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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the malnutrition statuses of children under five during the COVID-19 lockdown in a marginalized region of South Punjab, Pakistan

AUTHOR(S)
Muhammad Babar Alam; Muhammad Shahid; Bashar Isam Alzghoul (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
The lockdown after the COVID-19 pandemic not only caused public health crises and income stress but also put millions at risk of food insecurity and malnutrition across the globe, especially in low and middle-income countries [LMICs]. This study evaluated the effects of financial stress and household socio-economic deprivation on the nutritional status of 1551 children under the age of five during COVID-19 in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used between November 2020 and April 2021 to collect information on age, height, children’s weight, and socio-economic status from 1152 rural households from underdeveloped regions in Punjab, Pakistan. With the help of the proportionate simple random sampling method, this study employed a model (binary logistic regression) to calculate the likelihood of malnourishment.
Experiences pertaining to child nutrition and care provision among early care and education stakeholders, sponsors, and center directors during the COVID-19 pandemic: a multi-method study

AUTHOR(S)
Temitope Erinosho; Bethany Jana; Kaitlyn Loefstedt (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study used multiple methods (interviews, survey) to assess experiences of stakeholders, sponsors, and center-based early care and education (ECE) program directors pertaining to child nutrition (e.g., provision of nutritious foods, mealtime practices, CACFP administration/use) and the provision of child-care (i.e., day-to-day ECE operations and programming) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants included stakeholders from 22 national and state agencies associated with the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) who also work to promote nutrition and quality child-care, representatives of 17 CACFP sponsor organizations, and 40 center-based ECE program directors who participated in interviews, as well as 100 ECE directors who completed surveys. Data were collected across four states. Thematic analyses of interviews and descriptive methods were used to analyze data collected.

Accelerating SDG 11 achievements during Covid-19 drisis: protecting children living in slums' rights

AUTHOR(S)
Nurul Hidayat Ab Rahman

Published: November 2022   Journal: Malaysian Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Rapid urbanization in metropolitan areas resulted in a mounting number of slum dwellers such as street children, insufficient basic infrastructures, and services. Hence, the world pledges 'sustainable cities and communities' under the Sustainable Development Goals 2030, which aims to make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable for everyone. The objective becomes explicitly vital due to the spread of COVID-19, as over 90 per cent cases are befallen in urban areas. Slum neighborhoods areas are constituted as the most at-risk urban locations which recorded the highest numbers of infectious cases. Hence, this article summarizes SDG 11, focusing on Target 11.1 and Target 11.5 to guarantee access to adequate, safe, affordable housing and essential services for all humans and upgrading slums. Both targets aim to significantly reduce the number of deaths and people affected by direct economic loss due to disasters. The primary purposes of this paper are to explain the challenges faced by the children living in slums in exercising their human rights, particularly during the pandemic epoch and legal analysis on the Convention on the Rights of Child (CRC).
Proximity matrix indicates heterogeneity in the ability to face child malnutrition and pandemics in Brazil: an ecological study

AUTHOR(S)
Camila Botelho Miguel; Arianny Lima da Silva; Carlos Antônio Trindade-da-Silva (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

Among the social inequalities that continue to still surpasses the basic rights of several citizens, political and environmental organizations decisively “drag” the “ghost” of hunger between different countries of the world, including Brazil. The COVID-19 pandemic has increased the difficulties encountered in fighting poverty, which has led Brazil to a worrying situation regarding its fragility in the fight against new pandemics. The present study aims to estimate, compare, and report the prevalence of mortality due to child malnutrition among the macro-regions of Brazil and verify possible associations with the outcome of death by COVID-19. This would identify the most fragile macro-regions in the country with the greatest need for care and investments.

Patterns of adolescent eating behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Ludmila Zhuravleva; Elena Zarubina; Aleksey Ruchkin (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BIO Web of Conferences
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated problems of ensuring food security for all strata of the population of many countries of the world, including Russia. For scientific research of these problems, development and implementation of effective practical recommendations in the international scientific community has developed an interdisciplinary the concept of “food security”. Food security is a stable condition processes, mechanisms, infrastructures, relationships and influences related to food production, storage, transportation, supply, consumption and disposal food waste. The concept of food security it is the key to studying the problems of providing for the population food economists, lawyers, specialists management and logistics, marketers, social psychologists, nutritionists, as well as specialists in the field of other sciences. Its place in comprehensive security research food security is also found by the sociology of nutrition, which studies food systems, first of all, in its links such as the consumption of food by various social groups and food waste management. During the third stage of the sociological research, the topic which was the change in the eating behavior of various socio-demographic groups of Russian society in the conditions of ongoing pandemics, the author’s team conducted an analysis of food practices children and adolescents in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods of conducting smart survey and in-depth interviews were selected for the research.
Children's centres, families and food insecurity in times of crisis

