of typically developing children during the COVID-19 pandemic. Parental time involvement and predictors of general parenting self-efficacy were examined using two online surveys based on the same questionnaire. The first survey involved 267 parents of typically developing children, while the second involved 109 parents of children with hearing and/or speech and language disorders. Data were analysed using chi-square tests and hierarchical regression analysis.
Challenges and strategies to enhance quality learning of early childhood education during the Covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study in Secang District, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Alfi Nurfita Chasanah; Yuniasih Purwanti

Published: June 2022   Journal: Salus Cultura
The closure of school activities in Indonesia because of the Covid-19 pandemic brought a spontaneous shift from face-to-face learning to online learning. Early childhood education teachers were challenged to thoughtfully deliver a good quality lesson with the resource limitation due to pandemics. This study directly responds to the challenges and strategies of early childhood teachers to enhance quality learning during the Covid-19 Pandemic. This qualitative study surveyed teachers in the Secang district, one of the rural areas in Indonesia. The study shows that equity concern, digital tools and skills, and decreasing the quality of education were challenges that they experienced during Covid-19 pandemics. Home visits and blended learning were strategies that they used to enhance the learning quality of early childhood education. The paper concluded with implications for stakeholders to elaborate on online teaching and learning and strategies for supporting teachers in the Covid-19 pandemic.
No learning loss in Sweden during the pandemic evidence from primary school reading assessments.

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Eva Hallin; Henrik Danielsson; Thomas Nordstrom (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: International Journal of Educational Research
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to worldwide school closures, with a risk of learning loss. Sweden kept primary schools open, but it is unknown whether student and teacher absence and pandemic-related stress factors affected teaching and student progress negatively. In this study, reading assessment data from 97,073 Swedish primary school students (grades 1-3) were analysed to investigate potential learning loss.
Impact of school closure due to COVID-19 on phonemic awareness of first-grade primary school children

AUTHOR(S)
Kerem Coskun; Cihan Kara

Published: June 2022   Journal: Humanities and Social Sciences Communications
The purpose of the present research was to disclose the impact of school closures due COVID-19 on phonemic awareness of first-grade primary school students. The research sample comprised two cohorts. Cohort-1 consisted of 59 first-grade primary school students, while there were 193 students in Cohort-2. A total of 252 first-grade primary school students were recruited into the research sample. Data were collected with the Phonemic Awareness Test which was specifically designed for the research. Mediation analysis was used for data analysis. Results of the mediation analysis indicated that school closures due to COVID-19 led to significant decreases in phonemic awareness of first-grade primary school students. Results are also discussed along with student–teacher interactions.
Family responsibilities and mental health of kindergarten educators during the first COVID-19 pandemic lockdown in Ontario, Canada.

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Spadafora; Caroline Reid-Westoby; Molly Pottruff (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Teaching and Teacher Education
The present study, conducted during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ontario, Canada, addressed the association between family responsibilities and mental health (depression and anxiety) among kindergarten educators. Participants comprised 1790 (97.9% female) kindergarten educators (73.6% kindergarten teachers; 26.4% early childhood educators) across Ontario.
Primary school reopenings and parental work

AUTHOR(S)
Pierre-Loup Beauregard; Marie Connolly; Catherine Haeck (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Canadian Journal of Economics
This paper exploits the geographical pattern of primary school reopenings during the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada to estimate the impact of school reopenings on parental employment and work hours. It uses a triple-difference approach, in which it first compares parents of primary-school children in regions where schools reopened to similar parents in regions where schools remained closed and add parents of older, secondary-school children as an additional control group. This study estimates the impact of school reopenings separately for mothers and fathers, and for single parents and parents living in dual-parent households.
Physical activity and BMI before and after the situation caused by COVID-19 in upper primary school pupils in the Czech Republic

AUTHOR(S)
Jana Pyšná; Ladislav Pyšný; David Cihláˇr (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Regular physical activity is a very important factor in the healthy development of an individual and an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. However, today’s population still suffers from an insufficient amount of exercise caused mainly by technological progress and often inappropriate conditions for practising sports. In relation to this, we are grappling with a steady increase in obesity. During the COVID-19 pandemic, conditions for regular physical activity became even more unfavourable, with the declaration of a state of emergency and antipandemic measures leading to the closure of sports grounds and sporting competitions. Using a questionnaire survey of a sample of children (n = 1456), this study found that, already before the pandemic, 69% of the observed sample had not met the recommended amount of physical activity, and only 67% of the sample was of normal weight. By comparing both groups after the end of pandemic restrictions, it found statistically significant differences at examined indicators of the children’s Body Mass Index (BMI), their physical activity, and free time spending habits.
The impact of COVID-19-related mitigation measures on the health and fitness status of primary school children in Austria: a longitudinal study with data from 708 children measured before and during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel

