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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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136 - 150 of 153
Global ethical considerations regarding mandatory vaccination in children

AUTHOR(S)
Julian Savulescu; Alberto Giubilini; Margie Danchin

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Jpurnal of Pediatrics
Whether children should be vaccinated against COVID-19 (or other infectious diseases such as influenza) and whether some degree of coercion should be exercised by the state to ensure high uptake depends, among other things, on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. For COVID-19 these are currently unknown for children, with unanswered questions also on children’s role in transmission of the virus, the extent to which the vaccine will reduce transmission, and the expected benefit (if any) to the child. Ultimately, deciding whether to recommend that children receive a novel vaccine for a disease which is not a major threat to them, or to mandate the vaccine, requires precise information on risks, including disease severity and vaccine safety and effectiveness, and comparative evaluation of the alternatives, and of the levels of coercion associated with each. But the decision also requires balancing self-interest with duty to others, and liberty with utility. Separate to ensuring vaccine supply and access, we outline three requirements for mandatory vaccination from an ethical perspective: (1) whether the disease is a grave threat to the health of children and to public health; (2) positive comparative expected utility of mandatory vaccination and (3) proportionate coercion. We also suggest that the case for mandatory vaccine in children may be strong in the case of influenza vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 21 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, ethical research, vaccination
Willingness to vaccinate children against Influenza after the Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Sophie McGregor; Shashidhar R. Marneni (et al.)

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Journal of Pediatrics
This study aims to determine factors associated with parents who plan to vaccinate their children against influenza next year, especially those who did not vaccinate against influenza last year using a global survey. A survey of caregivers accompanying their children aged 1-19 years old in 17 pediatric emergency departments in 6 countries at the peak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Anonymous online survey included caregiver and child demographic information, vaccination history and future intentions, and concern about the child and caregiver having COVID-19 at the time of emergency department visit.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 228 | No. of pages: 87-93.e2 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, immunization programmes, parents, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United States
Evaluation of COVID-19 vaccine refusal in parents

AUTHOR(S)
Metin Yigit; Aslinur Ozkaya-Parlakay; Emrah Senel

Published: January 2021   Journal: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
The frequency of vaccine refusal, which is associated with many factors, is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to predict the frequency of vaccine refusal against domestic and foreign COVID-19 vaccines and identify the factors underlying refusal.
Parents’ and guardians’ views and experiences of accessing routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic: a mixed methods study in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sadie Bell; Richard Clarke; Paulin Paterson (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Plos One
This study aims to explore parents’ and guardians’ views and experiences of accessing National Health Service (NHS) general practices for routine childhood vaccinations during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in England.
Attitudes towards vaccines and intention to vaccinate against COVID-19: implications for public health communications

AUTHOR(S)
Elise Paul; Andrew Steptoe; Daisy Fancourt

Published: December 2020   Journal: The Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Negative attitudes towards vaccines and an uncertainty or unwillingness to receive vaccinations are major barriers to managing the COVID-19 pandemic in the long-term. Predictors of four domains of negative attitudes towards vaccines were estimated and groups most at risk of uncertainty and unwillingness to receive a COVID-19 vaccine in a large sample of UK adults were identified. Data were cross-sectional and from 32,361 adults in the UCL COVID-19 Social Study. Ordinary least squares regression analyses examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors on four types of negative vaccine attitudes: mistrust of vaccine benefit, worries about unforeseen effects, concerns about commercial profiteering, and preference for natural immunity. Multinomial regression examined the impact of socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors, negative vaccine attitudes, and prior vaccine behaviour on uncertainty and unwillingness to be vaccinated for COVID-19.
COVID-19 and parent intention to vaccinate their children against influenza

AUTHOR(S)
Rebeccah L. Sokol; Anna H. Grummon

Published: December 2020   Journal: Pediatrics
This article aims to evaluate if the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influences parents’ intentions to have their children receive the 2020–2021 seasonal influenza vaccination. In May 2020, 2164 US parents and guardians of children ages 6 months to 5 years have been recruited to complete a brief online survey that examined parental behavior and decision making in response to experimental stimuli and real-world events.
Cite this research | Open access | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, infectious disease, parents, vaccination | Countries: United States
COVID-19 in children: could pertussis vaccine play the protective role?

AUTHOR(S)
Mohamad Bachar Ismail; Sarah Al Omari; Rayane Rafei (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Medical Hypotheses
While COVID-19 continues to spread across the globe, diligent efforts are made to understand its attributes and dynamics to help develop treatment and prevention measures. The paradox pertaining to children being the least affected by severe illness poses exciting opportunities to investigate potential protective factors. The Hypothesis of  this paper is that childhood vaccination against pertussis (whooping cough) might play a non-specific protective role against COVID-19 through heterologous adaptive responses in this young population. Pertussis is a vaccine-preventable infectious disease of the respiratory tract and it shares many similarities with COVID-19 including transmission and clinical features. Although pertussis is caused by a bacterium (Bordetella pertussis) while COVID-19 is a viral infection (SARS-CoV-2), previous data showed that cross-reactivity and heterologous adaptive responses can be seen with unrelated agents of highly divergent groups, such as between bacteria and viruses.
Pneumonia & diarrhea progress report 2020
Institution: Save the Children
Published: November 2020

Pneumonia and diarrhea are leading killers of children under the age of five, claiming the lives of more young children globally than any other infectious disease. The impacts of the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic aggravate these heath risks. International Vaccine Access Center's (IVAC) annual Pneumonia & Diarrhea Progress Report evaluates the progress across 10 high-impact indicators outlined in the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) in the 15 countries with the greatest burden of under-five pneumonia and diarrhea deaths.

