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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 739
Parental perceptions of learning loss during COVID-19 school closures in 2020

Charlotte Booth; Aase Villadsen; Alissa Goodman (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: British Journal of Educational Studies
Schools across the UK were mostly closed from March to July 2020 due to Covid-19. Therefore, parents and children found themselves thrust into a prolonged period of home-schooling. In this study, parents (N = 2,122) reported on their children’s (N = 3,230) home-schooling experiences and its impacts on their children’s academic progress. Parental reports suggest that children spent around 3 hours each weekday doing schoolwork at home. Children enrolled in private secondary schools received 4 hours of virtual lessons each weekday from teachers, while state school children received just 1 hour. Parents, on the whole, reported concern for children’s academic progress. This is particularly so for children in secondary school and, most strikingly, those in school years antecedent to final exams (Years 10 and 12). Parents were less concerned about academic progress for those in Years 11 and 13, who had received their final exam grades shortly before the time of the survey. This study highlights the fact that children have been unequally affected by Covid-19 school closures, depending on their year group and school type, which should be considered in future research and policy.
Coproduction and satisfaction with online schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic: evidence from European countries

Lorenzo Cicatiello; Elina De Simone; Marcella D’Uva (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Public Management Review
This paper investigates the effect of parents’ coproduction in online schooling on satisfaction with educational services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using European cross country microdata from the 2020 Eurofound survey, it reveals that parents’ involvement in home schooling is strongly correlated with their satisfaction with educational services. These results contribute to the on-going debate regarding the importance of citizens’ involvement in service delivery during the pandemic, and, in particular, on the related effects in terms of subjective satisfaction.
Primary-school aged children’s understanding and experiences of loneliness: a qualitative enquiry

Aimée Robyn Cole; Caroline Bond; Pamela Qualter

Published: October 2021   Journal: Pastoral Care in Education
Loneliness in childhood and adolescence is currently measured using questionnaires and checklists. The most used questionnaires for youth are psychometrically limited, partly due to the absence of the young person’s voice from the measurement development process. Given this gap in the literature, the current study explored primary-school aged children’s understanding and experiences of loneliness, providing new information about the experience of loneliness in childhood to better inform conceptualisation and measurement of loneliness in children. Interviews took place during the COVID pandemic and were conducted with six Year 4 and 5 children (aged 8–10 years) and analysed using hybrid thematic analysis. Findings fit with existing conceptualisations of social and emotional loneliness and provide novel perspectives on solutions, the importance of play, and children’s perceptions of the adult experience. Directions for future research, and the impact after COVID are discussed.
Helpful or harmful? the role of personality traits in student experiences of the COVID-19 crisis and school closure

Kaat Iterbeke; Kristof De Witte

Published: October 2021   Journal: Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Little is known about the individual differences in student experiences and expectations of the COVID-19 crisis and the resulting school closures. Yet, as the crisis may have uniquely impacted students, knowledge about their personalities is highly relevant. In a sample of 347 Flemish students, this study explored the association between personality traits and differences in responses to the crisis. The Big Five personality traits of students were assessed in January 2020, prior to the COVID-19 outbreak. Students were reassessed in June 2020 with a set of items related to well-being, remote learning, and family and social life. The results suggested that more conscientious students (showing a better perception of remote learning) and more open students (considering the period as an opportunity to learn new skills) adjusted well to the changes induced by the crisis. On the contrary, students high in neuroticism (showing higher stress levels) were harmed.
COVID-19 resulted in lower grades for male high school students and students with ADHD

Rosanna Breaux; Nicholas C. Dunn; Joshua M. Langberg (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Attention Disorders

Researchers have speculated that the COVID-19 pandemic may expand the academic performance gap experienced by at-risk students. We examined learning experiences during the 2020 to 2021 school year and the impact the pandemic has had on high school student grade point average (GPA), including predictors of change in GPA from 2019–2020 to 2020–2021. Participants were 238 adolescents (55.5% male), 49.6% with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), in the United States. Adolescents reported on their GPAs via online surveys.

Humour and TikTok memes during the 2020 pandemic lockdown: tensions of gender and care faced by Chinese mothers working from home

Xiao Han; Giselinde Kuipers

Published: October 2021   Journal: China Information
This article examines a humorous meme that emerged on Chinese TikTok during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. Using #workfromhomewithchildcare, Chinese working mothers shared humorous clips of their experience of working from home with their children who were also at home during the pandemic lockdown. By analysing the themes, protagonists, and humour techniques of a sample of 85 videos, we ask why the mood of these clips is so strongly marked by humour, and what this tells us about contemporary Chinese society, particularly about the position of women and mothers. This study shows that these memetic clips consist of three distinct genres of mothers working from home: (1) ‘balancing mothers’ who balance between work and childcare, (2) ‘pedagogic mothers’ who give childcare tips, and (3) ‘commercially oriented’ mothers who offer tutorials by means of product placement and advertisement. While these memes express what Mary Douglas called ‘a joke in the social structure’ without offering either relief or critique, they do create an online joking culture that offers temporary relief as well as awareness that others are in the same position.
Parental support, learning performance, and socioemotional development of children and teenagers during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bhoj B. Balayar; Michael R. Langlais

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
In spring and fall 2020, most schools across the globe closed due to the ongoing threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. Online and remote learning (ORL) modalities were implemented to continue children’s education and development. Yet, the change in educational delivery increased parental responsibilities in cultivating their children. This study examined the determinants related to students’ learning performance before and during the COVID-19 period in association with psychosocial behaviors (such as socialization, internalizing and externalizing behavior, and motivation) and other factors, including parents’ support received, the teaching modality, and access to digital resources. The current study included 80 parents of elementary and middle school children who completed an online survey.
Children and adolescents’ lived experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic

Jacqueline M. Swank; Jo Lauren Weaver; Alena Prikhidko (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Family Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic affected people across the life span, including children and adolescents. This study focuses on exploring the lived experiences of children and adolescents in the United States during the pandemic. 12 children and adolescents have been interviewed in April 2020 and four themes were identified: (a) change in school environment, (b) connection, (c) creative celebrations, and (d) hope. Limitations, recommendations for future research, and implications for counseling are discussed.
Education and digital inequalities during COVID-19 confinement: from the perspective of teachers in the French speaking community of Belgium

Natacha Duroisin; Romain Beauset; Chloé Tanghe

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
To curb the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the federal government and the federated entities of Belgium suspended all face-to-face learning starting 14 March, 2020. A continuity of learning was to be ensured by teachers through distance-learning. However, teaching during the confinement period was complicated for teachers: the respect for policies and rules differs from one teacher to another and there has been a lack of follow-up on online learning for some learners. The purpose of this article is to contribute to initial responses to the vast question of educational inequalities created and exacerbated during the crisis. More particularly, this article provides a situational analysis of some potential causes for inequalities in primary and secondary schools and identifies differences between the two education levels.
Families between care, education and work: the effects of the pandemic on educational inequalities in Italy and Milan

Marta Cordini; Gianluca De Angelis

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
Italy was the first Western country affected by the pandemic. The school closures that followed lasted for a full school semester, including final exams. Italy is already known as a country with a high degree of educational inequality, where reproduction of social disadvantages by social origins is prominent. In such a situation, this study hypothesises that a prolonged lockdown and the consequent reliance on remote education have played an important role in exacerbating existing inequalities. Families were forced to take on the full responsibility of educating their children, which has reinforced the role of household resources. The analysis presented in this article draws on results from an online survey of the effects of school closures on educational practices, the analysis focused on responses from parents of primary school students.
The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in primary schools in the Czech Republic: parental perspectives

Irena Smetackova; Stanislav Stech

Published: October 2021   Journal: European Journal of Education
The article presents results of a survey among parents of primary-school pupils, in which they commented on education during school closures due to the COVID-19 disease pandemic in the spring of 2020. The questionnaire mapped family arrangements, parents' competencies, parenting practices concerning learning, and communication with the school. It was administered to more than 2,500 respondents at the end of the period of school closures (May–June 2020). The analysis focused on the question of whether the parents of pupils in primary schools assessed the home-based distance learning as well handled and whether they felt concerned about their child's future school results.
Disrupted education trajectories: exploring the effects of Covid-19 on adolescent learning and priorities for “building back better” education systems in Ethiopia

Nicola Jones; Megan Devonald; Rebecca Dutton (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Development Policy Review

The Covid-19 pandemic delivered an unprecedented shock to education systems globally, with school closures affecting 1.6 billion children. Education systems in LMICs are facing significant budget cuts further constraining capacities to adapt to Covid-19 impacts. The need for evidence to inform policy dialogues about how best to mitigate impacts and support education systems to “build back better” is pressing. In Ethiopia, schools reopened in October 2020 after a 7-month pandemic-related closure. Employing an adapted resilience systems analysis framework, this article focuses on the extent to which Ethiopia’s education system—which has in recent decades seen rapid progress in enrolment rates—has adapted to the impacts of the pandemic on adolescents’ education and learning, and has achieved this equitably.

Online learning performances of children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic

Shan He; Lan Shuai; Zhouye Wang (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Inquiry : The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing
This study aims to investigate attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) core symptoms that impair executive function (EF), emotional state, learning motivation, and the family and parenting environment of children and adolescents with ADHD, both with and without severe difficulties. This will be explored within an online learning environment during the period of COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 183 ADHD children diagnosed using DSM-V criteria were selected and divided into 2 groups high difficulties during online learning (HDOL) and low difficulties during online learning (LDOL) according to the answer of Home Quarantine Investigation of the Pandemic (HQIP). The participants filled out a set of questionnaires to assess their emotional state and learning motivation, and their parents also filled out the questionnaires about ADHD core symptoms, EF, and family and parenting environment.
School connectedness still matters: the association of school connectedness and mental health during remote learning due to COVID-19

Kesha N. Perkins; Katie Carey; Emma Lincoln (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: The Journal of Primary Prevention volume
School connectedness is consistently associated with adolescent mental health and well-being. This study investigated whether student perceptions of school connectedness were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, even during remote learning due to COVID-19. In June of 2020, after 13 weeks of remote learning, 320 middle and high school students in one Massachusetts school district completed an online survey that included questions about their perceptions of school connectedness, social connectedness, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Students were approximately evenly distributed across grades, with 37% in middle school (grades 6–8) and 63% in high school (grades 9–12). School connectedness had a significant negative association with symptoms of anxiety and depression. This association persisted in models controlling for demographic factors and social connectedness.
Understanding risks of refractive error among Chinese children amidst pandemic disruptions: results from a rapid survey

Ji Liu; Qiaoyi Chen; Jingxia Dang

Published: October 2021   Journal: BMC Ophthalmology

Despite effectiveness in delaying the spread of the pandemic, frequent and extended disruption to children’s livelihoods have fomented new norms in which learning routines encounter immense change. In particular, increased sedentary e-learning engagement with electronic screens and exposure to stressful circumstances are likely to pose adverse risks for children’s vision development. This present study examines the link between near-sighted refractive error, and sedentary exposure to electronic screens, psychosocial stress level, and outdoor activities. A Rapid Survey Methodology (RSM) design was utilized to collect information on subject’s vision condition, sedentary electronic screen use, and level of psychosocial stress, in addition to detailed socio-demographic background characteristics.

31 - 45 of 739

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.