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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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361 - 375 of 432
Reflection on lower rates of COVID-19 in children: Does childhood immunizations offer unexpected protection?

AUTHOR(S)
Lyu Jinglu; Tianyu Miao; Ranran Cao (et al.)

Published: July 2020   Journal: Medical Hypotheses
The incidence of COVID-19 in children and teenagers is only about 2% in China. Children had mild symptoms and hardly infected other children or adults. It is worth considering that children are the most vulnerable to respiratory pathogens, but fatal SARS-like virus had not caused severe cases among them. According to the pathological studies of COVID-19 and SARS, a sharp decrease in T lymphocytes leads to the breakdown of the immune system. The cellular immune system of children differs from that of adults may be the keystone of atypical clinical manifestations or even covert infection. The frequent childhood vaccinations and repeated pathogens infections might be resulting in trained immunity of innate immune cells, immune fitness of adaptive immune cells or cross-protection of antibodies in the children. Therefore, due to lack of specific vaccine, some vaccines for tuberculosis, influenza and pneumonia may have certain application potential for the front-line health workers in the prevention and control of COVID-19. However, for high-risk susceptible populations, such as the elderly with basic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes, it is necessary to explore the remedial effect of the planned immune process on their immunity to achieve the trained immunity or immune fitness, so as to improve their own antiviral ability.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 143 | No. of pages: 6 | Language: English | Topics: Health, Child Protection | Tags: adolescents, children, COVID-19, COVID-19 response, immunization | Countries: China
Lives upended: how COVID-19 threatens the futures of 600 million South Asian children

AUTHOR(S)
Simon Ingram

Institution: *UNICEF
Published: June 2020

The lives and futures of children across South Asia are being torn apart by the Covid-19 crisis. While they may be less susceptible to the virus itself, children are being profoundly affected by the fallout, including the economic and social consequences of the lockdown and other measures taken to counter the pandemic. Decades of progress on children’s health, education and other priorities risk being wiped out. Yet the crisis has also presented opportunities to expose and tackle some of the longstanding challenges facing children in the region, especially those from the most vulnerable communities. With the pandemic expanding rapidly across a region that contains a quarter of the world’s population, UNICEF's Lives Upended report describes the disastrous immediate and longer-term consequences that the virus and the measures to curb it have had on 600 million children and the services they depend on.

Under siege: impact of Covid-19 on girls in Africa

AUTHOR(S)
Shimelis Tsegaye Tesemma

Institution: Plan International, African Child Policy Forum
Published: June 2020

Throughout history, women and girls have been affected negatively and at a disproportionately higher rate by the outbreaks of epidemics and pandemics, and COVID-19 hasn’t been an exception. Existing social and cultural norms and practices that underlie structures of systemic gender discrimination and marginalisation glaringly manifest themselves. Otherwise hidden and suppressed attitudes and practices are laid bare as communities and institutions resort to instincts to control and survive within emergency situations. In Africa, an intersection of factors leaves girls and adolescents at greater risk of marginalisation, discrimination and neglect. Gender and social norms have traditionally placed girls at a greater disadvantage than other segments of the population. Pandemics, like other crises, often result in the breakdown of social infrastructure and services, leading to health, transport, food, sanitation, legal, security and other governance structures being temporarily contracted or becoming dysfunctional. This may result in increased exposure of women and children to human rights abuses, including exposure to gender-based violence.

Young LGBTIQ+ people and Covid-19
Institution: Plan International, Edge Effect
Published: June 2020

To address the exclusion of all vulnerable children and girls in society, it’s important to understand the unique needs, vulnerabilities and capabilities of young Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans, Intersex and Questioning/queer people during the COVID-19 outbreak. This infographic highlights some of the issues young LGBTIQ+ people may face during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The intensive use of the internet by children and adolescents in the context of COVID-19 and the risks for self-inflicted violence

AUTHOR(S)
Suely Ferreira Deslandes; Tiago Coutinho

Published: June 2020   Journal: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
This essay aimed to discuss the implications of social isolation due to the COVID-19 pandemic for the intensive use of the internet among children and adolescents and its possible consequences for the practice of self-inflicted violence. It briefly discussed the anxiogenic potential and the reproduction of a “global fear” that are consolidated with the massive and unmediated exposure of the content consumed, which can increase the vulnerabilities to stress and suicidal ideas. The debate has been centered on “recreational” practices, called “challenges” with self-harm power, carried out by teenagers on the YouTube website. This practice has been shown to increase with the social isolation measures. Our reflection on these risks builds on the theoretical perspective of digital sociability, and its implications for the internet-mediated interactions of adolescents.
Parental burnout and child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Annette K. Griffith

