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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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31 - 45 of 315
Household and social characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccine intent among Latino families in the San Francisco Bay Area

Janet M. Wojcicki; Milagro Escobar; Andrea DeCastro Mendez

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Latinos have had higher case counts, hospitalization rates and deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic nationally and in the state of California. Meanwhile, Latino vaccination rates remain lower than those of non-Hispanic Whites. COVID-19 vaccine nonintent, defined as intent to not vaccinate against COVID-19, among Latino individuals continues to be an issue in the state of California. Families from three Latino longitudinal mother–child cohorts previously recruited in the San Francisco Bay Area were surveyed telephonically from February to June 2021 to assess attitudes towards vaccination against COVID-19 and prior vaccination, in general, for themselves and their children. Risk for vaccine nonintent was assessed using the Mann–Whitney rank sum non-parametric test for continuous predictors and chi-squared tests for categorical ones.

Parents' intentions and associated factors to vaccinating their children aged 12–17 years with COVID-19 vaccines: a cross sectional study

Osama Al-Wutayd; Manal Al-Batanony; Nehad Badr (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
No available vaccine against COVID-19 had yet been proven for 12–17-year-olds in Egypt during the study period. This is the first study to assess Egyptian parents’ intentions and associated factors in relation to vaccinating their children with COVID-19 vaccines. A cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted between 17 October and 17 November 2021, via social media platforms. The target group was parents with children aged 12–17 years. Parents’ intention to vaccinate their children and factors associated with vaccinating their children, reasons for not intending to vaccinate their children, and circumstances whereby the parents would change their mind were recorded. Among the 1458 parents recruited, 65.6% were planning to vaccinate their children. The main concerns were fear of the vaccine’s side-effects (68.3%) and conspiracy theories (18%). The factors associated with parents’ intention to vaccinate their children were mother’s older age (40–49 years: aOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.05–1.99; ≥50 years: aOR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.16–3.75), high family income (aOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.41–2.79), and children with a history of chronic conditions (aOR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.25–3.25), while higher mother’s education level was negatively associated (aOR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.27, 0.64). A comprehensive health education program regarding vaccinating children with COVID-19 vaccines is highly recommended for parents, particularly for young and highly educated mothers, to enhance children vaccination rate when the vaccine becomes available.
The mediating role of the perceived COVID-19 vaccine benefits: examining Israeli parents' perceptions regarding their adolescents' vaccination

Shiran Bord; Carmit Satran; Ayelet Schor

Published: June 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Israel was among the first countries to initiate adolescent COVID-19 vaccination. As adolescent vaccination requires parental consent, this study evaluated the factors associated with parents’ willingness to vaccinate their adolescents and their point of view regarding adolescents’ involvement in this decision. An online survey was completed by 581 parents of adolescents aged 16–18. The main independent variables included trust in the healthcare system, components of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and adolescents’ involvement in the decision, as well as background data, including demographics. Analysis included a multiple logistic regression and mediation examination. Parents reported that 446 adolescents (76.8%) have been or will soon be vaccinated against COVID-19, 12.2% chose not to vaccinate their child and 11% have not yet decided. Vaccination was significantly associated with HBM components and with adolescents’ involvement in the decision. The perceived vaccination benefits acted as a mediator in the association between parents’ COVID-19 perceived threat and adolescent vaccination, as well as between parents’ trust in the healthcare system and adolescent vaccination. Addressing vaccination benefits and barriers is pivotal in the attempt to enhance adolescents’ vaccination adherence. Considering the importance of adolescents’ involvement in the decision, addressing them directly may also be beneficial in improving vaccination rates.
Covid-19 vaccine in prison: a not-to-be-missed opportunity to promote access to vaccination in adolescents.

Sara Mazzilli; Babak Moazen; Heino Stover (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: BMJ
Covid-19 vaccination campaigns for adolescents have been taking place in many countries for some months. The WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunisation have called for vaccine prioritisation within countries to take into account the needs of those groups that, due to underlying social, ethnic, geographic, or biomedical factors, are at greater risk of getting infected or suffering most severe consequences from covid-19. Since the risk of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is considerably higher in prisons and detention facilities than elsewhere, adolescents who are detained in juvenile institutions should be prioritised for vaccination.
Incidence and clinical phenotype of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant by vaccination status: a Danish nationwide prospective cohort study.

Ulrikka Nygaard; Mette Holm; Ulla Birgitte Hartling (et al.)

