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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 522
Global prevalence of physical and psychological child abuse during COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Hyun Lee; EunKyung Kim

Published: January 2023   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

With the onset of COVID-19, most countries issued lockdowns to prevent the spread of the virus globally and child abuse was concerned under such a closed circumstance. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of physical and psychological child abuse during COVID-19 and moderating variables for those abuses. The rates of child abuse reported in 10 studies encompassing 14,360 children were used, which were gathered through a systematic review.

Persistent racial disproportionality in investigated and substantiated child maltreatment reports: trend analysis before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2019–2020)

AUTHOR(S)
Keunhye Park; Bryan G. Victor; Brian E. Perron (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Child Welfare
Early studies revealed COVID-19ʹs outbreak led to a drastic decline in child maltreatment reports and investigations within child welfare services. However, limited research has documented whether these declines continued throughout the pandemic. Furthermore, our knowledge is limited around whether COVID-19 influenced existing racial disproportionalities given the shock to the child welfare system. This study addresses those gaps by drawing from county-level child welfare data from 2019 to 2020 to examine 1) changes in reporting sources before and during COVID-19, 2) trends in investigated and substantiated reports of child maltreatment, and 3) disproportionality between racial groups.
The role of child protection managers during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. Challenges, priorities, new knowledge and skills

AUTHOR(S)
Camilla Landi; Paola Limongelli

Published: December 2022   Journal: European Journal of Social Work
This paper focuses on the role of the managers of child protection services in a region of Northern Italy during the Covid-19 pandemic. In most child protection services, there is a manager who is responsible for supporting social workers and collaborating with directors and policymakers. The COVID-19 pandemic has strongly impacted welfare organisations, professionals, service users, and families. Given the exceptional situation, an online survey was conducted on child protection services and the functions performed by managers during the first phase of the pandemic (March-May 2020). This paper presents the findings of a research survey involving 85 child protection managers.
Physical abuse in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rany Ekawati; Anisa Nur Rahma; Kartika Alifia (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health in Africa
Covid-19 has now spread to almost all parts of the world which has caused changes in the social order of life for humans. The spread of Covid-19 in Indonesia is relatively high, so the Indonesian government has adopted a policy using social distancing (large-scale social restrictions). Various pressures experienced by residents tend to result in excessive stress and emotions. This can have an impact on the occurrence of violence in families and generally the victims are adolescents. Physical abuse is an act that can cause physical pain such as slapping, strangling, hitting, kicking, stabbing, twisting the arm, threats with sharp weapons or weapons, and murder. The method used in this research is descriptive analytical method. The research sample was 192 people from various provinces in Indonesia aged 10-24 years.
Violence against children during the COVID-19 pandemic: theory of planned behavior (TPB) analysis on Lowokwaru District, Indonesia

AUTHOR(S)
Windi Chusniah Rachmawati; Endang Sri Redjeki; Hanifati Nadhilah

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Public Health in Africa
The high number of cases of violence against children has become a big concern, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research purposes to analyze the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in violence against children during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lowokwaru District, Malang City. Research design a quantitative analytic study with a cross-sectional study primary data. Research instrument used was a questionnaire with Google Form application which was online collecting by 100 mothers. Analysis technique uses Somers’d and Ordinal Logistic Regression. Variables related to the intention to commit violence against children are subjective norms (p=0.00<α=0.05) and behavioral control (p=0.002 <α=0.05), while attitudes are not related to the intention to commit violence against children (p=0.501 >α=0.05). Variables that have a significant effect on the intention of violence against children are subjective norms (p=0.001<α=0.05) and behavioral control (p=0.002<α=0.05). Subjective norms and behavioral control are related and have an effect on the intention to commit violence against children, while attitudes do not.
Stay home, stay safe? The impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on the prevalence, nature, and type of reporter of domestic violence in the Netherlands

AUTHOR(S)
Anne Coomans; David Kühling-Romero; Sjoukje van Deuren (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Family Violence