AUTHOR(S)
William Baker; Ioanna Bakopoulou

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Poverty and Social Justice
This study examines how children’s centres in a major city in England responded to food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic by helping to run ‘FOOD Clubs’ to support families. Drawing on data from semi-structured interviews with children’s centre staff, it analyses how clubs were organised, why people joined them, and the range of benefits parents derived from them. It extends the literature on food insecurity which focuses heavily on the rise of foodbanks. These data also informs broader policy debates around supporting parents in poverty, effective early years provision and the challenges facing families experiencing food insecurity.
Drivers of socioeconomic inequalities of child hunger during COVID-19 in South Africa: evidence from NIDS-CRAM Waves 1-5

AUTHOR(S)
Olufunke A. Alaba; Charles Hongoro; Aquina Thulare (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

Child hunger has long-term and short-term consequences, as starving children are at risk of many forms of malnutrition, including wasting, stunting, obesity and micronutrient deficiencies. The purpose of this paper is to show that the child hunger and socio-economic inequality in South Africa increased during her COVID-19 pandemic due to various lockdown regulations that have affected the economic status of the population. This paper uses the National Income Dynamics Study-Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (NIDS-CRAM WAVES 1–5) collected in South Africa during the intense COVID-19 pandemic of 2020 to assess the socioeconomic impacts of child hunger rated inequalities. First, child hunger was determined by a composite index calculated by the authors. Descriptive statistics were then shown for the investigated variables in a multiple logistic regression model to identify significant risk factors of child hunger. Additionally, the decomposable Erreygers' concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequalities on child hunger in South Africa during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Cambodia poverty assessment: toward a more inclusive and resilient Cambodia

AUTHOR(S)
Wendy Karamba; Kimsun Tong; Isabelle Salcher

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
This poverty assessment evaluates Cambodia’s poverty reduction progress between 2009 and 2019 and contributing factors. Based on the authors understanding of contributing factors, the assessment asks what the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been, and what will be needed to support inclusive recovery. The Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) recently updated the national poverty lines for Cambodia. Prompted by Cambodia’s transition to lower middle-income status in 2015, the RGC revisited the poverty measurement methodology in 2017; the review confirmed that the way Cambodians live and spend today has changed considerably as the country became richer, and that the national poverty lines needed revising to better reflect economic realities. This assessment uses the new poverty lines to evaluate Cambodia between 2009 and 2019, coupled with other data sources. This poverty assessment covers 5 chapters. Chapter 1 examines the progress Cambodia made in reducing poverty and boosting shared prosperity between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 2 examines the evolution of nonmonetary poverty between 2009 and 2019. Chapter 3 examines the profile of poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 4 examines the 2019 fiscal system and its effects on poverty and inequality in 2019/20. Chapter 5 examines COVID-19 socio-economic effects on Cambodian Households in 2020.
Towards an inclusive recovery from COVID-19 impacts : a policy brief

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Belhaj Hassine; Sharon Faye Piza; Francine Claire Fernandez

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
Coronavirus (COVID-19) partly reversed gains made in three decades of sustained decline in poverty and a decade of accelerated reduction in inequality in Philippines. Although the economy is recovering gradually, there are signs that the recovery may be uneven. Income recovery also seems to be slower for the poor. The COVID-19 pandemic may have long-term negative impacts on development of human capital. To manage the pandemic shock, a considerable number of poor households have relied on such adverse coping mechanisms as reducing food consumption, which may aggravate already prevalent child malnutrition and stunting. Policy needs to be directed to support an inclusive recovery and to address enduring medium to long term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Price shocks: rising food prices threaten the lives of thousands of children
Institution: World Vision
Published: October 2022

Conflict, climate change, the economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, and fallout from the Ukraine crisis are interacting to create new and worsen existing hunger hotspots around the world. These overlapping crises are reversing the gains many families have made to escape poverty. While global food prices are now stabilising after reaching record highs, in many countries around the world, they continue to climb. High food prices are exacerbating existing humanitarian crises and putting the lives of millions of the world’s most vulnerable children at risk as policymakers are slow to take necessary large-scale action.

