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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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46 - 60 of 467
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on child abuse and neglect: a cross-sectional study in a French child advocacy center

AUTHOR(S)
L. Massiot; E. Launay; J. Fleury (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

This study aimed to describe the impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown in France on the activity of a Child Advocacy Center. This cross-sectional, observational study included all children involved in the activity of the CAC during the first lockdown, from March 16 to May 10, 2020 and the next 3 months and the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. Cases were considered severe when a hospitalization, social alert and/or judicial report to the prosecutor was decided.

Rights curtailed: lmpact of COVID-19 and economic crisis on child rights in Lebanon

AUTHOR(S)
Samira Abou Alfa; Reema Malhotra; Nana Ndeda

Institution: Save the Children
Published: December 2021

Children and families in Lebanon are enduring multiple crises. The economic collapse and the COVID-19 pandemic have significantly curtailed children’s rights and their access to basic services. This has been compounded by political deadlock, rising instability, and the enduring impact of the Beirut port explosion. Children’s education has been impacted, their mental wellbeing is worsening, there are increases in child labour and early marriage – and behind closed doors, physical, verbal, and sexual violence is being perpetrated against children. In 2020, the Arab Network on child rights (Manara Network) and Save the Children commissioned research on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and child rights in Lebanon. The scope of this research was expanded in 2021 to include the impact of the economic crisis. The research process included a quantitative survey conducted in 2020 that covered Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian children, caregivers, and service providers; and interviews with public and private school principals, humanitarian and human rights organisations, and civil society associations. In 2021, focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with children, caregivers, teachers, and social workers in eight governorates in Lebanon. Gender balance, diversity of nationalities, and representation of people with disabilities, refugees, and immigrants were taken into consideration in all discussions.

The parenting skill development and education service: Telehealth support for families at risk of child maltreatment during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Alison Fogarty; Andi Jones; Monique Seymour (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child & Family Social Work
Children are at heightened risk of maltreatment during community wide crises. The Parenting Skill Development and Education (PSDE) Service is a 6-week telehealth intervention designed and implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to support families with young children in Australia at risk of child maltreatment. This study aimed to conduct a formative review of the PSDE service to (a) describe families accessing the PSDE during the pandemic, (b) determine parent and referrers' satisfaction of the service and (c) explore clinicians' experiences of service delivery. A mixed-method study design incorporating the analysis of routinely collected data, and qualitative interviews with clinicians was conducted.
Projecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child marriage

AUTHOR(S)
Joshua Yukich; Matt Worges; Anastasia J. Gage (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Journal of Adolescent Health

The study projects the potential impact of COVID-19 on child marriage in the five countries in which the burden of child marriage is the largest: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Nigeria. The projected impact of the pandemic on child marriage is based on a Markov model. A review of empirical and theoretical literature informed construction and parameter estimates of five pathways through which we expect an elevated marriage hazard: death of a parent, interruption of education, pregnancy risk, household income shocks, and reduced access to programs and services. Models are produced for an unmitigated scenario and a mitigated scenario in which effective interventions are applied to reduce the impact.

Urban resilience: Maharashtra multisectoral response to the COVID-19 pandemic
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: November 2021

The first case of the COVID-19 pandemic in Maharashtra was confirmed on 9 March 2020. Since then, the state remained a prominent hotspot. Urban metropolitan regions of Mumbai, Pune, Thane and urban cities like Nagpur and Nasik have reported maximum number of cases in the state.  The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent lockdown greatly disrupted lives, specifically for the urban poor. It, therefore, became very clear early in the lockdown that large-scale interventions would be required to address the COVID-19-induced challenges. To support the Government in its endeavour to save lives and reduce the impact of the pandemic, UNICEF Maharashtra, along with its strong network of development partners and corporate donors, formulated and coordinated several eff orts across cities of the state to facilitate targeted actions to redress the impact of COVID-19 at the community level. This report is an attempt to present an overview of the work jointly done by the State Government, UNICEF and development partners to mitigate the impact of COVID-19, particularly for the cities of Maharashtra.