Published: June 2022   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and its incidence is likely to depend on multiple factors, including the variant of the preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine effectiveness. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of MIS-C, and describe the clinical phenotype, following the delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) according to vaccination status. It aimed to compare the incidence and clinical phenotype of MIS-C from our cohort during the pre-delta era. This prospective, population-based cohort study included patients aged 0–17 years hospitalised with MIS-C in Denmark, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition, from Aug 1, 2021, to Feb 1, 2022, a period dominated by the delta variant. It identified MIS-C cases via a nationwide research collaboration involving real-time data collection from all 18 paediatric departments. Aggregated number of SARS-CoV-2 infections by vaccination status was obtained from the Danish COVID-19 surveillance registries. The incidence of MIS-C was calculated using the estimated number of infected individuals by vaccination status
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 6 | Issue: 7 | No. of pages: 459-465 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: child health, COVID-19, hospitalization, infectious disease, vaccination, vaccination policies | Countries: Denmark
Routine immunization programs for children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador, 2020: hidden effects, predictable consequences

Gianina Lizeth Suárez-Rodríguez; José Salazar-Loor; Jackson Rivas-Condo (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global disruption of several services, including routine immunizations. This effect has been described in several countries, but there are few detailed studies in Latin America and no reports in Ecuador. Therefore, this work aims to quantify the reduction in routine immunizations for infants during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador. 2018, 2019, and 2020 data were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Ecuador. The number of doses and the extent of immunization coverage was descriptively compared for four vaccines: rotavirus (ROTA), poliovirus (PV), pneumococcal (PCV), and pentavalent (PENTA) vaccines. There was no significant difference in doses applied during the 2018 and 2019 years. However, a significant (p < 0.05) drop of 137,000 delivered doses was observed in 2020 compared to the pre-pandemic years. Reductions in the percentage of coverage were more pronounced for the PENTA vaccine (17.7%), followed by PV (16.4%), ROTA (12%), and PCV vaccines (10.7%).
Parental hesitancy towards the established childhood vaccination programmes in the COVID-19 era: assessing the drivers of a challenging public health concern

Christos Derdemezis; Georgios Markozannes; Marina O. Rontogianni (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
Vaccine hesitancy remains a major public health concern. The reasons behind this attitude are complex and warrant careful consideration, especially in the context of the COVID-19 era. The purpose of this study was to estimate vaccine hesitancy towards the established childhood immunization programmes in a non-random sample of Greek parents and explore possible links with important drivers of this phenomenon. An online self-administered questionnaire was used from October 2020 to April 2021 to collect socio-demographic, lifestyle, and health status data and evaluate knowledge, views, and attitudes of the Greek population on COVID-19 pandemic-related issues. Parents were further asked to complete the Parent Attitudes about Childhood Vaccines (PACV) questionnaire.
Demographic predictors of mothers' willingness to vaccinate young children against COVID-19, get tested and isolate: a cross-sectional survey before and during the greater Sydney lockdown 2021, Australia

Li Ming Wen; Huilan Xu; Chris Rissel (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Having a COVID-19 vaccination, getting tested, and self-isolating if symptomatic are some of the most important mitigation strategies for preventing the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate whether demographic factors are associated with mothers' willingness to vaccinate their 4-year-old children against COVID-19 if a suitable vaccine becomes available or to get tested and self-isolate if they themselves have COVID-19 symptoms and whether the willingness could be influenced by the Greater Sydney lockdown 2021.  A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted between 24th February and 26th October 2021. Questions from the NSW Adult Population Health Survey and from previously published studies were used to assess family demographics, mothers' willingness to vaccinate their young children, and willingness to get tested and self-isolate if symptomatic. The survey involved 604 mothers of children aged 4 years who participated in an existing trial in Sydney, Australia.

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among minoritised youth in Cleveland, Ohio, United States

Jillian Schulte; Megan Schmidt-Sane; Elizabeth Benninger (et al.)

Published: May 2022
Despite progress in COVID-19 vaccination rates overall in Cleveland, vaccine inequity persists as young people from minoritised communities are often less likely to be vaccinated. Despite being over-represented in COVID-19 case counts and fatalities, Black residents were under-represented in COVID-19 vaccination during the first year and half of the pandemic. In Ohio, while roughly 60% of Cuyahoga County residents are fully vaccinated, just 45% of Cleveland residents are fully vaccinated. Lower-income, majority Black, east side neighbourhoods have markedly lower vaccination rates compared to higher-income, mostly white neighbourhoods. Young people ages 16-40 became eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine on March 29th, 2021, and individuals aged 12 and above were able to get vaccinated from May 2021 onward. However, large disparities exist based age, race, and zip code. This brief illustrates underlying reasons shaping COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among minority (especially Black and Latinx) youth (ages 12-18) and offers key considerations for how young people can be better engaged within Cleveland, Ohio. This brief is based on research, including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 61 young people across 16 neighbourhoods through a Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) approach in Cleveland to contextualise youth perspectives of COVID-19 vaccination and highlight areas of hesitancy and confidence.
Factors associated with decisions of Arab minority parents in Israel to vaccinate their children against COVID-19

