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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 630
COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among parents of children under five years in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Celia B. Fisher; Elise Bragard; Rimah Jaber (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Vaccines
On 17 June 2022, the U.S. FDA authorized the Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines for emergency use (EUA) in children ages 6 months–4 years. Seroprevalence has increased during the current Omicron variant wave for children under 5 years, and the burden of hospitalization for this age group is similar or exceeds other pediatric vaccine-preventable diseases. Research following the October 2021 EUA for vaccines for children 5–11 indicates a high prevalence of parental vaccine hesitancy and low uptake, underscoring the urgency of understanding attitudes and beliefs driving parental COVID-19 vaccine rejection and acceptance for younger children. One month prior to FDA approval, in the present study 411 U.S. female guardians of children 1–4 years from diverse racial/ethnic, economic, and geographic backgrounds participated in a mixed method online survey assessing determinants of COVID-19 pediatric vaccine hesitancy.
Adolescent well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in India

AUTHOR(S)
Amita N. Vyas; Nitasha C. Nagaraj; Shikha Chandarana (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health

It is without question that gender attitudes/norms, voice and agency, self-efficacy, and locus of control are important determinants of health and well-being, particularly for adolescent girls and boys in low to middle income countries. And, while prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, there were trends suggesting social inequities would be on the decline, these trends have since reversed due to abrupt long-term school closures as a result of the pandemic. This study examines adolescents’ perceptions of gender norms/attributes, voice/agency, self-efficacy, locus of control, and gender-based violence norms pre-COVID and one year later during the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown in India, a country with one of the largest adolescent populations worldwide. The data for this study were derived from a larger study via two cross-sectional self-reported survey of adolescents ages 10-15 years old in public schools located in Delhi, India (urban), and Uttar Pradesh, India (rural) pre-COVID and one year later. The adolescent participants were part of local existing after-school programs and interventions implemented by non-profit community organizations, and a convenience sample (n=547) was recruited.

Latina mothers navigating COVID-19: within- and between-family stress processes over time

AUTHOR(S)
Chase J. Boyer; Elisa Ugarte; Andrea C. Buhler-Wassmann (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Family Relations

This study aimed to understand how periodic shifts in financial cutbacks and fears of contracting COVID-19 contributed to children's externalizing behaviors due to increases in maternal stress among low-income Latina mothers during the first 10 months of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic caused widespread health, economic, and psychological consequences for families and children. The Latino community is particularly vulnerable to the economic and health risks of this pandemic as a consequence of systemic oppression. The family stress model suggests that these family stressors will have psychological repercussions to parents, and downstream behavioral consequences to children.

Adding fuel to the fire? Examining exposure to potentially stressful or traumatic events before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in low-income, Black families

AUTHOR(S)
Austen B. McGuire; Yo Jackson; Jennifer McDonald

Published: August 2022   Journal: Psychological Trauma
The COVID-19 pandemic has upended the lives of many individuals. While emerging evidence has begun to document health (e.g., infection) and financial (e.g., job loss) consequences, less is known about the day-to-day experiences of some of the country’s most vulnerable populations. The current study sought to address this gap in understanding by examining exposure to potentially stressful or traumatic experiences (PSTEs) and their relation to mental health among predominately low-income, African American/Black individuals.
Remote workers' free associations with working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria: the interaction between children and gender

AUTHOR(S)
Martina Hartner-Tiefenthaler; Eva Zedlacher; Tarek Josef el Sehity (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology
Empirical evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic shows that women carried the major burden of additional housework in families. In a mixed-methods study, we investigate female and male remote workers’ experiences of working from home (WFH) during the pandemic. We used the free association technique to uncover remote workers’ representations about WFH (i.e., workers’ reflection of subjective experiences). Based on a sample of 283 Austrian remote workers cohabitating with their intimate partners our findings revealed that in line with traditional social roles, men and women in parent roles are likely to experience WFH differently. Mothers’ representations about WFH emphasize perceived incompatibility between the work and non-work sphere whereas fathers’ representations highlight work-family facilitation of WFH.

Minority and low-SES families' experiences during the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Judith L. Perrigo; Anya Samek; Michael Hurlburt

Published: August 2022   Journal: Children and Youth Services Review

This paper aimed to explore minority and low-SES families’ general experiences with the stay-at-home mandate initiated by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (n = 31) were conducted in May 2020 – six to nine weeks after the stay-at-home mandate was initiated in Chicago Heights, Illinois. Participants were randomly selected from the parent Chicago Heights Early Childhood Center (CHECC) study (N = 2,185). Thematic content analysis of transcribed semi-structured interviews were employed.

The Covid-19 pandemic and gendered division of paid work, domestic chores and leisure: evidence from India’s first wave

AUTHOR(S)
Ashwini Deshpande

Published: July 2022   Journal: Economia Politica
Examining high frequency national-level panel data from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) on paid work (employment) and unpaid work (time spent on domestic work), this paper examines the effects of the first wave of the Covid-19 pandemic on the gender gaps in paid and unpaid work until December 2020, using difference-in-differences (D-I-D) for estimating the before (the pandemic) and after (the pandemic set in) effects, and event study estimates around the strict national lockdown in April 2020. The DID estimates reveal a lowering of the gender gap in employment probabilities which occurs due to the lower probability of male employment, rather than an increase in female employment.
Sociodemographic variation in children's health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Traci A. Bekelman; Emily A. Knapp; Yanan Dong (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Childhood Obesity.

Societal changes during the COVID-19 pandemic may affect children's health behaviors and exacerbate disparities. This study aimed to describe children's health behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic, how they vary by sociodemographic characteristics, and the extent to which parent coping strategies mitigate the impact of pandemic-related financial strain on these behaviors. This study used pooled data from 50 cohorts in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes Program. Children or parent proxies reported sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and parent coping strategies.