Published: March 2022   Journal: Sports
The COVID-19-related closing of schools and sport facilities resulted in major changes to daily routines worldwide. It was the aim of this study to investigate the impact of COVID-19-related mitigation measures on the health and fitness status of primary school children in Austria. Seven hundred and eight primary school children (7–10 years old) participated in the longitudinal study. Data on height, weight, waist circumference, and fitness were collected before (September 2019) and during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic (June 20, September 20, March 21, June 21).
Primary school students’ online learning during Coronavirus disease 2019: factors associated with satisfaction, perceived effectiveness, and preference

AUTHOR(S)
Xiaoxiang Zheng; Dexing Zhang; Elsa Ngar Sze Lau (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Emergency online education has been adopted worldwide due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Prior research regarding online learning predominantly focused on the perception of parents, teachers, and students in tertiary education, while younger children’s perspectives have rarely been examined. This study investigated how family, school, and individual factors would be associated with primary school students’ satisfaction, perceived effectiveness, and preference in online learning during COVID-19. A convenient sample of 781 Hong Kong students completed an anonymous online survey from June to October 2020. Logistic regression was conducted for 13 potential factors.
Online pair-programming: elementary school children learning scratch together online

AUTHOR(S)
Liat Bodaker; Rinat B. Rosenberg-Kima

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
The COVID-19 pandemic raised the need to examine online learning methods also in young children. This study examined elementary school children’s performance and attitudes during and toward an online programming learning activity utilizing the pair-programming Agile method that may foster 21st-century skills, including collaboration and computational thinking. Forty 4th–6th grade children with basic programming knowledge of Scratch were randomly assigned to either a pair-programming or solo-programming condition. Overall, children in both conditions enjoyed the online learning activity and completed it successfully. In particular, pair-programming seemed to entail an extra benefit to girls who generally preferred working in pairs. Nevertheless, children in the pair condition took longer to complete all tasks, perceived the third task, which was completed individually, as more difficult, and were less active when their partner was more competent. Implications for post-COVID-19 learning are discussed.
Remote learning and its effects on the well-being of primary school learners in Germany

AUTHOR(S)
Tobias Schroedler; Drorit Lengyel; Jürgen Budde (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education
This paper presents a study on remote learning of primary school children during the first school closures that were imposed in Germany in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in spring 2020. Data were collected at a primary school covering learners from age 6-12 and include a comprehensive survey amongst parents (n=69) as well as interviews with learners (n=17). Employing a mixed-methods approach, we first analyse the parent-survey’s quantitative dataset. The analyses demonstrate that using modern technology for teaching and for communication between teachers and learners positively impact learners’ motivation and well-being. Multivariate statistics show that teacher-learner contact frequency as well as teaching-learning transparency are predictive towards learner well-being.
Parental support for young learners’ online learning of English in a Chinese primary school

AUTHOR(S)
Jian Tao; Yueting Xu

Published: January 2022   Journal: System
Online language learning is challenging to young learners who often need high levels of support from teachers and parents due to their limited skills in self-regulated learning. While technology integration in education is on the rise, there continues to be a lack of research into how young learners can be better supported in online language learning. This qualitative study examines how parents support young learners' online learning of English during the COVID-19 pandemic, based on interviews with 30 parents of students in Grades 1–5 at a Chinese primary school. The study reveals a range of supportive practices: monitoring of learning emerged as the top priority for parents, followed by affective, academic and technology support. Most of these parental support strategies were mediated primarily by the children's grade level and/or parents' socioeconomic background. Parents also sought teachers' help and played bridging roles to enable teacher-student interaction, particularly when they were unable to provide direct help themselves.
Effectiveness of resilience training on social self-efficacy of the elementary school girls during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Shima Gadari; Jamileh Farokhzadian; Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki

Published: December 2021   Journal: Clinical child psychology and psychiatry
Children, especially girls, are more vulnerable during crises, who need to acquire skills such as social self-efficacy to meet the challenges of the environment. Given that, much progress has been made in e-learning; its capabilities can be used to promote children's health. This study aimed to determine the effect of virtual resilience training on the social self-efficacy of elementary school girls. This experimental study was performed on primary school girls aged 9-10 years in southeastern Iran.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.