Ola Ali-Saleh; Shiran Bord; Fuad Basis

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The Arab ethnic community in Israel is characterized by low social economic status and is at risk due to the typically crowded households. Understanding parents’ level of awareness is important to avoid new outbreaks. This study seeks to identify predicting factors associated with perceived susceptibility to COVID-19, and barriers to COVID-19 vaccination. A survey was conducted through social media, using snowball sampling via social networks. Additionally, t-tests, Chi-square tests, and Z tests were used to evaluate differences between independent proportions. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Multiple logistic regression examined the extent to which the background variables were related to the intention to vaccinate the child.
Caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children under 12 years of age against COVID-19: a cross-sectional multi-center study in Milan, Italy

Maurizio Lecce; Gregorio Paolo Milani; Carlo Agostoni (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Pediatrics
The impact of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the pediatric population is increasingly recognized. A widespread vaccination in childhood would provide benefits for children and might help ending the pandemic by enhancing community protection. Following recent approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) of Comirnaty (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children aged 5–11 years, this study aimed to investigate caregivers' intention to vaccinate their children <12 years of age against COVID-19. A structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children aged <12 years visiting the Emergency Department or the outpatient clinics in three major hospitals of Milan, Italy, from 20 September to 17 October 2021. A total of 612 caregivers were invited to participate and 604 accepted (response rate >98%). Three questionnaires were excluded due to compiling errors and 601 were included in the analysis.
Parents' and caregivers' role toward childhood vaccination in Albania: assessment of predictors of vaccine hesitancy.

E. Gjini; S. Moramarco; M. C. Carestia (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunità

Vaccination has saved millions of lives through the protection of individuals and populations from communicable diseases. Vaccine hesitancy, defined as the delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccines despite the availability of vaccination services, has become a growing global concern. The objective of this study was to investigate parents'/caregivers' hesitancy toward childhood vaccination and its predictors in Albania. The data comes from a survey conducted on a sample of parents/caregivers (89.6% mothers) of children aged 6 months to 8 years at health care vaccination centers in seven Albanian cities from December 2020 to February 2021. Parents/caregivers (one per child) were interviewed by trained healthcare staff using a standardized questionnaire on six main content domains, including immunization behavior, beliefs about vaccine safety and efficacy, attitudes about vaccines, vaccination confidence, estimation of vaccine delay, and the intention to immunize children against SARS-CoV-2, and a self-reported hesitancy.

Adverse events and safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines in adolescents: safety monitoring for adverse events using real-world data

Chae Won Lee; Soonok Sa; Myunghee Hong (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
A COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) has recently been authorized for adolescents in the US. However, the impact of adverse events on adolescents after vaccination has not been fully investigated. To assess the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in adolescents, the incidence of adverse events (AEs) in adolescents and adults was compared after vaccination. This study included 6304 adolescents (68.14 per 100,000 people) who reported adverse events using vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) data from 10 May 2021 to 30 September 2021. The mean age was 13.6 ± 1.1 years and women (52.7%) outnumbered men.
Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy.

Smriti Prasad; Erkan Kalafat; Helena Blakeway (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Nature Communications
Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. This study shows that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I2 = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73–0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I2 = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.
Second wave of the study of Taiwanese caregivers of children with ADHD in the COVID-19 pandemic: intentions to vaccinate their children for COVID-19, and related factors

Ching-Shu Tsai; Liang-Jen Wang; Ray C. Hsiao (et al.)

Published: May 2022   Journal: Vaccines
The second wave of the Study of Taiwanese Caregivers of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in the COVID-19 Pandemic was conducted at the time of a severe COVID-19 outbreak. The aims of this study were to compare the level of the intentions of caregivers of children with ADHD to vaccinate their children between the first and second waves of study, as well as to examine the COVID-19 pandemic and non-COVID-19 pandemic factors related to caregivers’ intentions. In total, 252 caregivers of children with ADHD completed the structured questionnaires, including the Drivers of COVID-19 Vaccination Acceptance Scale; the Risk Perception of the COVID-19 Scale; caregivers’ Difficulties in Asking Their Children to Adopt Self-Protective Behavior Scale; the Brief Symptom Rating Scale; the Parental Bonding Instrument; the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham version IV Scale; and the questionnaires for the intentions to vaccinate their children and child’s medication use for treating ADHD.
31 - 45 of 315

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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