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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent vaccinations: projected time to reverse deficits in routine adolescent vaccination in the United States

Kunal Saxen; Jessica R. Marden; Cristina Carias (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Current Medical Research and Opinion

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines among adolescents in the US including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal (ACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The extent to which these deficits could persist in 2021 and beyond is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study estimated the cumulative deficits of routine vaccine doses among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimated the time and effort needed to recover from those deficits. Monthly reductions in Tdap, meningococcal, and HPV doses administered to US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic were quantified using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data. The time and effort required to reverse the vaccination deficit under various catch-up scenarios were estimated.

Parents’ attitudes toward children’s vaccination as a marker of trust in health systems

Orna Tal; Yifat Ne’eman; Rotem Sadia (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Children’s vaccination is a major goal in health-care systems worldwide; nevertheless, disparities in vaccination coverage expose socio-demographic accessibility gaps, unawareness, physicians’ disapproval and parents’ incomplete adherence reflecting insufficient public-provider trust. This study aimed to analyze parents’ attitude toward children’s vaccination in correlation with trust among stakeholders. A total of 1031 parents replied to a “snowball” questionnaire; 72% reported high trust in their physician, 42% trusted the authorities, 11% trusted internet groups. Among minorities, parents who fully vaccinate their children were younger, live in urban areas, eat all kinds of foods and trust the authorities, similar to the general population. Low adherence to children’s vaccination was correlated with trusting internet groups.
Maternal level of awareness and predictors of willingness to vaccinate children against COVID 19; a multi-center study

Awoere T. Chinawa; Josephat M. Chinawa; Edmund N. Ossai (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Several controversies surround mothers’ willingness to vaccinate against the COVID-19 pandemic especially when mortality is not frequently reported in children. This study aimed to ascertain the willingness of mothers of children attending two institutions in Southeast Nigeria to accept the COVID-19 vaccine and factors that may be associated with their choices.This was a cross-sectional study carried out among 577 mothers who presented with their children in two tertiary health institutions in southeast Nigeria.

Parents’ hesitation about getting their children vaccinated against COVID-19 in Japan

Takeshi Yoda; Hironobu Katsuyama

Published: October 2021   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Given the urgent global need for vaccinating individuals of all ages against the COVID-19 pandemic, understanding the extent and reasons for parents’ willingness to get their children vaccinated is important. This study used an internet-based questionnaire survey to determine parents’ willingness to get their children (0 to 15 years) vaccinated in Japan and was conducted in April 2021 before COVID-19 vaccination for children began. Socio-demographic information, information about parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated, reasons for their responses, and parents’ willingness to get themselves vaccinated were obtained. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate parents’ willingness to get children vaccinated based on the other variables.
Engaging Latino families about COVID-19 vaccines: a qualitative study conducted in Oregon, USA

Jonathan Garcia; Nancy Vargas; Cynthia de la Torre (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Health Education & Behavior

Latinos are disproportionately vulnerable to severe COVID-19 due to workplace exposure, multigenerational households, and existing health disparities. Rolling out COVID-19 vaccines among vulnerable Latinos is critical to address disparities. This study explores vaccine perceptions of Latino families to inform culturally centered strategies for vaccine dissemination. Semistructured telephone interviews with Latino families (22 mothers and 24 youth, 13–18 years old) explored COVID-19 vaccine perceptions including (1) sources of information, (2) trust of vaccine effectiveness and willingness to get vaccinated, and (3) access to the vaccine distribution. We identified thematic patterns using immersion–crystallization.

Providing children with COVID-19 vaccinations is challenging due to lack of data and wide-ranging parental acceptance

Jiatong She; lanqin Liu; Wenjun Liu

Published: October 2021   Journal: Acta Paediatrica

Vaccines are vital to ending the COVID-19 pandemic and we reviewed the data on vaccinating children, and including them in clinical trials, as most of the activity has focused on adults. English and Chinese databases, including PubMed, Elsevier Scopus, Web of Science, CNKI and CQVIP were searched, along with websites such as the World Health Organization and the University of Oxford.

