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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 42
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical fitness of primary school students in China based on the Bronfenbrenner ecological theory

AUTHOR(S)
Hailing Li; Jadeera Phaik Geok Cheong

Published: July 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
After the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, nation lockdown became an effective way to isolate the spread of the virus. Schools were postponed, students had to stay at home and opportunities for physical activity amongst school children were severely affected. This research sought to determine the impact of the pandemic on the physical fitness of primary school students. In total, 1,235 students from grades one to five in a primary school in Beijing took part in this research. Using the Chinese National Student Physical Fitness Standard as a guide, the students were subjected to BMI, vital capacity, 50 m sprint, sit and reach, timed rope-skipping, timed sit-ups, and 50m × 8 shuttle run measurements. These tests were administered once before and once after the lockdown period.
Children's experiences of death anxiety and responses to the Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
K. Jones; Ben Hughes

Published: June 2022   Journal: Illness, Crisis & Loss
The aim of this study was to explore children's experience and responses to the Covid-19 pandemic through their illustrations and short narrations. During October 2020 and January 2021 data was collected from thirteen children aged 9–10 years old in a primary school in the North-West of England. Children were asked to draw their thoughts and feelings about the pandemic and to write a short narration to accompany the drawing. Thematic analysis of data revealed that during the pandemic children at this age have an understanding of death, experience death anxiety and are able to use creative expression to facilitate meaning of the impact of lockdown on their lives such as feeling isolated, lonely, sad and bored. Creative expression also facilitated adaptive coping mechanisms derived from being able to spend more time with family. The data on primary school children is part of a larger study which involved surveys and interviews with children aged 12–16 years in secondary schools.
Teachers' perceptions on the literacy skills of 5th Grade primary school students during Covid-19 pandemic in Mandailing Natal Regency

AUTHOR(S)
Suadi Suadi; Rahmi Seri Hanida; Parulian Siregar

Published: June 2022   Journal: Jurnal Kependidikan
This study aims to discover the literacy skills of 5th grade primary school students during covid-19 outbreak in Mandailing Natal Regency based on teachers’ perceptions. Descriptive qualitative approach was applied with a simple quantitative support in form of percentages. The respondents in this study were 23 primary school teachers of fifth year class from 23 different primary schools located in 23 districs in Mandailing Natal Regency. To obtain the data, a semi structured interview was conducted adapted from four literacy skills consisting of listening, speaking, reading and writing. The obtained data subsequently were analyzed by thematic analysis based on specific separated themes.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 8 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 397-406 | Language: English | Topics: Education | Tags: child education, COVID-19 response, lockdown, primary schools, remote learning, school attendance, social distance, teachers | Countries: Indonesia
Implementation of a coordinated approach to child health program at a rural elementary school during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Melissa Perian; Marcia Cooke; Henna Muzaffar (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Current Developments in Nutrition

A Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH) is an evidence-based school health program focusing on increasing healthy eating and physical activity and reducing screen time. This project aimed to determine if CATCH program will have significant effects on self-rated knowledge, habits of physical activity, healthy eating (fruit and vegetable consumption), and screen time among 3rd and 5th-grade students at a rural elementary school during the 2020–2021 school year. To evaluate this 4-month project, a pre- and post-intervention School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey was distributed to 51 3rd and 5th-grade students. The program included six 30-minute education sessions specific to grade level and healthy snacks including fruits and vegetables. A family fun event (virtual 2K walk/run due to COVID-19) was organized. Prizes (i.e., water bottles, jump ropes) were given to students for participating in the family fun event and at Track and Field day to encourage healthy behavior.

