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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 664
An investigation of anxiety and depression among Chinese primary school students after the resumption of school post-COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yiqing He; Yuanrong Li

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies
This study used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) and 9 Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to investigate the anxiety and depression of 1366 primary school students in Shenzhen after the resumption of school. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, many parents began wondering whether months of isolation, a lack of organized school education, and potential loss of relatives would have a long-term impact on their children’s mental health. The results of this study indicate that the rates of anxiety and depression among primary school students are indeed higher than before COVID-19, including the detection rate of anxiety and depression comorbidity, which has reached 11.7%.
Studying at home: experience of parents and their young children in an underdeveloped area of Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Beatriks Novianti Bunga; R. Pasifikus Christa Wijaya; Indra Yohanes Kiling (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Research in Childhood Education
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused school closures around the world, requiring home-based learning for millions of students. The transition into home-based learning might decrease young children’s access to quality education, especially in underdeveloped areas like East Nusa Tenggara in Indonesia. This study aimed to explore how mothers and young children experience studying at home in an underdeveloped area. Data were gathered using the photovoice method. The participants of the study were 12 mothers of children younger than 8 years old. For seven days, participants used their phone cameras to take photos related to their experience of studying at home. Thematic analysis identified two main themes: the learning media for studying at home and challenges of studying at home. The first theme focuses several learning media, including digital and non-digital media, used by participants and their young children during the pandemic. The second theme focuses on issues faced by participants in studying at home, including time-management, disruption in routines, and lack of social interaction. Home-based learning can be improved using the findings of this study.
He’s working from home and I’m at home trying to work: experiences of childcare and the work–family balance among mothers during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sara Martucci

Published: October 2021
This article captures mothers’ experiences of the work–family balance and division of household labor during the initial COVID-19 lockdown. Interviews were conducted with twenty-five academics and twenty professionals in other fields. Mothers who split childcare with their partners had a more positive experience of the work–family balance during lockdown, compared with mothers who did the majority of the childcare. The present study adds a new wrinkle into the literature on flexibility and work–family balance: the perception of flexibility and its impact on the division of labor. Academic mothers, who had always had highly “flexible” jobs, were less likely to split childcare with their partners pre-pandemic and thus less likely to have positive experiences of work–family balance during the Spring 2020 lockdown. I argue that perceived flexibility of a partner’s job affected allocation of childcare during the initial stages of the pandemic, a moment that wreaked significant harm on women’s careers.
COVID-19 and digital primary education: impact and strategies for sustainable development

AUTHOR(S)
Sudarshan Maity; Tarak Nath Sahu; Nabanita Sen

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Development Policy and Practice
The present study is based on primary data of 720 students from primary schools in West Bengal, India. With adherence to the Logistic Regression Model, the study investigates and analyses the factors that influence digital learning of primary students during the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Further with the application of Welch’s t-test, comparative study have been conducted based on parameters as village and city school students, private and government school students and gender discrimination. The findings conclude that the school structure; willingness of the school and teachers to conduct virtual classes; availability and accessibility of high-speed internet and economic capability of parents to bear the exorbitant internet charges are significant dimensions in virtual learning of primary section students. The study also confirms that during the pandemic girl students and students from village government schools are the worst hit in comparison to boys who are from city-based schools and private schools respectively.
Characteristics of pandemic work–life balance in Slovenian military families during the lockdown: who has paid the highest price?

AUTHOR(S)
Janja Vuga Beršnak; Živa Humer; Bojana Lobe (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Sociology
In April 2020, a survey was conducted among Slovenian military families, being one of the first surveys to be carried out in the country after the outbreak of the pandemic. The military was labeled a crucial institution in the efforts to combat the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was appointed to various activities, leading to a considerable increase in its workload. The burden of care and unpaid work at that time also intensified, becoming shifted onto the military family, particularly civilian female spouses. The survey’s purpose was to measure how military families evaluated their success in balancing between working from home, household work, childcare, and home schooling during the pandemic lockdown. The risk factors were observed on the micro (i.e., lack of extended family support, institutional childcare, and school lockdown) and macro (i.e., military support, national support measures) social levels. The analysis reveals that when it comes to military families the greatest price has been paid by female civilian spouses. The number of children and their age influence parents’ self-evaluation of their success with work–life balance. The results show that big families and families with primary school children have been struggling the most during the lockdown. Surprisingly, dual-serving families felt the most successful.
Remote learning experience for children with developmental disabilities during COVID-19 pandemic in an ethnically diverse community

