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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 526
Young children and the pandemic: UNICEF early childhood COVID-19 response in East Asia and the Pacific
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: July 2021

At the height of nationwide lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 150 million children younger than 5 years in East Asia and the Pacific were affected. The pandemic brought service provision for young children in many of the 27 countries supported by UNICEF programmes that promote nurturing care and are essential to their optimal development to a standstill. Yet, even before the pandemic, more than 42 million children in the region were at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. Using the latest available evidence, this report summarizes the impact of the pandemic on services essential for young children’s development: For example, that the number of children younger than 5 years visiting community health centres in Viet Nam dropped by 48 per cent; that in Indonesia, more than 50 per cent of households reported not being able to meet their family’s nutritional needs; or that in the Philippines, more than 80 per cent of households experienced a decrease in their household income. Households facing disadvantages before COVID-19 – those with young children, those living in rural and remote areas and low-income households – are in most cases more disproportionally affected by the pandemic.

Empowering the workforce of tomorrow

This report released by UNICEF and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), provides concrete recommendations for actions that businesses can take to help address the “skills mismatch” that young people all over the world are encountering. Based on combined insights from WBCSD’s Future of Work project and UNICEF’s programming and research experience in the area of education, the “Empowering the Workforce of Tomorrow: The role of Business in Tackling the Skills Mismatch among Youth” report highlights the scale of the skills mismatch challenge globally, its root causes and the impacts it has on youth, business and society more broadly. Young people in particular are being disproportionately affected by these disruptions. All over the world, hundreds of millions of individuals are coming of age and finding themselves unemployed and unemployable, lacking the right skills to take up the jobs available today and, even more, the skills that will be needed tomorrow.

Talent on the move: listening to children and young people on the move to unlock their potential

AUTHOR(S)
Verena Knaus; Danzhen You

Institution: *UNICEF, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Published: July 2021

There are an estimated 281 million international migrants. One in five is a young person and 36 million are children. Worldwide, more than 4 out of 10 forcibly displaced persons are younger than 18, with 33 million children living in forced displacement at the end of 2019 – either as internally displaced persons within their country or abroad as refugees or asylum seekers. Young migrants, refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) across continents represent a unique, untapped pool of talent, ideas, and entrepreneurship. Often resilient, motivated and with experience in overcoming adversity, they have the potential to help solve some of our greatest challenges. Powered by the voices of youth, this report harnesses the technology of U-Report to ask 8,764 young people on the move, aged between 14 and 24, if they felt heard and invited them to share their aspirations to learn and earn. According to this poll, nearly 40 per cent of young people on the move identify education and training as their biggest priorities, and 30 per cent prioritized looking for a job. As the examples in this report highlight, young people on the move are a force for success. But only by creating incentives and opportunities for them to fulfil their aspirations can we turn their passions, energy and hopes into something productive and empowering.

Adopting e-learning facilities during COVID-19: Exploring perspectives of teachers working in Indian public-funded elementary schools

AUTHOR(S)
Arti Singha; Kriti Gupta; Vivek Kumar Yadav

Published: July 2021   Journal: Education 3-13
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to an influx of research studies focusing on the new norm of online teaching–learning in higher education. However, much less is known about how this profound shift in pedagogy has impacted school education especially among rural children of India. The present study is an attempt to understand the barriers and challenges that teachers of Public-funded (PF) elementary schools face while teaching online.
Promises to keep: impact of COVID-19 on adolescents in Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Julie Mwabe; Karen Austrian; Sheila Macharia

Institution: Population Council
Published: July 2021

This new report is one of the first in the world to look exclusively at the impact of COVID-19 on adolescents’ lives. It leverages data collected on the social, education, health, and economic effects of COVID-19 on adolescents in June 2020 and again in February 2021, and features contributions and recommendations from girls and boys who are part of advisory groups in Nairobi, Kisumu, Kilifi and Wajir counties, where the data was collected.

