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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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676 - 690 of 1096
Psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools after the COVID-19 pandemic: a national cross-sectional study in China

Lin Wang; Yiwen Zhang; Li Chen (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Translational Psychiatry volume
This study aims to explore the psychosocial and behavioral problems of children and adolescents in the early stage of reopening schools. In this national cross-sectional study, a total of 11072 students from China were naturally divided into two groups based on their schooling status: reopened schools (RS) and home schooling (HS) group. The psychosocial and behavioral functioning were measured by Achenbach Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) and compared in these two groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the independent predictors associated with the psychosocial and behavioral problems.
Recovering lost learning: what can be done quickly and at scale?
Institution: UNESCO
Published: June 2021

Students around the world have lost substantial instructional time owing to abrupt school closures since theoutbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. According to UNESCO monitoring, in 2020, school buildings werecompletely closed for an average of 15 weeks (4  months) worldwide (UNESCO, 2021a). Counting partialclosures, schools were shut on average for 26 weeks (6.5 months) worldwide, equivalent to almost two-thirds of a typical school year. In response, education systems have deployed remote and hybrid learning modalities to ensure continuity of learning. These efforts have yielded mixed results, with varying degrees of improvement and reduction in inequalities in student learning depending on the modalities and implementation methods of the different education programmes. As a result, almost all students needsome catch-up learning, compelling education systems to deploy and scale up targeted interventions quicklyto help pupils bridge their learning gaps and improve learning.This paper draws key messages to help policy and practice to mitigate the disruptive effects of the COVID-19 crisis on student learning. It addresses the growing concerns of both policy and decision-makers aboutstudents’ disengagement from – or loss of – learning owing to the pandemic, as   reflected in low levels of achievement at   checkpoints compared to expected learning levels, reduced rates of completion and/orgrowing disparities in learners' achievement. If policy-makers do not react quickly by providing additionaland relevant support to address students’ learning needs, especially those from marginalized groups,millions of children and youth may not return to the classroom, and may eventually drop out of school.


Ready to start school, learn and work: evidence from three education programmes for out-of-school children and adolescents in Bangladesh

Marco Valenza; Cirenia Chávez; Annika Rigole (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: June 2021
Children in the Sylhet division, in the Northeast of Bangladesh, face complex challenges in accessing quality education, at all school levels. The region ranks among the poorest performers in learning attainment across education levels. UNICEF Bangladesh and its partners have leveraged resources from the Let Us Learn (LUL) initiative to deliver three alternative learning pathways for out-of-school children and adolescents in remote areas of Sylhet. The three pathways cover key transition points in a child’s education: Getting ready to start school (Pre-Primary Education programme), learning foundational skills (A​bility-B​ased Accelerated Learning programme) and entering the job market (Alternative Learning Pathway programme). This report presents evidence on the achievements of the three programmes, highlighting key policy recommendations. The findings draw on analysis of programme monitoring data, qualitative case studies, focus group discussions and interviews. This paper is one of a series of research reports presenting emerging evidence on programmes supported by the LUL initiative, which aims to expand quality learning opportunities for disadvantaged children in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal.
Mainstream teachers’ concerns about inclusive education for children with special educational needs and disability in England under pre-pandemic conditions

Eleanor Warnes; Elizabeth J. Done; Helen Knowler

Published: June 2021   Journal: Jorsen
A survey-based investigation of teachers’ concerns was conducted the following adaptation of Sharma and Desai’s ‘Concerns about Integrated Education (CIE) Scale’ two decades ago. The terminology was adjusted and ‘integrated’ became ‘inclusive’, and ‘Special Educational Needs and / or Disability (SEND)’ replaced ‘disability’ in a novel ‘Concerns about Inclusive Education Scale’. A purposive sample included the public and private education sectors. An online questionnaire was completed in April 2020 (n = 93) by teachers (66: state mainstream, 18: independent, 5: UK-based international schools, 3: SEND specialists, 1: alternative provision). Statistical analysis of closed questions aimed to identify teachers’ concerns about IE for children with SEND and was complemented by qualitative analysis of data generated through open-ended questions. Varied understandings of what IE means and longstanding concerns were identified. The highest level of concern was evidenced around resources, specifically, funding for specialist and support staff, resources, and appropriate infrastructure.
Low in-school COVID-19 transmission and asymptomatic infection despite high community prevalence