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Valicenti-McDermott; Molly O’Neil; Amy Morales-Lara (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Child Neurology
Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic, K-12 education in New York City quickly transitioned to remote learning. This is a structured interview with 50 consecutive families of children with developmental disabilities about their experience with remote learning 2 months after COVID-19 lockdown. It observed that setting up the remote learning system was challenging for families who were born outside of the United States, spoke limited English, or had a lower level of education. Though some special education supports were in place, remote learning for children with developmental disabilities led to gaps in their therapeutic services. Children with more severe developmental disabilities joined less than 2 hours of remote learning per day and had a decrease in their therapeutic services. Most children (80%) relied on their parents for education. Additionally, for low-income communities, with families who spoke languages other than English, remote learning revealed a new barrier to access: technology.
Sleep during COVID-19-related school lockdown, a longitudinal study among high school students

AUTHOR(S)
Ingvild West Saxvig; Ståle Pallesen; Børge Sivertsen (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Sleep Research
There has been great concern about the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related school lockdown on adolescent health. The aim of the present study was to compare sleep patterns before and during COVID-19-related school lockdown, in a large sample of high school students. The present study is based a prospective, longitudinal survey on adolescent sleep health. Phase 1 was conducted in 2019, whereas phase 2 was conducted in 2020 (response rate 60.2%), during the last 10 days of a 60-day long school lockdown. Main outcomes comprised sleep parameters from the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ). A total of 2,022 students provided valid responses to MCTQ in both survey phases.
COVID-19 school closures and cumulative disadvantage: assessing the learning gap in formal, informal and non-formal education

AUTHOR(S)
Sheila González; Xavier Bonal

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
Reducing physical contact has been the most common strategy adopted by governments to reduce the spread of the COVID-19 disease. It has led most countries to close their schools. Previous evidence on the effects of teacher strikes, summer holidays, armed conflicts or any other cause of school closure on learning suggest that the effects of COVID-19 will be highly significant for some and will vary depending on students' previous performance, family characteristics, age or education track, among other factors. Recent evidence shows that learning losses during school closures have been widespread and especially intense among the more disadvantaged students. In this article we evaluate the magnitude of the gap regarding opportunities to learn in formal, informal and non-formal education between families depending on their cultural and economic capital. An online survey (n = 35,937) was carried out during the second week of the confinement (March 2020) in Catalonia. The survey targeted families with children between three and eighteen years. The responses show remarkable social inequalities in opportunities to learn. In this article, we describe the magnitude of the learning gap between social groups and explore which are the most significant factors that explain educational inequalities.
Insecurity, lack of support, and frustration: a sociological analysis of how three groups of students reflect on their distance education during the pandemic in Sweden

AUTHOR(S)
Ida Lidegran; Elisabeth Hultqvist; Emil Bertilsson (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
This article investigates the situation of Swedish upper secondary school students who have been subject to distance education during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. It understands the transition from onsite education to distance education as a recontextualization of pedagogical practice, its framing follows loosely concepts from Bernstein. Given that the field of upper secondary education is highly socially structured it is relevant to enquire into the social dimensions of distance education. For this purpose, the study analysed answers to an open-ended question in a survey answered by 3,726 students, and related them to a cluster analysis distinguishing three main clusters of students: urban upper-middle-class, immigrant working-class, and rural working-class.
School closures in France in 2020: Inequalities and consequences for perceptions, practices and relationships towards and within schools