Change in BMI and fitness among primary school children in Austria: a 24-month follow-up study of 303 children measured before and during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Gerald Jarnig; Reinhold Kerbl; Mireille N. M. van Poppel (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Sports
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic not only impacted the health of school children directly through SARS-CoV-2 infections, but the associated closures of schools and sports facilities also resulted in long-term negative side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19-related mitigation measures on the health and fitness status of primary school children in Austria. A total of 303 primary school children participated in the longitudinal study. Data on height, weight, and fitness were collected before the COVID-19 pandemic (September 2019) and at one-year intervals (September 2020 and September 2021) during the course of the pandemic.
The impact of the corona virus 2019 on education: Challenges related to distance learning for children of the preparatory classes (5–6 year-olds)

AUTHOR(S)
Gentiana Shahini; Tringa Azizi

Published: May 2022   Journal: Policy Futures in Education
The implementation of preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19 in Kosovo resulted in the closure of educational institutions for all levels of education. The transitioning process from face-to-face to virtual or online classes’ format was also coordinated for pre-school children, enabling their development at home. The research aims to shed light on the problems, needs, and difficulties the children of preparatory classes, their parents, and teachers face since the implementation of distance learning measures. For completing this survey, a qualitative research design was used. The empirical research was carried out through discussion in focus groups and semi-structured interviews.
Estimated transmission outcomes and costs of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing, screening, and surveillance strategies among a simulated population of primary school students.

AUTHOR(S)
Alyssa Bilinski; Andrea Ciaranello; Meagan C. Fitzpatrick (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Pediatrics

Costs and benefits of COVID-19 testing strategies were evaluated in the context of full-time, in-person kindergarten through eighth grade (K-8) education at different community incidence levels. An updated version of a previously published agent-based network model was used to simulate transmission in elementary and middle school communities in the United States. Assuming dominance of the delta SARS-CoV-2 variant, the model simulated an elementary school (638 students in grades K-5, 60 staff) and middle school (460 students grades 6-8, 51 staff).

Physical education on the beach: an alternative way to improve primary school children’s skill- and health-related outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Chiara Gallotta; Giovanna Zimatore; Ludovica Cardinali (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
The COVID-19 restrictions could preclude children from participating in physical education (PE) interventions. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a PE intervention conducted on the beach on children’s skill- and health-related outcomes, as a possible alternative PE intervention that could be also applied during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study involved 106 primary school children, randomly assigned to the traditional indoor (TI) intervention or to the experimental outdoor (EO) intervention. The intervention period lasted 4 months and consisted of two 1-h sessions per week. Intervention was conducted just before the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Learning in a pandemic: primary school children’s emotional engagement with remote schooling during the spring 2020 Covid-19 lockdown in Ireland

AUTHOR(S)
Yekaterina Chzhen; Jennifer Symonds; Dympna Devine (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Child Indicators Research
The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the greatest disruption to children’s schooling in generations. This study analyses primary school children’s emotional engagement with remote schooling during the Spring 2020 lockdown in the Republic of Ireland, which involved one of the longest school closures among rich countries at the time. It investigates whether children’s engagement with their remote schooling varied by personal and family characteristics, using data from the Children’s School Lives (CSL) surveys. CSL is a nationally representative study of primary schools in Ireland, which collected information from children aged 8–9 years in May – August 2019 and in May – July 2020. Linear regression estimates with school fixed effects are based on the analytic sample of nearly 400 children (from across 71 schools) who took part in both waves and have complete data on all the key variables.
Playful learning during the reopening of Danish schools after Covid 19 closures

AUTHOR(S)
A. Qvortrup; R. Lomholt; V. Christensen (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research
This article is based on qualitative and quantitative data collected from teachers and pupils in Danish schools in June 2020, as schools reopened following closures in the spring due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It investigates the transformations in school life that took place in this period in response to strict official guidelines to prevent the spread of infection, transformations both in school learning environments and in teaching activities. Using factor and cluster analyses and logistic regression, it explores the relation between teaching environment and pupils’ emotional, social, and academic wellbeing, identifying correlations between key factors in the environment and the three dimensions of wellbeing. The study contributes both to understanding and dealing with the crisis in which education systems in the Nordic countries have found themselves in and adds relevant knowledge on themes of importance for education in the future.
Adaptive school grounds design in response to COVID-19: Findings from six primary schools in South East England