Sophie E. Katz; Rendie McHenry; Lauren G. Mauer (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics

There is concern that in-person schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic will facilitate disease transmission. Through asymptomatic surveillance and contact tracing for SARS-CoV-2, we found low rates of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and little in-school transmission of COVID-19 when physical distancing and masking strategies were enforced, despite high community prevalence of COVID-19. Opening schools and keeping them open for in-person instruction during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been controversial. Some studies demonstrate minimal impact of in-person learning or school re-opening on community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and others show that transmission may be more common among children in school environments than in community settings. The role of asymptomatic children and faculty/staff in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the school setting is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic disease, asymptomatic infection and transmission in the school setting with strict mitigation strategies in place.

Leveraging mathematics software data to understand student learning and motivation during the COVID-19 pandemic

Teomara Rutherford; Kerry Duck; Joshua M. Rosenberg (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
School closures during the COVID-19 pandemic presented a threat to student learning and motivation. Suspension of achievement testing created a barrier to understanding the extent of this threat. Leveraging data from a mathematics learning software as a substitute assessment, we found that students had lower engagement with the software during the pandemic, but students who did engage had increased performance. Students also experienced changes in motivation: lowered mathematics expectancy, but also lower emotional cost for mathematics. Results illustrate the potential and pitfalls of using educational technology data in lieu of traditional assessments and draw attention to access and motivation during at-home schooling.
Initial development of a national survey on remote learning in early childhood during COVID-19: establishing content validity and reporting successes and barriers

Meaghan McKenna; Xigrid Soto‑Boykin; Ke Cheng (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
This article describes the development and administration of a survey to identify early childhood educators’ successes and barriers when delivering remote instruction (e.g., online whole or small group instruction) during the COVID-19 pandemic to children 2–5 years old. The survey was developed using procedures outlined by the commonly accepted stages of an instrument development process. Content validity was established using four approaches: (a) identifcation of the purpose of the survey, (b) creation of a blueprint of items, (c) cognitive interviews, and (d) expert panel review. A total of 1,053 early childhood educators began the survey, with 808 (77%) of the responses included because educators met the inclusion criteria of working in the United States and responding to at least one question related to remote instruction.
Impact of social distancing on the mental health of parents and children in Qatar

Mohamed Abdelrahman; Duaa Al-Adwan; Youssef Hassan

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction

This study investigates the effects of COVID-19-related social distancing practices on parents and children’s mental health and explored the roles parental activities with children and coping strategies among families in Qatar. The path analysis shows that social distancing practices influence both parents’ and children’s mental health through parents’ activities with children and their coping strategies. Our findings reveal how living under stressful conditions such as COVID-19 could enhance the mental health of family members.

Impact of School Closures due to COVID-19 on Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Japan

Naomi Kawaoka; Kei Ohashi; Satomi Fukuhara (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
In March 2020, many schools were closed to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in Japan, and it is predicted that many children, especially those with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), will be affected emotionally and behaviorally. This study examined the impact of school closures due to COVID-19 on school-aged children with NDDs using the Child Behavior Checklist. Totally, data on 121 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and/or intellectual disorder were analyzed and it was found that externalizing and aggressive behavior increased in all NDDs, regardless of the type of diagnosis. A clear prospect is important for children with NDDs children to lead a stable life, and more generous supports for children with NDDs and their families are needed.
How variation in internet access, digital skills, and media use are related to rural student outcomes: GPA, SAT, and educational aspirations

Keith N. Hampton; Craig T. Robertson; Laleah Fernandez (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Telematics and Informatics
Some have pointed to divides in the availability of fixed home broadband Internet access as a contributor to rural students’ lower levels of educational attainment. Based on standardized exams (SAT Suite) and a survey of rural Michigan students in grades 8–11, we find that rural students with broadband home Internet access are more interested in school and leave homework incomplete less often. However, the relationship to classroom grades (GPA) is relatively trivial. Yet, this study finds that students who are not dependent on a cell phone for Internet access and those with higher digital skills, especially social media skills, rank considerably higher on the SAT.
How many students could continue learning during COVID-19-caused school closures? Introducing a new reachability indicator for measuring equity of remote learning

