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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 206
COVID-19 and behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder: disparities by income and food security status

Anita A. Panjwania; Regan L. Bailey; Bridgette L.

Published: June 2021   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is lacking. This study investigates the relationship between COVID-19 and behaviors of children with ASD living in the United States.

COVID-19 and disconnected youth: lessons and opportunities from OECD countries

Ashley N. Palmer; Eusebius Small

Published: May 2021   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health

This paper highlights how the novel coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has amplified economic instability and health risks for disconnected youth and young adults (YYA). We offer a brief review of governmental policy responses in four OECD countries and how they may impact the disconnect YYA within those countries. Literature was reviewed utilizing Cochrane Library, ERIC, PsychINFO, PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science to outline existing inequities among disconnected YYA and COVID-19 economic and health impacts. Government responses to COVID-19 from four OECD countries were reviewed. Using the social protection model, we highlighted significant policy changes and developments that influence the protection of vulnerable populations and evaluated the potential effect of long-term economic dislocations prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic.

An investigation of women’s pregnancy experiences during the covid-19 pandemic: a qualitative study

Ruveyde Aydin; Songül Aktaş

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Clinical Practice

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has adversely affected the physical and psychosocial health of pregnant women and their access to antenatal care and health services. This study aims to examine women's pregnancy experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Double burden of malnutrition among women of reproductive age in 55 low- and middle-income countries: progress achieved and opportunities for meeting the global target

Md. Mehedi Hasan; Saifuddin Ahmed; ● Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

The aim of this study is to examine trends and projections of underweight (Body Mass Index, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2) in women of reproductive age in 55 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It used data from 2,337,855 women aged 15–49 years from nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 1990 and 2018. Bayesian linear regression analyses were performed.

School mental health providers’ perspectives on the impact of COVID-19 on racial inequities and school disengagement

Tiffany M. Jones; Anne Williford; Michael S. Spencer (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Children & Schools
School disengagement is a critical factor that will likely exacerbate long-standing racial inequities in educational outcomes during the aftermath of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Due to their training and contact with at-risk students, school social workers and other school-based mental health professionals (SMHP) are in an ideal position to understand the impact of COVID-19 and virtual learning on K–12 students. To that end, this study reports on findings from a survey of SMHP about the differential impact that the COVID-19 outbreak is having on students and their families.
Our voices aren’t in lockdown: refugee young people, challenges, and innovation during COVID-19

Jen Couch; Nadine Liddy; James McDougall

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Applied Youth Studies
Using data drawn from consultations and interviews with young people from young people of refugee background in Melbourne, Australia, this study examines how young people negotiate their lives in the context of settlement, specifically during the current COVID-19 pandemic. The authors listened to stories about the challenges they faced, and the initiative and actions they took during the lockdown of nine towers in public housing estates of inner Melbourne during June and July of 2020. This research have found that, despite many pre-existing disadvantages, young people of refugee background have responded to the crisis through public health promotion, volunteering, and innovation.
Disengaged, positive, or negative: parents’ attitudes toward learning from home amid COVID-19 pandemic

Ahmad R. Pratama; Firman M. Firmansyah

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many countries to close their schools and to change their education system to adopt the learning from home (LFH) method, which arguably requires more direct involvement from parents to succeed. This study explored parent’s attitudes toward LFH policy based on a survey of 261 participants from 16 provinces in Indonesia. Employing latent class analysis, we revealed three distinct groups of parents with unique compounds of attitudes toward LFH (i.e., disengaged, positive, and negative). Disengaged parents neither consider LFH useful, nor do they see it as demanding. In contrast, the other two groups of parents have quite the opposite views on the usefulness and demandingness of LFH. Further analysis using multinomial logistic regression revealed that older parents from low-income households tend to be disengaged while fathers of young children tend to have negative attitudes toward LFH. Interestingly, the ownership of a personal computer at home seems to be a key indicator of parents with positive attitudes toward LFH after controlling for other demographic factors. How the findings provide a firsthand insight on the existence of digital divide by highlighting the importance of access to personal computers at home is further discussed.
The effects of COVID-19 on early childhood education and care: research and resources for children, families, teachers, and teacher educators

Mary Renck Jalongo

Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The COVID-19 world health crisis has profound implications for the care and education of young children in homes and schools, the lives of preservice and inservice teachers, and the work of college/university faculty. This article begins by discussing the implications of a world health pandemic for education and the challenges of conducting a literature review on such a rapidly evolving topic. The next four sections categorize the COVID-19 literature into themes: (1) threats to quality of life (QoL) and wellness, (2) pressure on families and intensification of inequities, (3) changes in teaching methods and reliance on technology, and (4) restructuring of higher education and scholarship interrupted. Each of the four themes is introduced with a narrative that highlights the current context, followed by the literature review. Next is a compilation of high-quality, online resources developed by leading professional organizations to support children, families, and educators dealing with the COVID crisis. The article concludes with changes that hold the greatest potential to advance the field of early childhood education and care.
The social determinants of health as predictors of adherence to public health preventive measures among parents and young children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal cohort study

Yulika Yoshida-Montezuma; Charles D. G. Keown-Stoneman; Susitha Wanigaratne (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Canadian journal of public health

To investigate whether social determinants of health (SDOH) are predictive of adherence to public health preventive measures and to describe changes in adherence over time among parents and children. A longitudinal study was conducted in children aged 0–10 years and their parents through the TARGet Kids! COVID-19 Study in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada (April–July 2020). This study included 335 parents (2108 observations) and 416 children (2632 observations).