Research of socioeconomic status and school-based health screening results of study with children after two years of COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ufuk Ünlu; Nagihan Yildiz Çeltek; Elif Erdogdu Ceylan (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Health Sciences and Medicine
Schools are the most effective environments for health screenings for children and adolescents. The aim of school health screenings is to contribute to the protection and maintenance of children's health status by early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This study aimed to reveal the health screening findings of children whose lifestyles changed during the pandemic period, and to compare according to socioeconomic status.
Facing a care crunch: childcare disruption and economic hardships for Maine parents during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Sarah F. Small

Published: July 2022   Journal: Maine Policy Review
Pandemic-related childcare center closures along with virtual schooling forced many Maine parents to juggle their paid work with care responsibilities, often with dire economic consequences. This article examines changes in the state’s childcare landscape and illustrate how the childcare crisis during the COVID-19 pandemic affected Mainers’ economic wellbeing. Using Household Pulse Survey data, it shows how care disruptions dampened Mainer’s incomes and their ability to work, placing many in precarious economic situations. It concludes with an investigation of the effectiveness of policy solutions like the Child Tax Credit and further policy suggestions to support childcare in the state.
The forgotten youth: responding to mental health needs among confined youth in the time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Mythili Sanikommu; Rebecca L. Fix

Published: July 2022   Journal: Health Promotion Practice
As COVID-19 sweeps across the country, individuals within the carceral system face an increased risk of contracting the virus, and as a result, heightened risk for mental health symptoms. This paper discusses how COVID-19 appears to be exacerbating mental health inequities for children within the carceral system and the need to respond accordingly. Children within the carceral system represent a particularly vulnerable population, and the majority of detained or confined youth identify as Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC). As juvenile detention centers in multiple states report cases of COVID-19, children who are confined are experiencing higher rates of illness and fear of illness. It is crucial to consider how the mental health of children who are confined will be disproportionately affected compared with the general population.
Development of a theory-based, culturally appropriate message library for use in interventions to promote COVID-19 vaccination among African Americans: formative research

AUTHOR(S)
Jennifer Cunningham-Erves; Heather M. Brandt; Maureen Sanderson (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: JMIR Formative Research

Disparities in COVID-19 incidence, hospitalization, and mortality rates among African Americans suggest the need for targeted interventions. Use of targeted, theory-driven messages in behavioral and communication interventions could empower African Americans to engage in behaviors that prevent COVID-19. To address this need, a formative study was performed aiming to develop and design a culturally appropriate, theory-based library of messages targeting concerns around COVID-19 vaccines that could be used in behavioral and communication interventions for African Americans.

The effect of pandemic-related economic disruption on young adolescents in Ireland

AUTHOR(S)
Emer Smyth; Aisling Murray

Published: July 2022   Journal: Children
The sudden health and economic crisis brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic affords an opportunity to examine the impact of economic disruption to children and families. Any negative effects on the well-being of children are important to consider in relation to both short- and long-term outcomes. Using pre-pandemic and mid-pandemic waves of the longitudinal Growing Up in Ireland study, this study examined whether the impact of economic disruption was equivalent for families who were (or were not) financially vulnerable pre-pandemic. It then investigated whether economic disruption was associated with a negative effect on the emotional well-being of 12-year-olds, and if there was evidence for such a negative effect being mediated through a lack of material resources or strain on family dynamics.
COVID-19 and the Rohingya revugees in Bangladesh: socioeconomic and health impacts on women and adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Bezon Kumar; Susmita Dey Pinky; Orindom Shing Pulock (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Asia Pacific Studies 1
COVID-19 has exacerbated the existing crisis that the vulnerable refugee population faces. More than a million Rohingya refugees live in Bangladesh. COVID-19 has affected both males and females. It is critical to understand how this population group is coping during this trying period. They are constituted by 52% women and 55% adolescents. The socioeconomic and physiological repercussions of the pandemic on the Rohingya people are contextualised in this study. The socioeconomic and health impacts of COVID-19 on Rohingya women and adolescents in Bangladesh are investigated. Because of the restrictions imposed, over 63% of Rohingya adolescent females suffered from food scarcity. The vast majority of respondents (87%) stated that they had reduced their meal frequency, resulting in a protein deficiency. Since their arrival in Bangladesh, they have had limited access to medical and educational facilities. The pandemic has further exacerbated the situation. Girls are more vulnerable to sexual and gender-based abuse, early marriage, school dropout, and pregnancy. This research aims to add to existing knowledge on refugees, Rohingya, women, and adolescents
"Wearing a mask won't protect us from our history": the impact of COVID‐19 on black children and families

AUTHOR(S)
Erin Bogan; Valerie N. Adams-Bass; Lori A. Francis (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Social Policy Report
The data on COVID-19 show an irrefutable and disturbing pattern: Black Americans are contracting and dying from COVID-19 at rates that far exceed other racial and ethnic groups. Due to historical and current iterations of racism, Black Americans have been forced into conditions that elevate their risk for COVID-19 and consequently place Black children at the epicenter of loss across multiple domains of life. The current paper highlights the impact of the pandemic on Black children at the individual, family, and school levels. Based on an understanding of the influence of structural racism on COVID-19 disparities, policy recommendations are provided that focus on equitable access to quality education, home ownership, and employment to fully address the needs of Black children and families during and after the pandemic. Research, practice, and policy recommendations are made to journal editors, funding agencies, grant review panels, and researchers regarding how research on COVID-19 should be framed to inform intervention efforts aimed at improving the situation of Black children and families.
16 - 30 of 630

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.