Insecurities and social isolation resulting from the COVID-19 restrictions, may have elevated tensions at home, consequently increasing the risk of domestic violence. The present study aims to examine changes in the prevalence, nature, and type of reporter of domestic violence following the various restrictions implemented to control the spread of the COVID-19 virus in the Netherlands. All official domestic violence reports recorded by the 26 Dutch domestic violence agencies in 2019 and 2020 were collected and analyzed. Time-series forecasting analyses, using a SARIMAX model, were conducted to predict the trend of domestic violence reports during the first lockdown and to compare the predicted trend with the observed trend.

Who's going to keep us safe? Surviving domestic violence and shared parenting during Covid-19

AUTHOR(S)
Beth Archer-Kuhn; Judith Hughes; Michael Saini (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
This paper discusses the experiences during COVID-19 of mothers who have young children, are survivors of domestic violence and who share parenting to highlight the further unsafe situations survivors of violence and their children were placed in during the pandemic. Part of a larger mixed methods study, these participants (n = 19) from three Canadian provinces, Alberta, Manitoba and Ontario, engaged in virtual individual one-on-one interviews via zoom. Using thematic analysis, four themes emerged from the data: 1) increased use of coercive controlling behaviors; 2) fear of the unknown; 3) lack of supports; and, 4) finding balance.
Child maltreatment during the pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
J. Bart Klika; Melissa T. Merrick; Jennifer Jones

Published: November 2022   Journal: Child Maltreatment
What happened with child abuse and neglect during the pandemic? Emergency department and child welfare data suggest a decline in reports; however other sources of data suggest that risk for abuse and neglect remained high during COVID-19. In this commentary, the authors highlight the complicated, and at times contradictory, evidence as to what occurred with child abuse and neglect during the pandemic. The commentary concludes with suggestions for future research.
A pan-European review of good practices in early intervention safeguarding practice with children, young people and families: evidence gathering to inform a multi-disciplinary training programme (the ERICA project) in preventing child abuse and negle

AUTHOR(S)
J. V. Appleton; S. Bekaert; J. Hucker (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: International Journal on Child Maltreatment: Research, Policy and Practice
Child maltreatment has detrimental social and health effects for individuals, families and communities. The ERICA project is a pan-European training programme that equips non-specialist threshold practitioners with knowledge and skills to prevent and detect child maltreatment. This paper describes and presents the findings of a rapid review of good practice examples across seven participating countries including local services, programmes and risk assessment tools used in the detection and prevention of child maltreatment in the family. Learning was applied to the development of the generic training project. A template for mapping the good practice examples was collaboratively developed by the seven participating partner countries. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken organised by an a priori analysis framework. Examples were organised into three areas: programmes tackling child abuse and neglect, local practices in assessment and referral, risk assessment tools.
Remote methods for research on violence against women and children: lessons and challenges from research during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Amiya Bhatia; Ellen Turner; Aggrey Akim (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMJ Global Health
Collecting data to understand violence against women and children during and after the COVID-19 pandemic is essential to inform violence prevention and response efforts. Although researchers across fields have pivoted to remote rather than in-person data collection, remote research on violence against women, children and young people poses particular challenges. As a group of violence researchers, we reflect on our experiences across eight studies in six countries that we redesigned to include remote data collection methods.
National COVID-19 lockdown and trends in help-seeking for violence against children in Zimbabwe: an interrupted time-series analysis

AUTHOR(S)
Ilan Cerna-Turoff; Robert Nyakuwa; Ellen Turner (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: BMC Public Health volume

An estimated 1.8 billion children live in countries where COVID-19 disrupted violence prevention and response. It is important to understand how government policies to contain COVID-19 impacted children’s ability to seek help, especially in contexts where there was limited formal help-seeking prior to the pandemic. This study aimed to quantify how the national lockdown in Zimbabwe affected helpline calls for violence against children, estimated the number of calls that would have been received had the lockdown not occurred and described characteristics of types of calls and callers before and after the national lockdown. It used an interrupted time series design to analyse the proportion of violence related calls (17,913 calls out of 57,050) to Childline Zimbabwe’s national child helpline between 2017 to 2021. It applied autoregressive integrated moving average regression (ARIMA) models to test possible changes in call trends before and after the March 2020 lockdown and forecasted how many calls would have been received in the absence of lockdown. In addition, it examined call characteristics before and after lockdown descriptively.

