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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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COVID-19 and the Rohingya revugees in Bangladesh: socioeconomic and health impacts on women and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Bezon Kumar; Susmita Dey Pinky; Orindom Shing Pulock (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 1
COVID-19 has exacerbated the existing crisis that the vulnerable refugee population faces. More than a million Rohingya refugees live in Bangladesh. COVID-19 has affected both males and females. It is critical to understand how this population group is coping during this trying period. They are constituted by 52% women and 55% adolescents. The socioeconomic and physiological repercussions of the pandemic on the Rohingya people are contextualised in this study. The socioeconomic and health impacts of COVID-19 on Rohingya women and adolescents in Bangladesh are investigated. Because of the restrictions imposed, over 63% of Rohingya adolescent females suffered from food scarcity. The vast majority of respondents (87%) stated that they had reduced their meal frequency, resulting in a protein deficiency. Since their arrival in Bangladesh, they have had limited access to medical and educational facilities. The pandemic has further exacerbated the situation. Girls are more vulnerable to sexual and gender-based abuse, early marriage, school dropout, and pregnancy. This research aims to add to existing knowledge on refugees, Rohingya, women, and adolescents
Spatial clusters, social determinants of health and risk of COVID-19 mortality in Brazilian children and adolescents: a nationwide population-based ecological study

AUTHOR(S)
Victor Santana Santos; Thayane Santos Siqueira; Ana I. Cubas Atienzar (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Americas

Data regarding the geographical distribution of cases and risk factors for COVID-19 death in children and adolescents are scarce. We describe the spatial distribution of COVID-19 cases and deaths in paediatric population and their association with social determinants of health in Brazil. This is a population-based ecological study with a spatial analysis of all cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in Brazil among children and adolescents aged 0–19 years from March 2020 to October 2021. The units of analysis were the 5570 municipalities. Data on COVID-19 cases and deaths, social vulnerability, health inequities, and health system capacity were obtained from publicly available databases. Municipalities were stratified from low to very high COVID-19 incidence and mortality using K-means clustering procedures, and spatial clusters and relative risks were estimated using spatial statistics with Poisson probability models. The relationship between COVID-19 estimates and social determinants of health was explored by using multivariate Beta regression techniques.

Social determinants of severe injury among pediatric patients during the COVID-19 pandemic: an exploratory study

AUTHOR(S)
Rebeccah L. Sokol; Usha Sethuraman; Katherine Oag (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
This study sought to identify social determinants of health (SDH) patterns associated with severe pediatric injuries. It used cross-sectional data from children (≤18 years) admitted to a pediatric trauma center between March and November 2021 (n = 360). It used association rule mining (ARM) to explore SDH patterns associated with severe injury. It then used ARM-identified SDH patterns in multivariable logistic regressions of severe injury, controlling for patient and caregiver demographics. Finally, it compared results to naive hierarchical logistic regressions that considered SDH types as primary exposures rather than SDH patterns.
Environmental and social determinants of leisure-time physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorder

AUTHOR(S)
Jihyun Lee; Sean Healy; Justin A. Haegele (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Disability and Health Journal

It is increasingly recognized that children's physical activity behaviors are shaped by neighborhood environment factors and their parent's support. However, these factors have been scarcely studied among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a population at risk of inactivity. This cross-sectional survey study was designed to examine how neighborhood environmental factors and parental support are related to physical activity levels of children with ASD. Also, this study examined if the relationship between the environment and physical activity is modified by demographic factors and COVID-19 related concerns.

Parental socioeconomic and psychological determinants of the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccine uptake in children

AUTHOR(S)
Krista Salo-Tuominen; Tamara Teros-Jaakkola; Laura Toivonen (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccine

Before COVID-19, the previous pandemic was caused by influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in 2009. Identification of factors behind parental decisions to have their child vaccinated against pandemic influenza could be helpful in planning of other pandemic vaccination programmes. We investigated the association of parental socioeconomic and psychosocial factors with uptake of the pandemic influenza vaccine in children in 2009–2010. This study was conducted within a prospective birth-cohort study (STEPS Study), where children born in 2008–2010 are followed from pregnancy to adulthood. Demographic and socioeconomic factors of parents were collected through questionnaires and vaccination data from electronic registers. Before and after the birth of the child, the mother’s and father’s individual and relational psychosocial well-being, i.e. depressive symptoms, dissatisfaction with the relationship, experienced social and emotional loneliness, and maternal anxiety during pregnancy, were measured by validated questionnaires (BDI-II, RDAS, PRAQ, and UCLA).

COVID-19 shines a light on health inequities in communities of color: a youth-driven photovoice inquiry.

AUTHOR(S)
Astraea Augsberger; Noor Toraif; Adrienne Young (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
This manuscript reports on a youth-driven health assessment engaging youth of color in identifying community health priorities during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Photovoice, a participatory visual ethnographic health assessment strategy, was used to explore the question: What does health or healthiness mean to you and/or your community? Youth captured images that represented their priorities. The photos were discussed using the SHOWed framework and analyzed thematically. Four themes related to community health were identified. Additionally, youth captured their narrative of COVID-19 as “a revealing force that highlights systemic inequities, driving individuals and communities to both cultivate their resilience and take healthcare into their own hands in response to government and policy level failures.
Association of social determinants of health and vaccinations with child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in the US.