Operational research on the WFP Cash Transfer Programme in Cambodia, March 2022
Institution: World Food Programme
Published: October 2022
In 2021, WFP Cambodia implemented a cash transfer programme to support households impacted by both the COVID-19 pandemic and large-scale floods. This was done in consultation with the Royal Government of Cambodia and development partners. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), on behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), provided financial support to the implementation of the cash transfer programme and accompanying operational research. The objective of the cash transfer programme was two-fold: (1) to increase the beneficiaries’ ability to fulfil essential needs and to support their recovery in the face of these shocks, and (2) to create an operational model for shock responsive social protection programmes that could be adopted institutionally and rolled out to address future shocks. For the second objective, WFP commissioned Oxford Policy Management (OPM) to conduct operational research to generate and document key learnings regarding the WFP cash transfer programme. The research sought to answer the following research question: “To what extent did the design and implementation of the WFP cash transfer programme align with and support the building blocks for shock responsive social protection in Cambodia, and what recommendations do WFP, the Royal Government of Cambodia, and social protection actors need to take into account when designing and implementing future cash (and other) programmes to further strengthen the shock responsiveness of the social protection system in the country?”
COVID-19 pandemic impacts on Asia and the Pacific

AUTHOR(S)
A. Elbehri; T. Temel; F. Burcu Ceylan (et al.)

The COVID-19 health crisis has turned into a global economic crisis, putting at risk the health, jobs and incomes of millions of people across the world. The pandemic is becoming persistent and seemingly slow to eradicate, with medium and long-term consequences affecting the trajectories of the SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) targets across the countries. Better understanding of the implications of COVID-19 containment these measures for food systems, food insecurity and malnutrition is vital to prevent this global health crisis from becoming a food crisis and to rebuilt resilient food systems. The regional review presented in this report is broad-based but provisional since we are still dealing with an active pandemic having just moved past the fourth wave (dominated by Delta variant) and now facing a new variant, Omicron (whose real impact is still under review). As we approach 2022, the world is learning to live with COVID-19 and its variants for longer than initially believed. So the numbers related to COVID-19 infections and vaccination rates are only provisional and reflect the situation as of the time of writing.
A global review of COVID-19 policy and programmatic responses to child labour in agrifood systems

This review aims to look into the consequences of (1) the COVID-19 pandemic and the measures put in place to mitigate the spread of the pandemic and (2) the policies and programmatic responses to mitigate socio-economic consequences of the pandemic and how they have potentially interacted with child labour drivers, especially in agrifood systems. Thus, this review aims to document and spell out how policy and programmatic responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular social protection measures, have the potential to prevent or contain an increase of child labour in agriculture at large.

Social protection and response to COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean

AUTHOR(S)
Nurth Palomo; Luis Vargas Faulbaum; Anna Carolina Machado (et al.)

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has hit the foundations of the economy and provoked devastating social effects in all the countries in the world, being Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) one of the most affected regions. The region is also experiencing a significant deterioration in the levels of poverty and extreme poverty, which affects children and adolescents more significantly. This Research Report analyzes digital payment systems for social protection interventions in the region.

Impact of COVID-19 on child labor in the Province of Chimborazo

AUTHOR(S)
Cristian Alexander Mejía Ortiz; Gissela Estefania Mera Rojas; Vivian Lizbeth Ruiz Sudario (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: ESPOCH Congresses: The Ecuadorian Journal of S.T.E.A.M.
Child labor violates the children’s fundamental rights and interrupts their intellectual growth and potential. The prevalence of child labor in Ecuador has increased significantly in recent years, and the COVID-19 health crisis has only aided it. The province of Chimborazo over time has taken the lead amongst the other Ecuadorian provinces, showing a significant increase in the rate of child labor which has now become too complex to solve. Although, as a result of COVID-19, the rate of child labor has increased worldwide, the national and provincial rate of child labor in Ecuador significantly reduced due to the social distancing policies. However, once the infections were controlled, it resumed the pre-pandemic situation as many children from low-income families were forced to seek alternative income to survive during the pandemic; likewise, all commercial, production, and service activities were affected.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.