Social learning from media: the need for a culturally diachronic developmental psychology

AUTHOR(S)
Mark Nielsen; Frankie T. K. Fong; Andrew Whiten

Published: July 2021   Journal: Advances in Child Development and Behavior

Since the proliferation of television sets into households began over half a century ago there has been widespread interest in the impact that viewing has on young children's development. Such interest has grown with the increasing availability of smart phones and tablets. This review examines the literature documenting human social learning and how this learning is impacted when the instructing agent appears on a screen instead of face-to-face. It then explores the shifting nature of screen-based media, with a focus on the increasingly socio-normative manner information is portrayed. It discusses how the changing nature of screen technology might be altering how children interpret what they see, and raise the possibility that this may render prevailing evidence as historical documentation, rather than setting out established developmental milestones that transcend the period in which they were documented.

COVID-19 impact on jobs at private schools and colleges in Northern Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Adino Andaregie; Tessema Astatkie

Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Development
The disruptive effects of COVID-19 have impacted all sectors of our society including education. This study identified the factors influencing the private schools’ and colleges’ decision to reduce their teaching staff during the COVID-19 lockdown using survey data analyzed using Heckman two-step regression model. The results showed that age, accommodation level, hourly payment rate, tax grade level, money borrowed from government or banks, loan repayment suspension, tax payment deferral, the number of administrative employees, the student-to-administrative employee ratio, and the educational institution’s category were the significant factors affecting teaching employee reduction during the lockdown. The results of this study can help the various education sector stakeholders to take coordinated measures to withstand COVID-19 type of shocks.
Understanding English teachers’ non-volitional use of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: a Chinese study

AUTHOR(S)
Fang Huang; Timothy Teo; Jiayi Guo

Published: July 2021   Journal: System
This study investigated factors influenced Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers' non-volitional online teaching intentions based on an extended technology acceptance model (TAM). Facilitating conditions, technology complexity, and perceived anxiety were added to the original TAM as extended variables to examine their influence on Chinese EFL teachers' online teaching. Quantitative data were obtained from 158 teachers in Chinese primary and secondary schools and universities. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM), and the extended TAM was found to be valid in explaining Chinese EFL teachers' online teaching intentions during quarantine. Teachers' behavioral intentions were significantly associated with their attitudes and perceived usefulness of online teaching.
Effects of COVID-19 imposed school closure on school feeding program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

AUTHOR(S)
Tefera Darge Delbis; Messay Gebremariam Kotecho; Fekadu Mulugeta Asfaw

Published: July 2021   Journal: Social Sciences & Humanities Open
The school feeding program in government schools in Addis Ababa was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The study employed a qualitative research to explore the effects of the interruption on students' well-being. The study participants were recruited from seven primary schools within six sub-cities of Addis Ababa using convenience sampling. Fifty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with students, parents, teachers, school principals, and school feeding agency officials. Thematic analysis was then conducted.
Unequal experience of COVID-induced remote schooling in four developing countries

AUTHOR(S)
Mobarak Hossain

Institution: Young Lives
Published: July 2021   Journal: International Journal of Educational Development
Lockdown measures during the pandemic have resulted in school closure worldwide affecting nearly 9 out of 10 students. Consequently, remote schooling has become a growing phenomenon. However, due to a lack of infrastructural capacity and widespread poverty, the experience of remote learning in developing countries may have been unequal by pupils’ socioeconomic status, gender and location. This study draws evidence from a phone survey conducted by Young Lives (YL) in Ethiopia, two states of India, Peru and Vietnam enquiring which sociodemographic groups are benefiting more from remote schooling.
Student engagement in K12 online education during the pandemic: the case of Turkey

AUTHOR(S)
Gökçe Kurt; Derin Atay; Huriye Arzu Öztürk

Published: June 2021   Journal: Journal of Research on Technology in Education
Student engagement has become a challenge for K-12 students and teachers in online education during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study explored the factors underlying student engagement and the strategies teachers developed to engage students. Thematically analyzed interview data coming from 22 teachers and 20 students of public high schools revealed teachers’ and students’ similar perceptions of the factors affecting student engagement. The four themes identified were instructional and student related factors along with those related to the learning environment and policies. The teacher strategies for the facilitation of student engagement were instructional, managerial, and affective. Teachers also discussed which of these strategies were helpful in fostering student engagement.
Toward quality online physical education: research questions and future directions