Likelihood of COVID-19 vaccination among primary school students in Hong Kong

Kin On Kwok; Kin-Kit Li; Wan In Wei (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Clinical Microbiology and Infection

Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may pose a lower risk of transmission to children than to adults, and schools have contributed little to infection among parents, many countries nevertheless implemented school closure. Following the emergence of the δ variant, which is more transmissible and globally dominant, the percentage of primary school-aged children testing positive has been increasing. Progressively, the circumstances have become more favourable to recommend vaccination of children because of the increased burden on children resulting from the new variants and the supporting evidence from the ongoing vaccine trials among school-aged children. The rollout of COVID-19 vaccines for children is an important step in reopening schools safely. Understanding parental intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 will help inform broad strategies to maximize immunization rates among children. This study was conducted in Hong Kong, a densely populated travel hub in southeast China where residents average 12.5 daily contacts

Canadian parents’ perceptions of COVID-19 vaccination and intention to vaccinate their children: results from a cross-sectional national survey

Robin M. Humble; Hannah Sella; Eve Dubé (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccine

Vaccinating children (≤17 years old) is important for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. As parents are primary decision makers for their children, this study aimed to assess parents’ perceptions and intentions regarding COVID-19 vaccination for their children, including for some underserved populations (e.g., newcomers, Indigenous peoples, and visible minority groups). It conducted a cross-sectional national survey of Canadian parents in December 2020, just as COVID-19 vaccines were approved for adults, to assess intention to vaccinate their children (aged 0–17 years) against COVID-19, perceptions of COVID-19 disease and vaccines, previous uptake of influenza and routine vaccines, and sociodemographic characteristics. Binomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between parents' lack of COVID-19 vaccination intention for their children and various independent variables.

The West Africa inequality crisis: fighting austerity and the pandemic
Institution: Oxfam, Developmente Finance International
Published: October 2021
In 2019, Oxfam warned that West Africa’s governments were the least committed to reducing inequality on the continent, despite crisis levels of inequality.2 In 2021, using the Commitment to Reducing Inequality Index (CRII) framework devised by Oxfam and Development Finance International (DFI), we have found that the average West African citizen still lives under a government least committed to fighting inequality in Africa. The CRI considers public spending; progressive taxation; protection of workers; policies to support agriculture and land rights; and approaches to debt distress; and the role of international financial institutions (IFIs) like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank While West African governments’ indifference towards inequality would be a tragedy at any time, it is more so during the COVID-19 pandemic, which is worsening inequality. On the face of it, West Africa has fared relatively well through the pandemic so far. While infections have been lower than elsewhere, it is increasingly becoming clear that the pandemic risks becoming the region’s worst economic crisis in decades, pushing millions into poverty. No end is in sight due to the obscene global vaccine inequality, which means that less than 4% of West Africans have so far been fully vaccinated.
Disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States: a 2021 update

Don Bambino Geno Tai; Irene G. Sia; Chyke A. Doubeni (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
The COVID-19 pandemic’s disproportionate impact on people from some racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. persisted throughout 2021. Black, Latinx, and American Indian persons have been hospitalized and died at a higher rate than White persons consistently from the start of the pandemic. Early data show that hospitalization and mortality rates for Black, Latinx, and American Indian children are higher than White children in a worrying trend. The pandemic has likely worsened the gaps in wealth, employment, housing, and access to health care: the social determinants of health that caused the disparities in the first place. School closures will have a long-lasting impact on the widening achievement gaps between Black and Latinx students and White students. In the earlier vaccination phase, Black and Latinx persons were being vaccinated at a lower rate than their proportion of cases due to vaccine hesitancy, misinformation, and barriers to access. Vaccine hesitancy rates among these groups have since decreased and are now comparable to White persons. Aggregated data make it challenging to paint a picture of the actual impact of COVID-19 on Asian Americans as they are a diverse group with significant disparities.
Early exploration of COVID-19 vaccination safety and effectiveness during pregnancy: interim descriptive data from a prospective observational study

Inna Bleicher; Einav Kadour-Peero; Lena Sagi-Dain (et al.)