Published: June 2020   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has spread across the United States, resulting in significant changes in almost all aspects daily life. These changes place parents at increased risk for parental burnout. Parental burnout is a chronic condition resulting from high levels of parenting-related stress due to a mismatch between the demands of parenting and the resources available for parents to meet those demands. Research on parental burnout has suggested that parents who experience burnout are more likely to engage in child abuse and neglect, placing children at risk for detrimental short- and long-term outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of parental burnout, discuss parental burnout in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, and focus specifically on the effects of child maltreatment. Implications for practitioners will be discussed.
Schools that ‘open doors’ to prevent child abuse in confinement by COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Esther Roca; Patricia Melgar; Regina Gairal-Casadó (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: Sustainability
Due to the expected increase in child abuse during the period of COVID-19 confinement, it is essential that social researchers and other professionals work together very quickly to provide alternatives that protect children. To respond to this extremely urgent demand, evidence-based actions are presented that are being carried out in nine schools in the autonomous communities of Valencia and Murcia, Spain, during the confinement with the goal of “opening doors” to foster supportive relationships and a safe environment to prevent child abuse.
United Nations comprehensive response to Covid-19
Institution: United Nations
Published: June 2020
This overview recounts UN's key guidance, lessons and support so far – and points the way to the crucial steps that must follow to save lives, protect societies and recover better. It amounts to a recipe for a comprehensive response to and recovery from COVID-19 that will leave no one behind and address the very fragilities and gaps that made us so vulnerable to the pandemic in the first place. It also points the way toward building resilience to future shocks – above all from climate change – and toward overcoming the severe and systemic inequalities that have been so tragically exposed by the pandemic.
Communities getting involved: supporting community leadership in the response to the COVID-19 pandemic
Institution: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Published: June 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has created challenges for forcibly displaced persons and the humanitarian organizations working to support them. With restrictions on movement and limited access to refugees, asylum-seekers, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and stateless persons across the globe, UNHCR is supporting displaced communities to take the lead in the prevention of, and the response to, the existing and emerging protection needs of women, men, girls and boys of diverse backgrounds. This brief provides an overview of UNHCRs approach to engaging communities in the prevention and response to COVID-19, and draws on examples from the field,where displaced communities are partnering with humanitarian actors to protect those at heightened risk.

Fiji gender, disability and inclusion analysis COVID-19 and TC Harold

AUTHOR(S)
Anna Cowley; Sally Baker; Charlie Damon

COVID-19 and TC Harold have severely affected Fijians’ short and long-term resilience as many are resorting to the use of detrimental coping strategies such as reduction in food intake, barter of assets, reduction of expenditure on health or education. Social protection schemes for marginalised groups exist but are limited and access was restricted by COVID-19 preventative measures, particularly for people with disabilities.
Latin America and the Caribbean Rapid gender analysis for COVID-19
Institution: CARE, UN Women
Published: June 2020
Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries have varied in their responses to the COVID-19 crisis with the majority declaring some form of a state of emergency, and adopting preventive measures to limit transmission, throughout March and April 2020. Restrictions are set to continue in several LAC countries throughout May and June, while others began loosening restrictions by the beginning of May. The LAC region has the highest levels of inequality in the world, with wide gaps in living standards across countries, regions, sectors, and socio-economic spheres. When also added to the persistent, pervasive gender inequality in the region the response to COVID-19 becomes immeasurably more complex.
Impact socio-economique du COVID-19 chez les jeunes au Niger
Published: June 2020
Au Niger comme partout dans le monde le coronavirus a crée une psychose qui a conduit l’Etat Nigérien avec l’appui de ses partenaires Techniques et Financiers à prendre des mesures adéquates pour lutter contre la maladie. Ces mesures ont malheureusement perturbé le système économique et social chez la jeunesse.
Rapid gender analysis: Middle East North Africa (MENA)
Institution: CARE
Published: June 2020
Women and men, girls and boys, urban and rural populations in Middle East and North Africa are being impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Immediate impacts at the time of this research center around reduced income and access to basic needs due to government lockdowns, changing gender roles in households, and increased gender-based violence. The COVID-19 pandemic in Middle East and North Africa is currently exacerbating socio-economic issues, with women bearing the largest burden of caring for their families while also seeking to lead communities in prevention and adaptation. Gender-based inequality is extensive in the region. Women are at a higher risk for exposure to infection due to the fact that they are often the primary caregivers in the family and constitute most of frontline healthcare responders. Women and girls are at increased risk of violence during the COVID-19 period. Further, women are more likely to lose income as many are in the informal sector.
COVID-19: a public health approach to manage domestic violence is needed

AUTHOR(S)
Joht Singh Chandan; Julie Taylor; Caroline Bradbury-Jones (et al.)

Published: June 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
The negative consequential effects of the measures adopted by the UK and other countries to tackle the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society are beginning to unfold. An area of concern is the impending crisis of domestic violence—gender-based violence and child abuse and neglect, due to movement restrictions, loss of income, isolation, overcrowding, and stress and anxiety, all which put women and children at a disproportionally increased risk of harm.
Impact of COVID-19 on Child Labour in South Asia

AUTHOR(S)
Iffat Idris

Published: June 2020
This review drew on a mixture of academic papers, grey literature and media reports and blogs. Evidence on the impact of previous pandemics/crises on child labour in South Asia was limited, and hence the report looks at the Ebola epidemic in Africa and the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and global financial crisis of 2007/8. The literature details the pathways through which the current crisis could lead to increased child labour. However, precise data on impact on child labour is very limited, and does not disaggregate much by country, and even less by sector, gender or rural/urban location.
361 - 375 of 432

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.