Joint assessment of adaptations to the UNFPA-UNICEF global programme to end child marriage in light of COVID-19
Institution: *UNICEF, United Nations Population Fund
Published: November 2021

The UNFPA-UNICEF Global Programme to End Child Marriage was designed as a 15-year programme (2016-2030) to contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal 5.3, which aims to eliminate all harmful practices, including child marriage. The COVID-19 pandemic hit at the very beginning of Phase II (2020-2023) of the Global Programme, and we know that it profoundly affected the everyday lives of girls, including their physical and mental health, education, and the economic circumstances of their families and communities. Up to 10 million more girls are estimated to becoming child brides by 2030, as a result of the pandemic. UNFPA and UNICEF Evaluation Offices conducted a joint assessment of the Global Programme adaptations to the COVID-19 crisis in 2021.

The impact of lockdowns during the Corona pandemic on parental aggressiveness behaviors

AUTHOR(S)
Rachel Lev-Wiesel; Zehavit Dagan; Liat Kende (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Loss and Trauma

Quarantine lockdown enforced for a long duration of time during the Corona pandemic added strain upon families; the educational system has been closed, children were forced to remain at home, and many parents lost their jobs. The aim of the study was to find out the impact of lockdown periods on middle-class parent-child relationship in terms of parental aggressive behaviors. The convenient sample consisted of 236 parents to children (age ranged from 3- to 16). Recruitment was conducted through social media. Following signing a consent form, participants filled a self-report anonymous questionnaire that included demographics, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, The Conflict Tactics Scale pre and during lockdown periods, and, The Parent Strain Scale during lockdown period.

Social inequalities and extreme vulnerability of children and adolescents affected by the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Aloísio Antônio Gomes de Matos; Kimberly Virginin Cruz Correia da Silva; Jucier Gonçalves Júnior (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine

This study aims to identify the hidden orphans and to reinforce existing monitoring systems. Orphanhood is a public health issue, and it primarily evidences existing geopolitical tensions. Thus, this study emphasises the strong naturalisation of social inequalities and the extreme vulnerability of children and adolescents impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. COVID-19 continues to tear families apart, leaving the children of deceased parents with even fewer options than before the pandemic. In Brazil, one child is orphaned by COVID-19 every 5 min. This is an alarming estimate, especially in the most vulnerable and underprivileged regions of the country, such as the North and Northeast. Current evidence emphasises that at every three million deaths due to the pandemic, more than 1.5 million children lose their mothers, fathers or primary caregivers (usually grandparents). This may be very traumatic for children. In this context, Brazil is the second country in the world with the highest number of COVID-19 deaths, reducing caregiving options among family members.

Adult mental health and child maltreatment: an ecological study across rural–urban and economic continua with implications for post-pandemic human services