AUTHOR(S)
Yunyu Xiao; Paul Siu-Fai Yip; Jyotishman Pathak (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: JAMA Psychiatry

To what extent are individual and structural social determinants of health (SDoH) and vaccinations associated with child mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic? In this cohort study of 8493 US children, pandemic-related food insecurity, parental unemployment, disrupted mental health treatment, living in neighborhoods with higher shares of adults working full-time, and living in states lagging in vaccination rates were associated with increased trajectories of perceived stress, sadness, and COVID-19–related worry. Associations between SDoH and these mental health outcomes were more common among Asian, Black, and Hispanic children more than White children.

Immigrant family financial and relationship stress from the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Catherine A. Solheim; Jaime Ballard; Nusroon Fatiha (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Journal of Family and Economic Issues
Immigrant families are some of the most vulnerable to the effects of this continuing crisis. This study examined the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on immigrant families in an upper Midwest state. 1t interviewed 19 human and social service providers from agencies serving Somali, Latinx, and Karen (refugees from Burma/Myanmar) immigrant families between June and August 2020. Results analyzed for this paper focused on responses to questions asked about COVID-19-related financial and familial stress, and coping resources and constraints that providers were observing with their immigrant clients.
Socioeconomic disadvantages and vulnerability to the pandemic among children and youth: a macro-level investigation of American counties

AUTHOR(S)
Bocong Yuan; Xinting Huang; Jiannan Lic (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
This study intends to reveal the underlying structural inequity in vulnerability to infection of the novel coronavirus disease pandemic among children and youth. Using multi-source data from New York Times novel coronavirus disease tracking project and County Health Rankings & Roadmap Program, this study shows that children and youth in socioeconomically disadvantaged status are faced with disproportionate risk of infection in this pandemic. On the county level, socioeconomic disadvantages (i.e., single parent family, low birthweight, severe housing problems) contribute to the confirmed cases and death cases of the novel coronavirus disease. Policymakers should pay more attention to this vulnerable group to implement more targeted and effective epidemic prevention and control.
The indirect effects of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia

AUTHOR(S)
Mike Saunders; Laura Nellums

Published: January 2022   Journal: Public Health in Practice

The relative scarcity of paediatric COVID-19 disease infers protection from its direct harms. This study aims to highlight the potentially severe indirect effects of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia. This is a discussion piece written from the authors’ perspective.It uses the social determinants of health to describe the indirect impact of COVID-19 upon global childhood pneumonia.

The social determinants of child health and inequalities in child health

AUTHOR(S)
Kate E. Pickett; Yassaman Vafai; Mathew Mathai (et al.)

Published: January 2022   Journal: Paediatrics and Child Health
Social factors have a profound impact on child health – they are the “causes of the causes”, creating social gradients and inequalities in almost all morbidities. The social determinants of health are complex and intertwined, and in the UK child health inequalities are entrenched and intractable. This study describes how longitudinal research on children's health and life course trajectories gives us insights into the ways in which the social determinants interact to affect children, and how these insights can shape policy and practice to improve child health. It also touches on three major contemporary issues in child health: adverse childhood experiences, the Covid-19 pandemic and climate change. It explores how paediatricians can engage with the social determinants of child health and be agents for change, and share examples of innovative practice.
Changes in psychosocial functioning among urban, school-age children during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Andrea E. Spencer; Rachel Oblath; Rohan Dayal (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health

There is concern about the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial functioning among school-age children, who have faced unusual stressors during this time. This study's goal is to assess mental health symptoms and social risks during COVID-19, compared to before the pandemic, for urban, racial and ethnic minority school-age children, and investigate the relationship between mental health and social risks. It is a cohort study from September 2019 until January 2021 of children age 5–11 years old recruited from an urban safety net hospital-based pediatric primary care practice.

COVID-19 and the social determinants of health and health equity: evidence brief
Institution: World Health Organization
Published: December 2021
The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age and people’s access to power, money and resources. The social determinants are the major drivers of health inequities – unfair, avoidable and remediable differences in health between social groups. This evidence brief examines the influence of the social determinants of health on the current COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on the inequities of impact. The findings are drawn from a rapid systematic review of global evidence.
The COVID-19 pandemic: adverse effects on the social determinants of health in children and families

AUTHOR(S)
Elissa M. Abrams; Matthew Greenhawt; Marcus Shaker (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

This study aims to describe the impact of social determinants on the experience of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic within the pediatric population, how this impact may influence the long-term health and security of children, and what measures can be taken to ameliorate this impact moving forward. It is a nonsystematic review of relevant literature and news sources.

A schema of toxic stress informed by racism, transgenerational stress, and disadvantage

AUTHOR(S)
Felesia R. Bowen; Linda A. Lewandowski; Julia A. Snethen (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care

The Toxic Stress Schema (TSS) is an ecological framework with a social justice lens for identifying and alleviating stress and strengthening social determinants of health for children and families of color impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic and the cumulative effects of racism and generational, systemic inequities. Relevant literature is reviewed, and examples were provided to illustrate the differential impacts of the “stress superstorm” of 2020 had on children of color based on their family's position on the advantage–disadvantage continuum.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.