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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 494
Relationship among child maltreatment, parental conflict, and mental health of children during the COVID-19 lockdown in China

AUTHOR(S)
Yashuang Bai; Mingqi Fu; Xiaohua Wang (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma
Children are more likely to experience maltreatment and parental conflict in a pandemic context, which can exacerbate their vulnerability to psychological disorders. The purpose of the present study was to examine mental health symptoms in children aged 0 to 10 years and consider related factors from the perspectives of maltreatment and parental conflict during the COVID-19 lockdown. Participants were 1286 parents aged 18 years and over with children aged 0 to 10 years were included. Several multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the data.
Ending violence against children during Covid-19 and beyond: second regional conference to strengthen implementation of the INSPIRE strategies
Institution: World Health Organisation, *UNICEF
Published: August 2022

UNICEF and WHO jointly organized Ending Violence Against Children During COVID-19 and Beyond: Second Regional Conference to Strengthen Implementation of the INSPIRE Strategies, held virtually on 1–5 November 2021. The Conference comes under the umbrella of the 2021 Solutions Summit series of the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children (GPEVAC).  Over 1700 delegates gathered for the Conference virtually, representing governments (including from the health, social welfare, education and justice sectors), youth groups, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the United Nations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), international NGOs, faith-based organizations and religious leaders, academic institutions, private sector and development partners, as well as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General on Violence Against Children. The purpose of the Conference was to identify actions needed to ensure effective prevention and response to VAC during the COVID-19 pandemic and recovery, utilizing the strategies outlined in INSPIRE: Seven strategies for ending violence against children.

Injuries and child abuse increase during the pandemic over 12942 emergency admissions

AUTHOR(S)
Quentin Hennocq; Célia Adjed; Hélène Chappuy (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Injury
A strict lockdown was decided from 17/03/2020 to 11/05/2020 in France in order to tackle the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic. In the Great Paris region, several areas are severely affected by overcrowding, creating difficult conditions for children and their families during a period of nearly two months. The objective was to assess the effects of the 2020 spring lockdown on injuries, child abuse and neglect. The central medical data warehouse was screened for all pediatric admissions at emergency and critical care departments of 20 hospitals, in a cohort of 12942 children. Specific keywords were used to screen for both injuries and child abuse and neglect.
Prevalence, increase and predictors of family violence during the COVID-19 pandemic, using modern machine learning approaches

AUTHOR(S)
Kristina Todorovic; Erin O’Leary; Kaitlin P. Ward (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychiatry

We are facing an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is causing detrimental effects on mental health, including disturbing consequences on child maltreatment and intimate partner violence. This study sought to identify predictors of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence from 380 participants (mean age 36.67 ± 10.61, 63.2% male; Time 3: June 2020) using modern machine learning analysis (random forest and SHAP values). It predicted that COVID-related factors (such as days in lockdown), parents’ psychological distress during the pandemic (anxiety, depression), their personality traits, and their intimate partner relationship will be key contributors to child maltreatment. It also examined if there is an increase in family violence during the pandemic by using an additional cohort at two time points (Time 1: March 2020, N = 434; mean age 35.67 ± 9.85, 41.69% male; and Time 2: April 2020, N = 515; mean age 35.3 ± 9.5, 34.33%).

'Tipping the balance' - an evaluation of COVID-19 parenting resources developed and adapted for child protection during global emergency responses

AUTHOR(S)
Lorraine Sherr; Helen Mebrahtu; Kasonde Mwaba (et al.)

Published: August 2022   Journal: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

Parenting was severely affected by lockdown, school closure, illness, movement restrictions and the many sudden changes wrought by the global emergence of COVID-19. Responding to the need for a rapid emergency response to support parents and caregivers, a consortium of providers developed a suite of COVID-19 parenting resources based on evidence-based parenting interventions. Launched in March 2020, these were adapted for online use, with versions in over 100 languages, and the possibility for downloading, radio, and oral provision. A rapid qualitative evaluation initiative was conducted from September 2020 to February 2021 to inform the procedure, understand the impact and to drive future provision. The evaluation collected openended responses surveys (n = 495 participants) and in-depth interviews with parents, providers, and adolescent children (n = 22) from 14 countries and one global source. Data were gathered on parenting challenges during COVID-19 and the utility of the COVID-19 parenting resources.

