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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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301 - 315 of 319
Ensuring availability of food for child nutrition amidst the Covid–19 pandemic: challenges and way forward

AUTHOR(S)
Madhu Kumari Upadhyay; Somdatta Patra; Amir Maroof Khan

Published: April 2020   Journal: Indian Journal of Community Health
Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic spread in India is steeply rising. A 21-day lockdown has been imposed by the Government of India, to curtail its spread. This has impacted all walks of life, including the availability of food, and nutrition related services. This will impact nutritional status of children throughout India. The two major schemes, i.e. the Integrated Child Development Scheme and the Mid-day meal services scheme have also been affected leading to a risk of worsening of child nutrition. Some states have evolved their own strategies to mitigate the effect of lockdown during this crisis period. Here we discuss the challenges and way forward related to ensuring availability of food for child nutrition during this health crisis.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 32 | Issue: 2 | No. of pages: 251-254 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Nutrition, Child Protection | Tags: child nutrition, COVID-19 response, lockdown | Countries: India
Mitigating the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on food and nutrition of schoolchildren
While cases of COVID-19 appear to be fewer among children (and symptoms generally milder), national responses to the pandemic can have important consequences for child nutrition and educational outcomes.
Investing in the early years during COVID-19
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
Young children need comprehensive nurturing care which includes good health, adequate nutrition, early learning opportunities, responsive caregiving, and safety and security. Severe, lifelong impacts can result from deprivations during the early years if children do not have these critical inputs to ensure optimal child development. The World Bank’s Investing in the Early Years framework lays out three pillars to ensure children reach their full potential: i. Children are healthy and well-nourished, especially in the first 1,000 days ii. Children receive early stimulation and learning opportunities and iii. Children are nurtured and protected from stress. In the following three pages, we set out specific risks that children face under each of these pillars due to the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) crisis, together with response options, potential platforms and country examples. While health and nutrition are key elements of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) emergency response and are more likely to be addressed immediately, empowering parents to provide warm and responsive caregiving and ensuring safety and security of young children and early learning opportunities for young children is essential and risks falling through the cracks.
15 ways to support young children and their families in the COVID-19 response
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
As the global COVID-19 (Coronavirus) pandemic continues to unfold, young children will be especially vulnerable. World Bank teams can work with client countries to support early childhood development (ECD) by leveraging a range of interventions and mechanisms that will be part of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) response in every country. The report has three key messages : The early years are a critical period to build human capital. Young children are disproportionately at risk and must be prioritized in COVID-19 (Coronavirus) responses. We will reach young children by supporting parents and caregivers.
Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Family Planning and Ending Gender-based Violence, Female Genital Mutilation and Child Marriage
Institution: UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund
Published: April 2020   Journal: UNFPA Brief
UNFPA aims to achieve three world-changing results by 2030, the deadline for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. These are: Ending unmet need for family planning, ending gender-based violence including harmful practices such as female genital mutilation and child marriage, and ending all preventable maternal deaths. COVID-19 pandemic could critically undermine progress made towards achieving these goals.
A UN framework for the immediate socio-economic response to COVID-19
Institution: United Nations
Published: April 2020
This report sets out the framework for the United Nations’ urgent socio-economic support to countries and societies in the face of COVID-19, putting in practice the UN Secretary-General’s Shared Responsibility, Global Solidarity report on the same subject. It is one of three critical components of the UN’s efforts to save lives, protect people, and rebuild better, alongside the health response, led by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the humanitarian response, as detailed in the UN-led COVID-19 Global Humanitarian Response Plan.
The implications of COVID-19 for the care of children living in residential institutions

AUTHOR(S)
Philip S Goldman; Marinus H van Ijzendoorn; Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke

Published: April 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Around the world reports are emerging of numerous residential institutions for children being closed as a result of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Children appear to be being sent back to their communities without proper consideration of where they will reside, how their transition will be supported, and whether their safety will be monitored. Our view as international experts on institutional care reform is that although overall a shift from institutional to family-based care is a priority, these transitions need to be carefully planned and managed, with effective and sustained family preparation, strengthening, monitoring, and other support provided to ensure the best interests of the child are maintained.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 6 | No. of pages: 1 | Language: English | Topics: Child Protection, Health | Tags: child care, child care services, COVID-19, COVID-19 response, education, pandemic
Family violence and COVID‐19: Increased vulnerability and reduced options for support

AUTHOR(S)
Kim Usher; Navjot Bhullar; Joanne Durkin (et al.)

Published: April 2020   Journal: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
The fear and uncertainty associated with pandemics provide an enabling environment that may exacerbate or spark diverse forms of violence. Actions such as social distancing, sheltering in place, restricted travel, and closures of key community resources are likely to dramatically increase the risk of family violence. Governments and policymakers must create awareness about an increased risk of violence during pandemics and highlight the need for people to keep in touch with each other (while observing precautionary measures) and the great importance of reporting any concerns of abuse. It is important to remember that maintaining social connectedness is an important strategy during times of isolation, even more so with family or friends you suspect may be at risk of family violence. In addition, information about services available locally (e.g. hotlines, tele‐health, respite services, shelters, rape crisis centres, and counselling) must be made known to the general public through a range of sources, including social media, the mainstream media, and health facilities. Mental health professionals can support people by providing first‐line psychological support, including listening empathetically and without judgment, enquiring about needs and concerns, validating peoples’ experiences and feelings, enhancing safety, and connecting people to relevant support services.
The Impact of COVID-19 on children
Institution: United Nations
Published: April 2020

