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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 76
Effect of COVID-19 lockdown on refractive errors in Italian children aged 5-12 years: a multi-center retrospective study.

AUTHOR(S)
Edoardo Trovato Battagliola; Pietro Mangiantini; Mattia D’Andrea (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: European Journal of Ophthalmology

This study aims to explore the potential consequences of the COVID-19 lockdown on the prevalence of myopia among Italian children aged 5–12 years.It is a retrospective multicenter study conducted in Italy. Population: children aged 5–12. Selection: random selection of children who received an eye exam between 2016 to 2021. Inclusion criteria: healthy children presenting for a routine eye exam. Exclusion criteria: presence of ocular comorbidities other than refractive error, such as blepharoptosis, media opacities, corneal or retinal dystrophies, strabismus, amblyopia, or concurrent therapy with atropine 0.01%.

Changes and correlates of screen time in adults and children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Mike Trott; Robin Driscoll; Enrico Irlado (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: eClinicalMedicine.

Screen time has increased as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, and several correlates have been associated with these increases. These changes, however, have not been aggregated. It was the aim of this review to (a) aggregate changes in screen time in adults and children, and (b) report on variables in relation to screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic review of major databases was undertaken for studies published from inception to 06/12/2021, using a pre-published protocol (PROSPERO ID: CRD42021261422). Studies reporting (a) screen time pre-versus-during the pandemic, (b) screen time percentage change, or (c) correlates of screen time during the pandemic were included. A random effects meta-analysis was undertaken with subgroup analysis by age group and type of screen time.

Impact of mass media on changes in food habits and food preferences among adolescence during Covid–19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
V. Meenakshi; S. Bharathi; B. Siva Sankari (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: YMER
The emergence of COVID 19 pandemic has severely impacted individuals from all walks of life. The present aims to evaluate the mass media impact on food habits, food preference and quality of life during the COVID 19 among adolescence. An questionnaire was framed and converted as Google form. The developed Google form was sent to 200 adolescents belonging to AC & RI and CSC & RI, Madurai and the received 200 responses from the students. The data obtained was consolidated.
Finding the link between cyberbullying and suicidal behaviour among adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia

AUTHOR(S)
Siti Aisyah Mohd Fadhli; Jasy Liew Suet Yan; Ahmad Shahril Ab Halim (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Healthcare
Social media engagement has contributed to the rise of cyberbullying, which has recently triggered tragic suicides among adolescents. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of cyberbullying, suicidal behaviour, and their association among adolescents in Peninsular Malaysia. The study was conducted among 1290 secondary school adolescents aged between 13 and 17 years old in Peninsular Malaysia using a self-administered and anonymous online questionnaire.
Social media and online digital technology use among muslim young people and parents: qualitative focus group study.

AUTHOR(S)
Caitlin H. Douglass; Aidan Borthwick; Megan S. C. Lim (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting

Digital technology and social media use are common among young people in Australia and worldwide. Research suggests that young people have both positive and negative experiences online, but we know little about the experiences of Muslim communities. This study aims to explore the positive and negative experiences of digital technology and social media use among young people and parents from Muslim backgrounds in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. This study involved a partnership between researchers and a not-for-profit organization that work with culturally and linguistically diverse communities. We adopted a participatory and qualitative approach and designed the research in consultation with young people from Muslim backgrounds. Data were collected through in-person and online focus groups with 33 young people aged 16-22 years and 15 parents aged 40-57 years. Data were thematically analyzed.

Caregivers’ psychological distress, technology use, and parenting: the importance of a multidimensional perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Jasmine Zhang; Sheri Madigan; Dillon Browne (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Computers in Human Behavior
In the interconnected family context, caregivers' digital media use holds important implications for children's developmental outcomes via parent-child relationships. This may be particularly salient during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, when caregivers were more reliant on technology than ever before. This study examined caregivers' psychological well-being, digital media use, and parenting practices, with a particular focus on specific aspects of media use. Caregivers (n = 549) with at least two children aged 5–18 participated in a multinational project examining family functioning and well-being amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Parents completed questionnaires assessing their psychological distress, media use habits, and parenting practices. Comparisons of structural regression models revealed that operationalizing caregivers' media use as a single general construct disregards important nuances in its relations to psychological distress and parenting.
YouTube as a source of educational content in teenagers' learning practices

AUTHOR(S)
Zinaida Adelhardt; Thomas Eberle

Published: April 2022   Journal: European Conference on Social Media Section
Usage of YouTube for educational purposes became particularly relevant for teenagers as a support for their home-schooling. This study aimed to find out what strategies teenagers use to find relevant educational content on the service and how important this content was for their everyday learning practices before and during the COVID pandemic. It analyzed online behavior of 34, 14 to 15-year old teenagers (47% male) who took part in a long-term adventure trip with digital media left aside. It gathered quantitative data seven months before the trip (March 2019), just before the trip (October 2019), on the last day of the trip (April 2020), and five months after the trip (September 2020). It also conducted in-depth interviews with nine teenagers, who named YouTube as their favourite online service. Our intention is now to conduct nine additional interviews with the same teenagers to see whether their everyday learning practices changed within the last year. Implications drawn from this study, further research perspectives, and limitations will be presented and discussed.
Facebook recruitment for research of children and parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Micah A. Skeens; Malcolm Sutherland-Foggio; Callista Damman (et al.)