The emotional neglect potentials of nurses working in the COVID-19 service towards their children: a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Vildan Apaydin Cirik; Elif Bulut; İlknur Kahriman (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
This study aims to examine in depth the potential child emotional neglect behaviors of nurses working in the COVID-19 service, and their feelings, thoughts, and experiences regarding the causes and effects on their children. The study was designed as a qualitative study based on a descriptive phenomenological approach. A purposeful sample of service providers (N = 22) in the COVID-19 clinics of the region's largest hospital in northeast Turkey in terms of education and patient care were recruited for the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews using the individual in-depth face-to-face interview method. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed with Braun and Clarke's thematic analysis method. The research was reported by following Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research-COREQ.
Rethinking dating and sexual violence prevention for youth during the pandemic: examining program feasibility and acceptability

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Segura; Michelle Henkhaus; Victoria Banyard (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Sexual and dating violence (SDV) is a social and health but preventable public issue. Most evidence-based prevention programs have been evaluated using an in-person delivery mechanism. Project Dream, Own and Tell (DOT) is a 13- to 18-week SDV prevention program targeting youth from traditionally underserved communities in New York City that shifted from in-person to online delivery in response to social distancing requirements during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the current study was to understand how youth perceive learning SDV prevention in an online environment (acceptability and feasibility of the online DOT program). A mixed methods triangulation design was used including responses to Ecological Momentary Assessments (n = 25), a brief post survey with Likert-scale items (n = 18), and semi-structured interviews with 12 participants. The sample comprised Latinx/Hispanic, Asian American, Arab American, and African American youth between the ages of 15 and 21 from urban communities. Youth indicated both strengths and challenges of the online format. Strengths included ease of fitting the program into their schedules, avoiding long commutes, and the potential to create a safe online space for participants to engage in sexual violence prevention discussions and thus, feel less exposed. Challenges included internet connectivity issues, difficulties in building trustworthy relationships with other participants when not sharing the same physical space, some characteristics of the program’s activities, and the lack of adequate space from which to attend the program (i.e., shared spaces).
Changes in child discipline strategies in Iran during the outbreak of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Samin Farahzadi; Masoomeh Maarefvand; Maryam Zabihi Poursaadati

Published: July 2022   Journal: The Journal of School Nursing
During the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic, anxiety and depression were common among caregivers and parents more prone to adopt harsh disciplinary techniques when angry or stressed. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are any differences in parents’ disciplinary strategies following social distancing efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic. An online questionnaire was completed by a convenience sample of parents (N = 605) and mothers (n = 533; 88.1%) aged 37.80 years old (SD = 5.66; range = 20–59) who lived with children aged 6–12 years in Iran during the COVID-19 pandemic. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey questionnaire was used to gauge child discipline.
An analytical study on the violence against children during Covid-19 period in Bangladesh

AUTHOR(S)
Abu Shahen

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Qualitative Research

This paper tried to know the different forms of violence against children during the Corona pandemic in  Bangladesh  from 2020 to  mid-2021.  As  we have  already experienced  this  catastrophic and lives  losing  pandemic situation across the world wherein  the  people  of  Bangladesh  have  been  uniquely facing this  live  losing situation  since 2020.  World  Health  Organization  has  warned  people  to  adopt different  precautionary  measures  like  20-second hand washing, wearing  a  mask, maintaining  physical  and  social  distance,  isolation,  quarantine,  taking immediate treatment,  and  vaccination.  The real situation is that  many  countries  have  failed  to take  these measures and lost a huge  number  of  lives. In  spite  of  those  situations, many  developed  countries  have taken  precautionary  measures  to  prevent  mass transmission of the   Covid-19 virus.  But unfortunately,  many socio-economic problems  like  violence  against  children  and women have been  aroused during this pandemic situation while governments have given more concentration on Covid-19 prevention, e.g., isolation, quarantine, awareness of social   measures, and vaccination.


Violence against children in family settings during the COVID-19 outbreak in Croatia