Factors associated with parents’ willingness to enroll their children in trials for COVID-19 vaccination

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Georg Staubli; Cristina Parra Cotanda (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has taken an unprecedented global toll and vaccination is needed to restore healthy living. Timely inclusion of children in vaccination trials is critical. This study surveyed caregivers of children seeking care in 17 Emergency Departments (ED) across 6 countries during the peak of the pandemic to identify factors associated with intent to participate in COVID-19 vaccine trials. Questions about child and parent characteristics, COVID-19 expressed concerns and parental attitudes toward participation in a trial were asked.
Who should be prioritized for COVID-19 vaccination?

AUTHOR(S)
Fiona M. Russell; Brian Greenwood

Published: November 2020   Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
The development of COVID-19 vaccines is occurring at a rapid pace, with the potential for a vaccine to be available within 6 months. So who should be prioritized for vaccination when in the first instance, there will be insufficient supply to meet demand? There is no doubt that health-care workers in all settings should be vaccinated first, but who comes next will be a complex decision based on local epidemiology, societal values, and the ability of the vaccines to prevent both severe disease and to reduce transmission thereby eliciting herd protection. The decision on who to vaccinate should be equitable, highly contextualized, and based on the property of each vaccine. In some settings, the elderly may be prioritized, in others, it may be the population most likely to get infected and responsible for community spread. To support decision-making on who to be prioritized for vaccination requires urgent additional research on the epidemiology of COVID-19; preexisting immunity and who is responsible for transmission in a variety of settings; the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines in children and pregnant women; and determining whether COVID-19 vaccines prevent asymptomatic infection and transmission.
Parents’ and guardians’ views on the acceptability of a future COVID-19 vaccine: a multi-methods study in England

AUTHOR(S)
Sadie Bell; Richard Clarke; Sandra Mounier-Jack (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Vaccine

The availability of a COVID-19 vaccine has been heralded as key to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 vaccination programme success will rely on public willingness to be vaccinated. This study uses a multi-methods approach - involving an online cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews - to investigate parents’ and guardians’ views on the acceptability of a future COVID-19 vaccine.

Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 38 | Issue: 49 | No. of pages: 7789-7798 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: United Kingdom
Caregiver willingness to vaccinate their children against COVID-19: Cross sectional survey

AUTHOR(S)
Ran D. Goldman; Tyler D. Yan; Michelle Seiler (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Vaccine
More than 100 COVID-19 vaccine candidates are in development since the SARS-CoV-2genetic sequence was published in January 2020. The uptake of a COVID-19 vaccine among children will be instrumental in limiting the spread of the disease as herd immunity may require vaccine coverage of up to 80% of the population. Prior history of pandemic vaccine coverage was as low as 40% among children in the United States during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. This paper aims to investigate predictors associated with global caregivers’ intent to vaccinate their children against COVID-19, when the vaccine becomes available.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 38 | Issue: 48 | No. of pages: 7668-7673 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease control, disease transmission, vaccination | Countries: United States
Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on routine childhood immunization in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Mohammed Alsuhaibani; Aqeel Alaqeel

Published: October 2020   Journal: Vaccines
The COVID-19 pandemic is impacting national and international public health. Routine childhood immunization may be adversely affected by COVID-19 mitigation measures. This study aims to identify the prevalence of delayed immunization and explore the reasons and barriers for delayed immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Qassim region, Saudi Arabia.
Pandemics, epidemics and inequities in routine childhood vaccination coverage: a rapid review

AUTHOR(S)
Nick Spencer; Rita Nathawad; Emmanuele Arpin (et al.)

Published: October 2020

Inequity in routine childhood vaccination coverage is well researched. Pandemics disrupt infrastructure and divert health resources from preventive care, including vaccination programmes, leading to increased vaccine preventable morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 control measures have resulted in coverage reductions. We conducted a rapid review of the impact of pandemics on existing inequities in routine vaccination coverage. PICO search framework: Population: children 0–18 years; Intervention/exposure: pandemic/epidemic; Comparison: inequality; Outcome: routine vaccination coverage. The review demonstrates a gap in the literature as none of the 29 papers selected for full-paper review from 1973 abstracts identified from searches met the inclusion criteria.

COVID-19 and child vaccination: a systematic approach to closing the immunization gap

AUTHOR(S)
Comfort Z. Olorunsaiye; Korede K. Yusuf; Kylie Reinhart (et al.)

Published: September 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic threatens to set back major successes that have been achieved in global vaccine initiatives. This is a rapid review and synthesis of the literature on immunization provision and utilization since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 11 papers comprising peer-reviewed articles and key policies and guidelines, published between January 1 and June 15, 2020, were analyzed. Widespread disruptions of routine immunization and vaccination campaigns were reported leaving millions of children worldwide at risk of measles outbreaks. It is also presented an expanded model of the World Health Organization’s Global Routine Immunization Strategic Plan (GRISP) action areas as a tool to help countries quickly adapt to immunization challenges in the presence of COVID-19 and close the emerging immunization coverage gaps.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 9 | Issue: 3 | No. of pages: 381-385 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child immunization, COVID-19, immunization programmes, vaccination, vaccination policies
136 - 150 of 153

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.