AUTHOR(S)
David N. Daum; Tyler Goad; Brian Mosier (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: International Journal of Kinesiology in Higher Education
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, online education had grown steadily over the past decade as more K-12 schools and districts expanded their educational options. This included the use of virtual school days, hybrid learning, and fully online courses. Enrollments in K-12 Online Physical Education (OLPE) had also increased steadily over the past decade, representing almost ten percent of total online course completions (Distance Learning Collaborative (DLC), (2019). The purpose of this article is to present a coherent agenda for future research related to K-12 OLPE using current research as a foundation. The Society of Health and Physical Education (SHAPE) America’s Essential Components of Physical Education served as the framework for this article. Overall, limited research has been conducted regarding the policies and decisions that drive the development and implementation of OLPE. Current research does, however, provide some clarity related to OLPE curriculum, instructional practices, and student assessment. K-12 OLPE is not an abstract idea that might come about in the future. It is part of the here and now, especially considering the shift toward distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Scholars must cultivate a coherent research agenda and move beyond the current exploratory studies to answer some of the most poignant questions surrounding OLPE.
Quality of life and its relationship to maternal experience and resilience during COVID-19 lockdown in children with specific learning disabilities

AUTHOR(S)
Erika Benassi; Arianna Bello; Michela Camia (et al.)

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Journal of Special Needs Education
Children with special needs have encountered many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, no studies have focused on the Quality of life (QoL) of children with specific learning disabilities (SpLD). This study aimed first to examine the physical, emotional and school dimensions of QoL in a group of primary school children with SpLD. The second goal was to investigate the extent to which the experience and resilience of their mothers were related to the children’s QoL. The sample included 35 children with SpLD and 85 typically developing (TD) children, and their mothers. Three standardised questionnaires were filled in by the mothers. The findings showed that, compared to TD children, those with SpLD reported worse physical health, learning processes and school-related emotional health. Relative to the TD group, the mothers of the children with SpLD experienced more negative emotions and concern towards their children’s difficulties, where these closely correlated with the children’s QoL. Maternal resilience appeared crucial to the emotional health of these children.
Jumping into the virtual environment implications and possibilities for arts education

AUTHOR(S)
Chiho Okuizumi Feindler; Whitney Mayo; Ryan Shaw

Published: June 2021   Journal: Arts Education Policy Review
To start off this special issue on COVID-19 and K-12 arts education, this article places the impact of COVID-19 on public education into context, and drills down to how the pandemic affected the delivery of arts education. The article begins with an overview of the inequities revealed in our public education system by COVID-19. While many of these have been revealed and studied before, the pandemic brought them to the routine attention of the public in a way that earlier advocacy and research efforts have not. The article then addresses how these inequities have influenced the availability and quality of arts education offered during the pandemic, showcasing the continued “second class” status of arts education in public education planning and delivery. Finally, the article ends with some positive outcomes one year into the pandemic for arts education, suggesting possibilities for the future post pandemic, as well as implications and potential warning signs for the next 24 months to come.
Home schooling through online teaching in the era of COVID-19: Exploring the role of home-related factors that deepen educational inequalities across European societies

AUTHOR(S)
Kostas Dimopoulos; Christos Koutsampelas; Anna Tsatsaroni

Published: June 2021   Journal: European Educational Research Journal
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments worldwide to produce solutions to the abruptly interrupted work in education. School systems appear to have responded rapidly, creating home schooling and online educational environments, where teachers and students would interact with safety. In this paper, we attempt a synthesis of Sen’s capability approach, Bourdieu’s theory of capital and Bernstein’s framework in order to theorize the relationships between home and school conditions and practices, and to analyse the data of the 2nd Survey of Schools: ICT in Education (a survey conducted in 2019 on behalf of the European Commission collecting data regarding digitalization in education and digital technologies in learning in the European Union). The survey is complemented by a second set of indicators provided by Eurostat to further investigate the availability and functionality of household space per family in selected European countries.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.