AUTHOR(S)
Dalida Rittossa

Published: July 2022   Journal: Zbornik Pravnog fakulteta Sveučilišta u Rijeci
In recent times, humanity has experienced the devastating effects of the COVID-19 crisis, which has caused sharp ruptures in different spheres of social life. Detrimental effects of the almost unprecedented crisis have triggered an avalanche of research to explore the phenomenon in focus while conducting scientific investigation that matters. Despite the rapid influx of scholarly articles, recent literature has shown that there is still a remarkable lack of scholarly attention on disasters and their impact on children. While trying to contribute to and address the noted research gap, to the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that explores pathways to violence against children in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic in Croatia with a focus on the national lockdown. The sample consisted of 63 randomly selected police files involving 65 suspects of criminal offences with elements of violence against 108 closely related children at the five police departments centred in Pula, Rijeka, Zagreb, Split and Osijek. In order to “capture” the violence that emerged during the lockdown and was reported after restrictive measures were lifted, a seven-month time frame (March–September, 2020) was implemented as an additional sampling parameter.
Associations between caregiver stress and child verbal abuse and corporal punishment in Thailand's impoverished Deep South region during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rohani Jeharsae; Manusmeen Jehnok; Haneefah Jeh-alee (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health
The objectives of this study are: (1) To describe the levels of parental stress, self-reported child verbal abuse and corporal punishment among caregivers, and; (2) To assess the extent that having moderate or higher levels of parental stress is associated with self-reported child verbal abuse and corporal punishment. We randomly sampled 12 villages and sampled 40 households per village in Thailand’s impoverished Deep South region in June 2020. Study participants included 466 caregivers residing in sampled households. Trained enumerators used the standard ST-5 questionnaire to measure stress level and asked the participants to self-report the study outcomes.
Implications of COVID-19 labour market shock for child and household hungers in South Africa: do social protection programs protect?

AUTHOR(S)
Dambala Gelo; Johane Dikgang

Published: July 2022   Journal: Plos One

Recent studies have confirmed that the COVID-19 lockdown has caused massive job losses. However, the impact of this loss on food security is not well-understood. Moreover, a paucity of evidence exists regarding social protection grants’ countervailing effects against such shocks. This study examined the effects of job loss (labour income loss) on child and household hungers (our two measures food insecurity) during COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa. It also ascertained whether these effect were offset by alternative social grant programs to document the protective role of the latter.It used South Africa’s National Income Dynamics Study (NIDS) and the Coronavirus Rapid Mobile Survey (CRAM) data. These data cover a nationally representative sample of 7073 individuals. We employed a probit model to estimate the effect of job loss and receipts of various social grants on child and households’ hungers. It also estimated the double-selection logit model to account for the model’s uncertainty surrounding the variable selection and treatment-effects estimation using lasso (Telasso) for causal inference of our analysis.

Child labour and education in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Jack Iván Vidal Chica; Efstathios Stefos; Raquel Gilar Corbi (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: Sociedad & Tecnología
Child labour is a worldwide issue with a major impact on access to education, Latin America being one of the regions heavily affected by this type of illegal activity, the data were not very encouraging and with the COVID19 pandemic the situation worsened. This study uses data, of 117,189 girls and boys between the ages of 5 and 14, obtained from National Survey of Employment, Unemployment and Underemployment (ENEMDU), with the aim to analyse education and child labour situation in Ecuador through pandemic in 2020, a complete descriptive analysis was developed in order to display the main differentiation criteria and the classification into groups of the people investigated, the results are confirmed by factor analysis.
Impact on the incidence of suspected physical abuse in children under 24 months of age during a global pandemic: a multi-centre irish regional retrospective cross-sectional analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Caoimhe McDonnell; Michael Courtney; Michael Barrett (et al.)

Published: July 2022   Journal: The British Journal of Radiology

he advent of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in periods of nationwide restrictions in Ireland including school and workplace closures. The authors hypothesised that this disruption to society may have led to a change in patterns of suspected physical abuse (SPA) presentations to the paediatric emergency department (ED), whilst ED attendance fell dramatically during the period. We reviewed data to determine whether there was an increase in presentations of SPA during periods of social restrictions. The National Integrated Medical Imaging Service was searched for all skeletal survey examinations performed between the dates of the 1 March 2016 and 28 Feb 2021 for studies performed in cases of SPA. Electronic records of attendance were extracted from the emergency department administrative system at the three paediatric emergency departments which serve the 400,000 children regionally. The data were reviewed to determine if SPA presentations increased during restriction periods.

Exploring the nexus of Covid-19, precarious migration and child labour on the Cambodian-Thai border

AUTHOR(S)
Il Oeur; Sochanny Hak; Soeun Cham (et al.)

Institution: Institute of Development Studies
Published: June 2022

This report shares findings from qualitative research on the impacts of Covid-19 on Cambodian migrant workers in four sites along the Cambodia-Thai border. Government restrictions in Thailand and the border closure in February 2020 led to job losses and reduced working hours, and ultimately to an increase in the rate of return migration. Return migrants were forced to use informal points of entry with the facilitation of informal brokers, facing increased costs and risks and, in the process, becoming undocumented. This report shows an unequal access to health services between documented and undocumented migrants. Even in the context of Covid-19, some migrants continue to travel with young children who support the family, mostly through light agricultural work.

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.