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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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UNICEF Innocenti Publication
UNICEF Publication
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2146 - 2160 of 2438
Risk factors for prospective increase in psychological stress during COVID-19 lockdown in a representative sample of adolescents and their parents

Kerstin Paschke; Nicolas Arnaud; Maria Isabella Austermann (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BJPsych Open

COVID-19 lockdown measures imposed extensive restrictions to public life. Previous studies suggest significant negative psychological consequences, but lack longitudinal data on population-based samples. This article aimed to prospectively identify increased psychological stress and associated risk factors in parent–child dyads.

Could COVID-19 reverse the modest gains made in newborn health in Ethiopia?

Abiy Seifu Estifanos; Kescha Kazmi; Shaun K. Morris

Published: May 2021   Journal: Maternal and Child Health Journal

Ethiopia has made remarkable progress in reducing childhood and neonatal mortality in the last two decades. However, with the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia, disruptions in routine health care pose a significant risk in reversing the gains made in neonatal mortality reduction. Using the World Health Organization’s health systems building blocks framework we examined the mechanisms by which the pandemic may impact neonatal health.

The impact of lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic on mental and social health of children and adolescents

Michiel A. J. Luijten; Maud M. van Muilekom; Lorynn Teela (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Quality of Life Research
During the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, governmental regulations resulted in a lockdown for adults as well as children/adolescents. Schools were closed and contact with other people was limited. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, we aimed to investigate the mental/social health of children/adolescents during COVID-19 lockdown.
Parental views of families of children with autism spectrum disorder and developmental disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic

Bekir Fatih Meral

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
The COVID-19 pandemic, the infection caused by the novel coronavirus detected in December 2019 by World Health Organization (WHO), has detrimentally impacted human life in a variety of areas. Many concepts including outbreak, pandemic, and quarantine have been an inseparable part of our lives. This kind of dialectic change naturally afects persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental disorders (DD) and their families. The present study using a mixed-method evaluation aims to reveal the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the family functioning of children specifcally with ASD in Turkey. This study promises a holistic understanding of how the lockdown depending on the COVID -19 pandemic afects families and their children with ASD with positive and negative sides
Early childhood educators’ wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic

Patricia Eadie; Penny Levickis; Lisa Murray

Published: May 2021   Journal: Early Childhood Education Journal
The importance of Early Childhood (EC) educators’ wellbeing has been brought into sharp focus during the COVID-19 pandemic, as educators have navigated numerous additional stressors while providing education and care services for some children and ongoing support for many others learning at home. This study aimed to explore the impact of the pandemic on EC educators’ wellbeing and educator-child relationships, as growing evidence shows the infuence of these factors on children’s developmental outcomes.
Children in monetary poor households: baseline and COVID-19 impact for 2020 and 2021

Oliver Fiala; Enrique Delamónica; Gerardo Escaroz (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Economics of Disasters and Climate Change
The impact of the global economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic will not affect all children equally: those in poorer households and children who are disadvantaged face the most serious consequences. As parents lose their jobs and incomes, the impact on children living in impoverished households must be measured. In this article, we assess the economic consequences of the pandemic on these children. Given that poorer families have a larger number of children than other families, the analysis first establishes the proportion of children living in monetary poor households, as defined by national standards, across developing countries. Then, using historical changes and trends of income distribution per country, the latest projections about economic decline due to the pandemic, and demographic information about the distribution of children by deciles, this study estimates the expected increase in the number of children in monetary poor households in developing countries as of end of 2020 to be an additional 122–144 million and, at best, a moderate decline in these numbers by end of 2021.
How is the COVID-19 lockdown impacting the mental health of parents of school-age children in the UK? A cross-sectional online survey

Austen El-Osta; Aos Alaa; Iman Webber (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: BMJ Open
This study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown on feelings of loneliness and social isolation in parents of school-age children. An online survey explored the impact of lockdown on the mental health of parents with school-age children, and in particular about feelings of social isolation and loneliness. Associations between the UCLA Three-Item Loneliness Scale (UCLATILS), the Direct Measure of Loneliness (DMOL) and the characteristics of the study participants were assessed using ordinal logistic regression models.
Children and Covid 19 in the UK

Louise Holt; Lesley Murray

Published: May 2021   Journal: Children's Geographies
The UK has been one of the most badly affected nations of the Global North by the COVID-19 outbreak in terms of illness, death rates and a severe economic downturn. Children have been impacted severely (and unequally), with UK lockdown meaning that many children were away from school and usual leisure activities for six months during the first lockdown. This study revised this viewpoint during the third lockdown when schools were closed again for an indefinite time. Despite substantial media and policy debate about the impact of COVID-19 on young people, with a focus on education, young people’s own voices tend to be obscured in these mainstream accounts. By contrast, the Children’s Commissioner for England has focused on young people’s accounts, which are discussed in this viewpoint.
‘Why is it so different now I’m bisexual?’: young bisexual people’s experiences of identity, belonging, self-injury, and COVID19