Published: April 2022   Journal: Applied Nursing Research

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unique challenges for recruitment of adults and children into clinical research. The sudden onset of stay-at-home orders and social distancing enacted in much of the United States created sudden barriers for researchers to recruit participants in-person. Recognizing the critical need to understand the impact of COVID-19 on children and families in real time, studies required an alternative approach. The present study sought to develop methods and establish the feasibility of utilizing Facebook's targeted advertising to enroll schoolaged children and their parents for a study examining the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families. This study used an 8 week pay-per-click advertisement approach via Facebook for research recruitment. Parents of children age 8 to 17 were invited and asked to include their child. Standardized measures were included for parents and children. Zip code targeting was used to increase diversity in participants.

Relationship between adolescents’ perceptions of social support and their psychological well-being during COVID-19 pandemic: a case study from Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Fatma Kurudirek; Duygu Arıkan; Sümeyye Ekici

Published: March 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review
The aim of this research was to establish the relationship between the perceptions of social support and the psychological well-being among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This research, which includes descriptive and relative features, was conducted from December 15, 2020 to January 31, 2021. There were 378 participants, all of whom were adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years who were living in Turkey. Either the adolescents themselves or their parents used social media tools or sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, Instagram, etc., and they had all agreed to participate voluntarily.
The impact of parental monitoring on cyberbullying victimization in the COVID-19 era

AUTHOR(S)
Seung Yeop Paek; Julak Lee; Yeon-Jun Choi

Published: March 2022   Journal: Social Science Quarterly

The purpose of the current research was to examine the predictors of cyberbullying victimization among South Korean students during a period in which the coronavirus disease was spreading worldwide. This study assessed whether parental guardianship protected against victimization when most people worked from home and school instructions were shifted to online learning. It analyzed nationally representative data collected between October 6 and November 13, 2020. Binary logistic regression models were developed based on the Routine Activities Theory theoretical model to investigate the correlates of cyberbullying victimization among participants.

The effect of parent phubbing on Chinese adolescents’ smartphone addiction during COVID-19 pandemic: testing a moderated mediation model

AUTHOR(S)
Jun Zhao; Baojuan Ye; Laisong Luo (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
COVID-19 has affected the health and well-being of tens of millions of people and contributed to smartphone addiction. The prior studies found several characteristics that influenced smartphone addiction, but little research was undertaken on the epidemic. This study aims to test a moderated mediation model of smartphone addiction. Three classes in each grade from grade 7 through grade 9 at random were recruited in the target junior high schools. A total of 931 Chinese adolescents (Mage=13.54 years, SDage =1.08) completed valid questionnaires via online surveys from February 5– 19, 2021.
Longitudinal social contacts among school-aged children during the COVID-19 pandemic: the Bay Area Contacts among Kids (BACK) study

AUTHOR(S)
Kristin L. Andrejko; Jennifer R. Head; Joseph A. Lewnard (et al.)

Published: March 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

The San Francisco Bay Area was the first region in the United States to enact school closures to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The effects of closures on contact patterns for schoolchildren and their household members remain poorly understood. This study conducted serial cross-sectional surveys (May 2020, September 2020, February 2021) of Bay Area households with children to estimate age-structured daily contact rates for children and their adult household members. It examined changes in contact rates over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, including after vaccination of household members, and compared contact patterns by household demographics using generalized estimating equations clustered by household.

Using social media to promote school nutrition programs during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Whitesell; Hunter Fitch

Published: March 2022   Journal: Journal of School Health

Millions of school-aged children receive free or reduced-price lunches through the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National School Lunch Program; that service was disrupted when public schools closed at the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic. Prior to the pandemic, this program received little attention on school districts' social media accounts. This research collected Twitter data from 70 Ohio public school districts to construct a measure of attention paid toward school nutrition programs from 2008 to 2021. It also collected district-level data to analyze the relationship between district characteristics and mentions of school nutrition programs.

Young people’s experiences of COVID-19 messaging at the start of the UK lockdown: lessons for positive engagement and information sharing

AUTHOR(S)
Sofia T. Strömmer; Divya Sivaramakrishnan; Sarah C. Shaw (et al.)

Published: February 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health

To reduce COVID-19 infection rates during the initial stages of the pandemic, the UK Government mandated a strict period of restriction on freedom of movement or ‘lockdown’. For young people, closure of schools and higher education institutions and social distancing rules may have been particularly challenging, coming at a critical time in their lives for social and emotional development. This study explored young people’s experiences of the UK Government’s initial response to the pandemic and related government messaging. This qualitative study combines data from research groups at the University of Southampton, University of Edinburgh and University College London. Thirty-six online focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with 150 young people (Southampton: n = 69; FGD = 7; Edinburgh: n = 41; FGD = 5; UCL: n = 40; FGD = 24). Thematic analysis was conducted to explore how young people viewed the government’s response and messaging and to develop recommendations for how to best involve young people in addressing similar crises in the future.

The relationship between behavioral problems and screen time in children during COVID-19 school closures in Japan

AUTHOR(S)
Chika Ueno; Shuichi Yamamoto

Published: February 2022   Journal: Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology

Pediatricians report that patients’ physical and psychological complaints increase after long periods of school closures in Japan, such as summer vacations. It has been reported that the number of children who commit suicide is greatest in September in Japan (1); therefore, the Japanese government has alerted pediatricians and parents to pay attention to subtle changes in children when they are due to return to school. Hence, long school closures seem to affect children’s physical and psychological status. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in July 2020, which enrolled students from all four public elementary schools in Miyaki-Machi, a suburban town in Saga prefecture, Japan. Parents received a letter describing the study and a questionnaire to be returned to the school by July 30 after completion. Participants were offered no financial incentive.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.