AUTHOR(S)
Alison Quinn; Alessio Russo

Published: February 2022   Journal: Building and Environment
The purpose of this research is to look at how primary schools in England have adapted their outdoor spaces in the context of COVID-19 rules and guidelines to meet the needs of students returning from school closures and national lockdown of Spring/Summer 2020, how that impacted play and learning value of their grounds, and to consider how these findings might inform future school grounds design. Thus, this study used a mixed-method approach that included qualitative interviews with representatives from six primary schools (three in rural and three in urban areas), quantitative desk research, and in-person site surveys. It used literature-based scoring criteria to quantify changes in the playground before and after the implementation of COVID-19 measures.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on affect, fear, and personality of primary school children measured during the second wave of infections in 2020

AUTHOR(S)
Alessio Matiz; Franco Fabbro; Andrea Paschetto (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry
In relation to the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak, a large body of research has identified a negative impact on individuals' affectivity, frequently documented by increased prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. For children, this research was less extensive, was mainly based on caregivers' reports and neglected personality assessment. In order to measure the impact of the pandemic, and the fears it caused, on primary school children's affect and personality, 323 (180 boys and 143 girls) Italian third, fourth and fifth graders were assessed between October and November 2020, namely during the second wave of COVID-19 infections in Italy, with validated self-reports of affect (Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children, PANAS-C), fear of COVID-19 (Fear of COVID-19 Scale, FCV-19S) and personality (junior Temperament and Character Inventory, jTCI). In comparison with PANAS-C and jTCI normative scores collected prior to the pandemic, data obtained from children in 2020 showed unchanged affect scores in the overall sample, a decrease of Positive Affect in girls, and a decrease in the Harm Avoidance and an increase in the Self-Transcendence scales of personality.
The impact of COVID-19 on physical activity behaviour in Italian primary school children: a comparison before and during pandemic considering gender differences

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Dallolio; Sofia Marini; Alice Masini (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

The World Health Organization stated an average of 60 min of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) that children should accumulate every day. Nevertheless physical inactivity is growing and, due to restrictions imposed during pandemic, PA levels of children might be more negatively affected. The study aimed to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the PA of an Italian sample of primary school children by comparing it before and during COVID-19 considering gender differences. A pre-post analysis (October 2019–January 2021) was conducted using a randomized sample (N = 77) from the I-MOVE study settled in an Italian primary school. Both objective (Actigraph accelerometers) and self-reported (PAQ-c questionnaires) assessments of PA were performed. Changes were compared using T-Student and Chi-Square test. Gender differences were calculated using Anova.

Physical activity, food consumption, and breakfast among normal and overweight elementary school children in Bogor during Covid-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Dini Rizkiani Putri; Cesilia Meti Dwiriani; Dodik Briawan

Published: November 2021   Journal: Jurnal Gizi dan Pangan
The objective of this study was to analyze differences in physical activity, quality of food consumption and breakfast between elementary school children with normal and overweight nutritional status in Bogor City of Indonesia during the Covid-19 pandemic. This was a cross sectional study carried out from September 2020 to January 2021 in nine elementary schools in Bogor City. This research was conducted when school from home had been running for about six months. Survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire filled by the subject's parents via google form and Microsoft word and then interviewing via whatsapp. Physical activity measured using the Physical Activity Level (PAL) method and food consumption quality using the Individual Dietary Diversity Score (IDDS). Breakfast quality based on the intake and contribution of energy and protein at breakfast.
Fostering “parental participation in schooling”: primary school teachers’ insights from the COVID-19 school closures

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Spear; John Parkin; Tommy van Steen (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Educational Review
The COVID-19 school closures presented an unprecedented challenge to primary education on a global scale, with teachers, parents, and children having to rapidly adjust to a remote learning environment, and with concerns that this would exacerbate educational inequalities. Parental engagement has been widely acknowledged to have a positive impact on children’s academic achievement, and previous studies have found that efforts by schools to foster parental engagement can help close the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged pupils. This study therefore sought to explore how teachers perceived parental engagement during the school closures, and how they fostered this in a remote learning environment. This research involved an exploratory mixed methods study with primary educators in England, with an online survey (n = 271) and semi-structured interviews (n = 24) in June and July 2020, after the first school closures in England, and then again after the second closures in April 2021 (n = 14).
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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.