Health indicators on adolescents reveal disparity and inequality on regional and national levels

Mengqiao Wang

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMC Public Health
Health status in adolescents is difficult to evaluate and compare horizontally, vertically and longitudinallyamong different regions and nations of the world.Methods:With repeated surveys conducted with relatively uniformed standards, the UNICEF Data warehousecompiles and publishes a wide spectrum of health indicators, of which data analysis and visualization wouldreveal the underlying statuses and trends on global, regional and national levels.
Widening the divide: the impact of school closures on primary science learning

Cherry Canovan; Naomi Fallon

Published: May 2021   Journal: SN Social Sciences volume
Prolonged Covid-19-related school closures in the UK raised concerns that science teaching and learning at primary level would be negatively impacted. This paper reports the findings of phase 1 of a study that the authors are conducting with teachers and parents to explore this issue. We found that a significant proportion of teachers were providing less science during lockdown than in the normal school week. Teachers, particularly those working in more deprived areas, reported that translating the science curriculum for home learning had been difficult, with concerns around resources, internet access and parental ability to help. Some areas of the curriculum posed particular difficulties, leading to a narrowing of topics being taught. Both teachers and parents felt that schools prioritised English and maths above science. Meanwhile some parents reported that their children had engaged in sophisticated extracurricular activities, bolstered by resources available at home and knowledgeable adult help, but others said that their children had done no science at all.
Children in monetary poor households: baseline and COVID-19 impact for 2020 and 2021

Oliver Fiala; Enrique Delamónica; Gerardo Escaroz (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economics of Disasters and Climate Change
The impact of the global economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic will not affect all children equally: those in poorer households and children who are disadvantaged face the most serious consequences. As parents lose their jobs and incomes, the impact on children living in impoverished households must be measured. In this article, we assess the economic consequences of the pandemic on these children. Given that poorer families have a larger number of children than other families, the analysis first establishes the proportion of children living in monetary poor households, as defined by national standards, across developing countries. Then, using historical changes and trends of income distribution per country, the latest projections about economic decline due to the pandemic, and demographic information about the distribution of children by deciles, this study estimates the expected increase in the number of children in monetary poor households in developing countries as of end of 2020 to be an additional 122–144 million and, at best, a moderate decline in these numbers by end of 2021.
Vulnerable children’s right to education, school exclusion, and pandemic law-making

Lucinda Ferguson

Published: May 2021   Journal: Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties
This article draws on the impact of the ongoing pandemic to highlight the failure of the English legal regime to adequately protect children’s right to education, particularly equal access to education by especially vulnerable children. It first outlines key domestic and international legislative provisions positioned as securing children’s and parents’ rights in this context. Prior to the pandemic, there was growing recognition of the current regime's failings regarding illegal exclusions from school, children missing from education, and the lack of inclusive education for children with special educational needs and disabilities (‘SEND’). The protection of children’s rights relied on the benevolent exercise of discretion and key decision-makers not exploiting limited oversight and scrutiny in order to meet results-driven accountability measures. Second, this article critically analyses pandemic law-making and regulation, particularly in relation to the exclusion process, the legal duty to provide education in an online environment, the law on Education, Health, and Care Plans (‘EHCPs’), and the de-registration and fines for non-attendance. Third, it argues that the educational impact of the pandemic highlights the need for law reform, rather than merely revisions to statutory guidance and focus on best practice. Such reform may also trigger improvement via the ‘reflexive regulation’ of the education system.
COVID-19 feminist framework to address public health impact of violence, abuse, and trauma in children, women, BIPOC, and LGBTQIA+ community: a preliminary observation

Sonia Mukhtar; Shamim Mukhta; Waleed Rana

Published: May 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
This article explores the development and implementation of inclusive COVID-19 (corona disease 2019) Feminist Framework (CFF) on the equitability of response for researchers, health care advocates, and public health policymakers at international platforms. Mechanism of CFF entails the process to address and mitigate the institutional inequities, violation of human rights, public health, and race/sex/gender-based violence amid COVID-19. This framework is about institutional building, raising consciousness, ensuring freedom, collective liberation, bodily autonomy, equality, and giving women, children, BIPOC, LGBTQIA+, and racial- and gender-diverse people the freedom to make choices to promote a sense of greater control over their own lives.
Fear and anxiety in girls aged 7 to 11 years old and related factors during the coronavirus pandemic

Parvin Mangolian Shahrbabaki; Mahlagha Dehghan; Mahbubeh Maazallahi

Published: May 2021   Journal: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Children are one of the most vulnerable groups in crises. The psychological consequences of COVID-19 in children must be considered. This study aimed to assess the fear and anxiety of COVID-19 in primary school girls. It is a descriptive correlational study to investigate schoolgirls’ fear and anxiety of covid-19 in southeastern Iran. Data were collected using the fear of coronavirus questionnaire and the Corona Disease Anxiety Scale. The mean score of fear and anxiety of corona disease was 11.49 ± 6.59 and 17.67 ± 10.87, respectively. The bivariate analysis showed a significant association between fear and anxiety of corona disease, a single child (p = .025 and p = .006), and a mother’s level of education (p = .01). In other words, girls who were single child had a significantly higher level of fear and anxiety than other girls and the girls whose mothers had diploma had a higher level of fear and anxiety than girls whose mothers had Ph.D. Since fear and anxiety can be affected by factors such as culture, education level, and birth rate, it is recommended that this study be performed in other communities as well.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.