Garen Avanesian; Suguru Mizunoya; Diogo Amaro

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Development
This paper proposes a new reachability indicator to analyze the effectiveness of remote learning policies adopted by ministries of education in response to school closures caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The indicator provides the share of students that can potentially be reached by remote learning policies given the availability of necessary household assets such as radios, televisions, computers and internet access. The results of this analysis outline the stark inequities in access to remote learning, suggesting that at a minimum, more than 30 % of schoolchildren globally cannot be reached by remote learning policies due to the high variation in access to assets for remote learning that exists within and between the world regions.
Head teachers’ opinions on the future of school education conditioned by emergency remote teaching

Katarzyna Potyrała; Nataliia Demeshkant; Karolina Czerwiec (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Education and Information Technologies
The study explores the school transformation process as evidenced by the opinions of head teachers. The main goal of the research was to present a content analysis study of the Polish educational environment on the basis of primary and secondary head teachers’ views on the risks and perspectives brought by the global Covid-2019 lockdown. The conceptual framework was based on the theoretical perspective (the cognitive and affective processes in multimedia learning, the theory of motivation, and goal setting) as well as the model of the school as a learning organization and the assumptions of Emergency Remote Teaching. The categorized interviews with the head teachers were conducted using a categorized interview questionnaire and the respondents considered various categories problems within educational practice related to the functioning of schools during the pandemic.
Experiences of remote education during COVID-19 and its relationship to the mental health of primary school children

Jennifer McMahon; Elaine A. Gallagher; Eibhlín H. Walsh (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: Irish Educational Studies
The aim of the present study is to describe how parents and primary school children dealt with the rapid and significant changes to their schooling experience during COVID-19 and how this correlated with children's mental health. A cross-sectional study comprising an online survey was completed by 797 parents of children from 4–12 years, (M = 9 years). School variables explored included school expectations for schoolwork, how much time per day spent on schoolwork, how able parents were to support their child with schoolwork, whether a child had support from an adult at school and whether the child had support from a friend. Child mental health was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Regression analysis indicated that parents’ ability to support their child with schoolwork was correlated with child mental health status. Further analysis indicated the association between ability to support their child with schoolwork and child mental health status was mediated by parental psychological distress. These findings reinforce the importance of parents as a link between schools and students during the pandemic. Implications for educational policy are discussed.
Education for children's rights in Ireland before, during and after the pandemic

Benjamin Mallon; Gabriela Martinez-Sainz

Published: June 2021   Journal: Irish Educational Studies
This paper analyses the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the ‘education rights’ of children in the Irish context, with a particular focus on children's/human rights education (C/HRE). C/HRE can support children and young people to understand and explore the issues which limit people's lives and consider actions to uphold their own rights and the rights of others. The breadth and depth of the provision of HRE can be considered across ‘education about rights’ (including knowledge and understanding of human rights values, norms and frameworks), ‘education through rights’ (rights respecting educational approaches) and ‘education for rights’ (empowerment to realising and upholding rights) (UN 2011). The paper situates this framework against three additional dimensions. Firstly, it considers the children's rights issues within a historical national context. Secondly, it explores the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the education rights of children in Ireland. Finally, with a future orientation, the paper considers how C/HRE can strengthen education, meeting the challenges of the Covid-19 pandemic, the legacies of longstanding children's rights issues, and future human rights challenges.
Distance learning in Italian primary and middle school children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey

Francesca Scarpellini; Giulia Segre; Massimo Cartabia

Published: June 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health volume
School closure created difficulties for parents, who were asked to care for their children and help them with schooling, while working at home. This study aimed to explore the experiences in organising school for children at home and its implications on children’s psychological well-being and educational progress during the quarantine for the COVID-19 pandemic. A nationwide online survey of mothers of primary and middle school students was conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic. Demographic data and information on distance learning organisation and children’s attitudes and behavioural changes were collected.
676 - 690 of 1096

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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