AUTHOR(S)
Filippo Pirone

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
The French education system is known for its inequalities, as well as difficulties in relations between teachers, pupils and their families. But what happens when schools close their gates and begin teaching remotely? To support a sociological discussion of quantitative (N = 5,875) and qualitative (N = 20) data collected with the participation of French teachers during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, this article illustrates how the period of distance teaching was handled and the consequences for perceptions, practices and relations between teachers, pupils and families. The results from our survey show that, although educational inequalities increased during the period of school closures, it nonetheless enabled a good number of school stakeholders to reaffirm their commitment to learning and teaching and to strengthen social connections.
Association of children’s physical activity and screen time with mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Pooja S. Tandon; Chuan Zhou; Ashleigh M. Johnson

Published: October 2021   Journal: JAMA Network Open

Children’s physical activity and screen time are likely suboptimal during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may influence their current and future mental health. To describe the association of physical activity and screen time with mental health among US children during the pandemic. This cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 22 to November 2, 2020, among 547 parents of children aged 6 to 10 years and 535 parent-child dyads with children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) aged 11 to 17 years and matched down to 500 children per cohort using US Census–based sampling frames. Children aged 11 to 17 years self-reported physical activity, screen time, and mental health, and their parents reported other measures. Parents of children aged 6 to 10 years reported all measures. All 1000 cases were further weighted to a sampling frame corresponding to US parents with children aged 6 to 17 years using propensity scores.

Brief report: feasibility and acceptability of a remote-based nutrition education program for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: a COVID-19 pilot study

AUTHOR(S)
Riley H. Shurack; Jeanette M. Garcia; Keith Brazendale (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
This paper aims to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a remote-based nutrition education program during COVID-19 for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Ten adolescents with ASD participated in a 4-week nutrition education program utilizing Zoom software during COVID-19. Topics included shopping for healthy food, and food preparation safety measures. Attendance was collected for each session. Participants, parents, and the classroom teacher completed post-program surveys and interviews. The course attendance rate was 97%. Every adolescent reported they would participate in similar future programs, and the teacher/parents felt the program was a positive experience for the participants. The remote-based nutrition education program appeared to be feasible and acceptable to participants. Future research should focus on program efficacy.
Physical and mental health impact of COVID-19 on children, adolescents, and their families: The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times - Children and Adolescents (COH-FIT-C&A)

AUTHOR(S)
Marco Solmi; Christoph U. Correll

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Affective Disorders

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered daily routines and family functioning, led to closing schools, and dramatically limited social interactions worldwide. Measuring its impact on mental health of vulnerable children and adolescents is crucial. The Collaborative Outcome study on Health and Functioning during Infection Times (COH-FIT – www.coh-fit.com) is an on-line anonymous survey, available in 30 languages, involving >220 investigators from 49 countries supported by national/international professional associations. COH-FIT has thee waves (until the pandemic is declared over by the WHO, and 6-18 months plus 24-36 months after its end). In addition to adults, COH-FIT also includes adolescents (age 14-17 years), and children (age 6-13 years), recruited via non-probability/snowball and representative sampling and assessed via self-rating and parental rating.

Primary school mathematics during the COVID-19 pandemic: no evidence of learning gaps in adaptive practicing results

AUTHOR(S)
Martijn Meeter

Published: October 2021   Journal: Trends in Neuroscience and Education

The COVID-19 pandemic induced many governments to close schools for months. Evidence so far suggests that learning has suffered as a result. Here, it is investigated whether forms of computer-assisted learning mitigated the decrements in learning observed during the lockdown. Performance of 53,656 primary school students who used adaptive practicing software for mathematics was compared to performance of similar students in the preceding year.

A telehealth intervention for ensuring continuity of care of pediatric obesity during the CoVid-19 lockdown in Italy

AUTHOR(S)
Pierluigi Pecoraro; Francesca Gallè; Espedita Muscariello (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Restriction measures adopted during the Coronavirus Disease-19 pandemic favored unhealthy behaviors. Tele-health offered the opportunity to pursue alternative ways of chronic diseases management. This retrospective study sought to determine the effects of a telehealth counselling intervention during the lockdown to children and adolescents with obesity previously engaged in a family-based secondary care program in an outpatient clinic of South Italy.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.