Published: October 2021   Journal: Vaccine
During December 2020, a massive vaccination program was introduced in our country. The Pfizer-BioNTech, BNT162b2 vaccine was first offered exclusively to high-risk population, such as medical personnel (including pregnant women). This study compares short term outcomes in vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated pregnant women. In this prospective observational cohort study, vaccinated and non-vaccinated pregnant women were recruited using an online Google forms questionnaire targeting medical groups on Facebook and WhatsApp. A second questionnaire was sent one month after the first one for interim analysis.
Caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 after adult vaccine approval

Ran D. Goldman; Danna Krupik; Samina Ali (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Vaccines against COVID-19 are likely to be approved for children under 12 years in the near future. Understanding vaccine hesitancy in parents is essential for reaching herd immunity. A cross-sectional survey of caregivers in 12 emergency departments (ED) was undertaken in the U.S., Canada, and Israel. This study compared reported willingness to vaccinate children against COVID-19 with an initial survey and post-adult COVID-19 vaccine approval. Multivariable logistic regression models were performed for all children and for those <12 years. A total of 1728 and 1041 surveys were completed in phases 1 and 2, respectively. Fewer caregivers planned to vaccinate against COVID-19 in phase 2 (64.5% and 59.7%, respectively; p = 0.002). The most significant positive predictor of willingness to vaccinate against COVID-19 was if the child was vaccinated per recommended local schedules. Fewer caregivers plan to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, despite vaccine approval for adults, compared to what was reported at the peak of the pandemic. Older caregivers who fully vaccinated their children were more likely to adopt vaccinating children. This study can inform target strategy design to implement adherence to a vaccination campaign.
Adolescent consent to COVID-19 vaccination: the need for law reform

Robert S. Olick; Y. Tony Yang; Jana Shaw (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Public Health Reports
With the US Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) emergency use authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for adolescents aged 12-15 years on May 10, 2021, COVID-19 vaccination is now available to all adolescents aged 12-17 years. Moderna has also applied for emergency use authorization approval for this age group.1 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention strongly recommends vaccination of the adolescent population, which comprises approximately 25 million people in the United States. Comprehensive protection is critical to adolescent and population health and is a big step toward a return to “normal life” for young people, including in-person school. Vaccine hesitancy—the reluctance or refusal to choose vaccination—identified by the World Health Organization as a top 10 global health threat, undermines these goals. According to a June 2021 Kaiser Family Foundation COVID-19 poll, 42% of parents with adolescents aged 12-17 years said they had either already vaccinated their children or planned to vaccinate their children, 18% said they would “wait a while to see how it is working,” 25% were definitely opposed, and 10% would choose vaccination only if required for school.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on delayed/missed routine immunization in children (0-24 months) in Islamabad, Pakistan

Sabeen Abid Khan; Muhammad Imran; Rabia Tabassum (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health
It is very important to understand the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on routine immunization uptake in children in Islamabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional study was done from November 2020 to January 2021. Children aged 0 to 24 months were enrolled from vaccination centers in public and private sector hospitals. In the private center vaccination services were suspended from March 20 2020 till August 2020. The public center continued to provide vaccination service during the lockdown. Delayed vaccination was defined as a lapse of 4 weeks from the due date. Children who had missed vaccination due to health issue or on doctors' recommendations were excluded.
Covid-19 vaccination during the third trimester of pregnancy: rate of vaccination and maternal and neonatal outcomes, a multicentre retrospective cohort study

M. Rottenstreich; HY Sela; R. Rotem (et al.)

Published: September 2021   Journal: BJOG

This study aims to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 vaccination (Pfizer–BioNTech BNT162b2) during the third trimester of pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes.Women who received two doses of the vaccine were compared with unvaccinated women. Women who were recorded as having disease or a positive Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) swab during pregnancy or delivery were excluded from both study groups. Univariate analysis was followed by multivariate logistic regression.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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