A new era for the rights of the child: the new "Rome strategy" (2022-2027)

AUTHOR(S)
Soraya Espino García

Published: November 2022   Journal: Visual Review
The significant increase in the existence and exploitation of self-generated sexual images and videos by boys and girls, is the focus of the new monitoring Report presented by the Council of Europe´s Lanzarote Committee in Rome. In 2017, exploitation of boy and girls self-generated sexual material was already perceived as a potentially serious risk. Later, in 2019-2020, a large increase in the existence of sexual material generated by minors was observed. The pandemic situation derived from Covid-19 exacerbated this reality. The Report examines 43 European States Parties to The Lanzarote Convention, with special mention to the fact of preventing this particular form of sexual exploitation of boys and girls, investigating and prosecuting it, improving the identification and protection of victims and and likewise, an improvement of the framework law in this matter with the consequent guidelines to the respective governments.
The impact of COVID-19 on women and children in the UK who were victims of domestic abuse: a practitioner perspective

AUTHOR(S)
Charlotte Proudman; Ffion Lloyd

Published: November 2022   Journal: Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research

This study aims to explore the impact of COVID-19 on women and children in the UK who were victims of domestic abuse. The authors draw from their experiences of working in the domestic abuse sector to reflect on the impact of lockdown restrictions on women and children, focussing on the impact of government restrictions that created an environment in which abusers could control the movement of victims.

The impact of experiencing severe physical abuse in childhood on adolescent refugees' emotional distress and integration during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Flurina Potter; Katalin Dohrmann; Brigitte Rockstroh (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Frontiers in Psychology

Accumulating evidence highlights the importance of pre- and post- migration stressors on refugees’ mental health and integration. In addition to migration-associated stressors, experiences earlier in life such as physical abuse in childhood as well as current life stress as produced by the COVID-19-pandemic may impair mental health and successful integration – yet evidence on these further risks is still limited. The present study explicitly focused on the impact of severe physical abuse in childhood during the COVID-19 pandemic and evaluated the impact of these additional stressors on emotional distress and integration of refugees in Germany. The sample included 80 refugees, 88.8% male, mean age 19.7 years. In a semi-structured interview, trained psychologists screened for emotional distress, using the Refugee Health Screener, and integration status, using the Integration Index. The experience of severe physical abuse in childhood was quantified as a yes/no response to the question: “Have you been hit so badly before the age of 15 that you had to go to hospital or needed medical attention?” Multiple hierarchical regression analyses further included gender, age, residence status, months since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and length of stay in Germany to predict emotional distress and integration.

Child sexual abuse survivors: Differential complex multimodal treatment outcomes for pre-COVID and COVID era cohorts

AUTHOR(S)
Matthew Reeson; Wanda Polzin; Hannah Pazderka (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a form of early-life trauma that affects youth worldwide. In the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic, it is imperative to investigate the potential impact of added stress on already vulnerable populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multimodal treatment program on mental health outcomes for youth CSA survivors aged 8–17. Secondary to this, we explored the potential impact of the COVID-19 on treatment outcomes. Participants of this study were children and youth aged 8–17 who were engaged in a complex multimodal treatment program specifically designed for youth CSA survivors. Participants were asked to complete self-report surveys at baseline and at the end of two subsequent treatment rounds. Surveys consisted of measures pertaining to: (1) PTSD, (2) depression, (3) anxiety, (4) quality of life, and (5) self-esteem.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.