AUTHOR(S)
Paula Yuma; Rebecca Orsi; Anita A. Pena

Published: November 2021   Journal: The Journal of Community Psychology
This ecological, county-level, cross-sectional study examines relationships between the mental health of adults (IV) and child maltreatment report rates (DV), as they vary by socioeconomic distress and rurality (n = 3015 counties), using the most recent available data from several linked sources. In a two-way model, maltreatment reports increased 20.1% for each additional half day of poor mental health in metro counties, 11.7% in nonmetro counties, and 13% in rural counties. Our zero-inflated negative binomial model, moderated by rurality and economic distress, showed a significant relationship between the number of poor mental health days and increased child maltreatment report rates in counties (χ2 = 145.52, p < 0.0001).
Maternal attachment representation, the risk of increased depressive symptoms and the influence on children’s mental health during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Franziska Köhler-Dauner; Anna Buchheim; Katherina Hildebrand (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Child and Family Studies
The social distancing measures and the related closure of education institutions have confronted young families, in particular, with various challenges. Additional risk factors such as an insecure or even unresolved maternal attachment representation may affect mental health of mothers and their children in times of increased stress such as during the ongoing pandemic. This study aimed to analyze the interplay between maternal attachment representation and mother’s and children’s mental health before and during the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic. 91 mothers completed a “SARS-CoV-2 pandemic survey” examining the pandemic-related stress of their families including their own depressive symptomology and their children’s mental health.
Daily stress and use of aggressive discipline by parents during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Bridget Freisthler; Jennifer Price Wolf; Caileigh Chadwick (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
To assess the relationship between stress throughout the day and aggressive discipline practices by parents during COVID-19 stay at home orders. For this study, participants took baseline survey online, then provided data three times a day (10 a.m., 3 p.m., and 9 p.m.) for 14 consecutive days using Ecological Momentary Assessment procedures. Data were collected from 323 participants, covering 9,357 observations from April 13 to May 27, 2020 in Central Ohio during stay-at-home orders due to COVID-19. Use of aggressive discipline, including corporal punishment and psychological aggression, was measured using the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory. For each higher level of stress, parents had 1.3 greater odds of using aggressive discipline. Having used aggressive discipline at baseline was related to three times greater odds of using it during the study period. Higher situational stress was associated with use of aggressive parenting. When combined with less contact with mandatory reporters, this places children at risk for abuse and neglect that may go without detection and intervention for longer time-periods. First responders and medical professionals become more important in identifying and reporting suspected child maltreatment, as this may be a child’s only contact with a mandated professional for six months to a year.
Domestic violence alleged in California child maltreatment reports during the COVID-19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Rebbe; Vivian H. Lyons; Daniel Webster (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Violence
During the COVID-19 pandemic, reports to child abuse and neglect hotlines have dropped significantly across the United States. Yet, during this same period, calls to domestic violence hotlines have increased. The purpose of this study was to examine if there have been measurable changes in domestic violence-related reports to child abuse and neglect hotlines. Using administrative child protection records from California, this study plotted counts and proportions of child maltreatment reports with and without domestic violence allegations before and through the onset of school closures associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. It used an interrupted time series analysis to evaluate whether or not there was a change in domestic violence allegations in child protection reports corresponding to the COVID-19 pandemic. It documented that during the first two quarters of 2020 there was a 14.3% drop in the overall number of child protection reports. Despite a decline in maltreatment reporting overall, there was a 25% increase in the proportion of reports with allegations of domestic violence.
COVID-19-related household job loss and mental health in a nationwide United States sample of sexual minority adolescents

AUTHOR(S)
Luis Armando Parra; Rory Patrick O’Brien; Sheree Michelle Schrager (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Behavioral Medicine
Household job loss during COVID-19 constitutes a public health crisis. Research suggests associations between household job loss, harsher parenting practices, and mental health challenges in the general population. Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) face high rates of family stress and rejection, but evidence linking household job loss to SMA mental health is lacking. This study evaluated associations between household job loss, family rejection, and mental health with a national sample of SMA who were sheltering in place with families during the pandemic. SMA from an ongoing prospective study completed an online questionnaire between May 13-31, 2020. It was hypothesized that household job loss during the pandemic would be associated with elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms through family rejection. Household job loss during the pandemic was indirectly associated with SMA mental health through family rejection. These findings highlight how socioeconomic change and policy carry implications for SMA health.
An examination of coping strategies and intent to leave child welfare during the COVID 19 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Francie J. Julien‑Chinn; Colleen C. Katz; Eden Wall

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal
Child welfare work is inherently difficult, and child welfare agencies are known to experience high rates of turnover. This study sought to expand the existing literature on intention to leave one’s child welfare agency and commitment to child welfare work through examining the coping mechanisms of frontline workers. Having and utilizing healthy coping mechanisms has proved beneficial to child welfare workers in previous research. This paper examined specific coping mechanisms identified in the Comprehensive Organizational Health Assessment and how they were associated with child welfare workers’ intent to leave their agency and their commitment to remain in the field of child welfare during the SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Over 250 child welfare caseworkers were surveyed using the COHA instrument. Using both bivariate analysis and linear regression, specific coping mechanisms were identifyed, such as staying present with friends and family, as highly influential and discuss ways to strengthen these areas.
Impact of COVID-19 lockdown: domestic and child abuse in Bridgend

AUTHOR(S)
Emma R. Rengasamya; Sarah A. Long; Sophie C. Rees (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

Financial stress, social stress and lack of support at home can precipitate domestic and child abuse (World Health Organization, 2020). These factors have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic (NSPCC, 2020b) (NSPCC, 2020a). This study hypothesised an increase in Bridgend's domestic and child abuse during lockdown. Data was collected retrospectively from 23rd March to 30th September 2020 and compared to the same time period in 2019. Wales-wide data on domestic abuse was shared by the Welsh Government's Live Fear free helpline. Local data was shared by domestic abuse charity CALAN, the Emergency Department (ED) and Paediatric Department of Princess of Wales Hospital (POWH).

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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.