The UN Secretary-General has launched a policy brief on the impact of COVID-19 on children. The brief lays out the ways in which the virus will impact children.  Whilst they appear largely to be spared the worst symptoms of the disease, they may well be among the biggest victims of the crisis in the long run because their education, nutrition, safety and health will be significantly undermined by the socioeconomic impact and by unintended consequences of the pandemic response. The harmful effects of this pandemic will not be distributed equally. They are expected to be most damaging for children in the poorest countries, and in the poorest neighbourhoods, and for those in already disadvantaged or vulnerable situations. This policy brief provides a deeper analysis of these effects. It identifies also a series of immediate and sustained actions for the attention of governments and policymakers.

COVID-19: how to include marginalized and vulnerable people in risk communication and community engagement
Published: March 2020
Women, the elderly, adolescents, youth, and children, persons with disabilities, indigenous populations, refugees, migrants, and minorities experience the highest degree of socioeconomic marginalization. Marginalized people become even more vulnerable in emergencies. This is due to factors such as their lack of access to effective surveillance and early-warning systems, and health services. The COVID-19 outbreak is predicted to have significant impacts on various sectors.
Gender implications of COVID-19 outbreaks in development and humanitarian settings
Published: March 2020
There is a marked lack of research on the implications of public health emergencies on different groups, especially women and girls. Less than 1 percent of published research papers on the 2014–16 West Africa Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak and the 2016 Zika outbreak focused on the gender dimensions of the emergencies. Research on the gender implications of previous health emergencies is even more scarce. CARE’s analysis shows that COVID-19 outbreaks in development or humanitarian contexts could disproportionately affect women and girls in a number of ways, including adverse effects on their education, food security and nutrition, health, livelihoods, and protection. Even after the outbreak has been contained, women and girls may continue to suffer from ill-effects for years to come.
Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Violence against Women and Girls

AUTHOR(S)
Erika Fraser

Published: March 2020   Journal: VAWG Helpdesk Report
This report from the VAWG Helpdesk explores the ways in which the COVID-19 pandemic may impact on violence against women and girls, based on emerging evidence, including increased risk of corporal punishment, sexual exploitation, and abuse of girls, as well as intensification of child protection issues due to children being separated from caregivers.
Parenting in a time of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Lucie Cluver; Jamie Lachman; Lorraine Sherr (et al.)

Published: March 2020   Journal: The Lancet
WHO, UNICEF, the Global Partnership to End Violence Against Children, the United States Agency for International Development USAID, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Parenting for Lifelong Health, and the UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund Accelerating Achievement for Africa's Adolescents Hub are collaborating to provide openaccess online parenting resources during COVID-19.
These resources focus on concrete tips to build positive relationships, divert and manage bad behaviour, and manage parenting stress. They are shared through social media, and they are accessible on non-smartphones through the Internet of Good Things. A team of international volunteers are producing translations in 55 languages. Importantly, these parenting resources are based on robust evidence from randomised controlled trials in low-income and middle-income countries.
Find out more here: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)30736-4/fulltext#coronavirus-linkback-header
Physical distancing caused by COVID-19: psychological effects on Cuban children and adolescents (May 2020)

AUTHOR(S)
Aurora García Morey; Roxanne Castellanos Cabrera; Jagger Alvarez Cruz (et al.)

Published: 2020
Physical distancing caused by COVID-19 has had a significant impact on daily life throughout the world. In this sense, Cuba is no exception. Children are a vulnerable population due to the characteristics of their subjective development. The United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF, 2020a) has warned that children and families across the globe will suffer the consequences of the economic destruction caused by the pandemic. UNICEF Executive Director Henrietta Fore has said this situation is generating a world economic crisis and in order to protect childhood during the COVID-19 crisis, international collaboration would be essential, since 99% of children and young people under 18 are currently living with movement restrictions (UNICEF, 2020a). Cuba has joined the call by the United Nations Secretary General to ensure and prioritize education, health and safety for all children and adolescents during this pandemic (UNICEF, 2020b), and expresses concern about the consequences this situation has and will have for the well-being of the youngest ones.
COVID-19: GBV risks to adolescent girls and interventions to protect and empower them
Institution: *UNICEF, International Rescue Committee
Published: 2020
This paper sets out the particular vulnerabilities for adolescent girls and provides practical guidance on how to provide girls with targeted support during the COVID-19 pandemic. The gendered impacts of infectious disease outbreaks and their propensity to increase Gender-Based Violence (GBV) have been well-documented in each of the most recent major epidemics - including Zika, SARS and Ebola. Early evidence indicates that COVID-19 is no different in this respect, with GBV providers and community groups reporting a sharp increase in reported incidents of Intimate Partner Violence. Adolescent girls are particularly vulnerable. Studies of past disease outbreaks and other humanitarian crisis have shown that without targeted intervention, COVID-19 will heighten pre-existing risks of GBV against girls, stymie their social, economic and educational development and threaten their sexual reproductive health. This paper looks to set out the particular vulnerabilities for adolescent girls and provides practical guidance on how to provide girls with targeted support during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.
301 - 315 of 319

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.