Brendan J. Dunlop; Cheryl Hunter; Matina Shafti (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: Psychology & Sexuality
Bisexual people demonstrate higher rates of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in comparison to other groups. This study aimed to explore bisexual people’s experiences of sexuality, NSSI and the COVID19 pandemic. Fifteen bisexual people (16–25 years old) with experience of NSSI participated in online qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was used. Preliminary findings were shared with a subset of participants for member-checking. Participants described experiences of falling between the binary worlds of heterosexuality and homosexuality and described discrimination and invalidation related to this. Lack of access to positive bisexual representation contributed to feelings of self-loathing, with NSSI used to manage emotions or self-punish. The effect of lockdown was not clear cut, depending on personal circumstances and meanings of social interaction for participants. There is a need for greater recognition of significant societal narratives around bisexuality within clinical formulations of mental health difficulties and NSSI within this population.
Ethical perplexities of researching with children in uncertain times: a dialogic approach

Claire Lee

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Studies in Sociology of Education
This article compares two studies, one pre- and one post-COVID-19, to consider the ethics of researching with children, especially during uncertain times. It argues that ethics are entwined with assumptions about children, ‘voice’, relational dynamics and representation. To reflect upon those assumptions and their ethical implications, the study draws upon three Bakhtinian dialogical principles: that the self is in its nature responsive and never fully knowable or complete; that meaning-making is a complex, dynamic, situated activity; and that finalisation is deeply unethical. It proposes a dialogic approach to researching with children as an ethical orientation which respects our common humanity and agency and allows for trust, sensitivity, responsive meaning-making, openness and inarticulacy. It also considers the perplexities of achieving dialogic relationships and meaningful dialogue with children, especially at times when researcher and participants may be separated physically in space and time and when methodological compromises may be unavoidable.
Parenting and teacher–student relationship as protective factors for Chinese adolescent adjustment during COVID-19

Yijun Ye; Cixin Wang; Qianyu Zhu (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: School Psychology Review
COVID-19 negatively impacts students’ learning as well as physical and mental health. This study examined the effects of perceived online learning difficulties and cyberbullying on academic engagement and mental health, and if parenting styles and student–teacher relationship moderated these relations among 733 middle school students (54.3% boys) and their parents (Mage = 44.76 years, SD = 4.13 years, 28.1% fathers and 71.9% mothers) from Beijing, China.
Eating behaviour, physical activity and lifestyle of Italian children during lockdown for COVID-19

Laura Censi; Stefania Ruggeri; Myriam Galfo (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
In March 2020 Italy went into lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic and children changed rapidly their lifestyles with possible negative effects on their health status. An online survey collected data on eating habits, physical activity, perception/behaviour of 1027 Italian 2–11 years children during lockdown. The chi-square test was applied to test differences in proportions. Results showed a tendency of eating behaviour to worsen as children age and by areas. Only 32.3% of the children had high adherence to Mediterranean Diet, with better scores in 2–5 years children. 78.1% of the children stopped their habitual physical activity, with higher percentage among 6–11 and in Northern children; only 51.8% maintained some activities at home, playing mainly movement games/sports. Children spent more time on devices, missed school and friends, being more bored and less creative. This framework highlights the growing need for strategies to preserve children’s health in this and future pandemics.
Impact of the COVID-19 crisis on learning, teaching and facilitation of practical activities in science upon reopening of Irish schools

Ruth Chadwick; Eilish McLoughlin

Published: May 2021   Journal: Irish Educational Studies
In September 2020, Irish schools reopened following their emergency closure due to the COVID-19 crisis. Measures were put in place to minimise the risk of transmission of the virus within schools and communities. However, these measures were likely to impact on teachers’ capacity to facilitate learning in science, particularly the practical and investigative aspects of the Irish curriculum. This research explores the impact of the measures in place to limit virus transmission on teaching and learning in science, particularly on practical activities. The period of focus is the three months (September to November 2020) following the school closures. The research aims to highlight the implications of the COVID-19 crisis on science teaching and learning in Irish schools. The research will also provide recommendations to lessen the impact on primary and second-level science education to improve student learning and engagement in science.
COVID-19-induced disruptions of school feeding services exacerbate food insecurity in Nigeria

Kibrom A. Abay; Mulubrhan Amare; Luca Tiberti (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: The Journal of Nutrition
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and associated lockdown measures have disrupted educational and nutrition services globally. Understanding the overall and differential impacts of disruption of nutritional(school feeding) services is critical for designing effective post-COVID-19 recovery policies.Objectives:The aim of this study was to examine the impact of COVID-19-induced disruption of school feeding services on household food security in Nigeria.
Consensually nonmonogamous parent relationships during COVID-19

Melissa H. Manley; Abbie E. Goldberg

Published: May 2021   Journal: Sexualities
During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents in consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships navigated public health directives to social distance and avoid contact between households. Many parents practicing CNM share romantic, sexual, and coparenting relationships across households, and the pandemic introduced challenges and opportunities for innovation in maintaining connection. This qualitative study sought to explore the experiences, challenges, and adaptations of CNM parents, using survey and interview data from 70 US parents collected between May and December 2020. Thematic analysis highlighted that many parents spent less time with non-cohabiting partners and more time with cohabiting partners and children, but also adapted via creative strategies such as incorporating partners into a quarantine pod, inviting partners to move in, or connecting over technology. These data illuminate the diverse ways that CNM parents engaged in and “queered” family and partner relationships during the pandemic.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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The first digest covers children and youth mental health under COVID-19.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.