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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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646 - 660 of 678
The impact of unplanned school closure on children’s social contact: rapid evidence review

AUTHOR(S)
Samantha K. Brooks; Louise E. Smith; Rebecca K. Webster (et al.)

Published: April 2020   Journal: Eurosurveillance
Gaining control of an infectious disease outbreak can require making difficult decisions, particularly when infections are human-to-human transmissible. Children are often in close physical proximity at school, have less-than-perfect hygiene behaviours and have low prior immunity to many infections. For this reason, school closures are often proposed as one way of delaying the spread of infection. Given these considerations surrounding school closures, this study aimed to summarise existing literature on children’s activities and contacts made outside the home during unplanned school closures in this rapid evidence review. To expand, it examined: (i) what is currently known about the impact of unplanned school closure on children’s interaction with others outside the home, (ii) who provides childcare during a closure, (iii) what factors are associated with children interacting with others outside the home during a closure, and (iv) what affected parents think about closures.
Cite this research | Vol.: 25 | Issue: 12 | No. of pages: 10 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: child education, child health, COVID-19 response, disease transmission, lockdown, school attendance
Learning at home during COVID-19: effects on vulnerable young Australians

AUTHOR(S)
Natalie Brown; Kitty Te Riele; Becky Shelley (et al.)

Institution: University of Tasmania, Peter Underwood Centre
Published: April 2020
Nearly half the national school student population is at risk of having their learning and wellbeingsignificantly compromised by not being at school because they are in a vulnerable group, due to their young age; social disadvantage; specific needs; or family employment context. As soon as health restrictions permit there is an urgent need to reconnect these students to the physical context of school-based learning to support their learning and wellbeing outcomes. Concurrently there is a need to invest rapidly in developing significant capability in schools to deliver education both online and on-site
Girls' education and COVID-19: what past shocks can teach us about mitigating the impact of pandemics

AUTHOR(S)
Lucia Fry; Philippa Lei; Naomi Nyamweya (et al.)

Institution: Malala Fund
Published: April 2020

This report uses insights from the 2014-15 Ebola epidemic and the 2008 global financial crisis to understand the short- and long-term consequences of COVID-19 for girls. Following the Ebola outbreak and school closures in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia, enrolment rates for girls dropped. Increased rates of poverty, household responsibilities, child labour and teenage pregnancy as well as restrictive school policies prevented many girls from returning to the classroom. The epidemic also reduced funding for education as governments diverted funds to public health and put a strain on the preexisting teacher shortage. Girls' education and COVID-19 suggests how governments and international institutions can mitigate the effects of the current pandemic and help girls return to school, including finding ways to keep girls learning during the pandemic, factoring in gender when planning for reopening schools and making sure that education systems have adequate financing in the post-crisis months and years.

Delivering distance learning in emergencies: a review of evidence and best practice

AUTHOR(S)
Emily Morris; Anna Farrell; Abagail Todd

Published: April 2020
The purpose of this review is to provide evidence on four effective distance learning modalities that can be implemented in USAID-recipient countries during and beyond emergencies. These four distance learning modalities—radio/audio, video/television, mobile phone programming, and online learning—are examined alongside the technologies used to access distance learning (radios, mobile phones, televisions, tablets, and, to a lesser extent, computers). While these modalities can be implemented in conflict settings and during crises, such as the COVID-19 pandemic when learning institutions are closed, their utility also extends beyond these extreme circumstances in order to promote inclusion and to increase access to quality teaching and learning.
Overview of emerging country-level response to providing educational continuity under COVID-19: what's working? what isn't?

AUTHOR(S)
Chris Joynes; Emma Gibbs; Kate Sims (et al.)

Published: April 2020
This report describes national policy and strategy responses for ensuring educational continuity in the context of widespread school closures implemented as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study focuses on a selection of high-income and low-income contexts. The evidence highlights the current, and rapidly changing status of national policy and strategy responses to date. The report examines key themes emerging form policy and strategy response and reflects on these: which are working, and which are not working so well? The nature of the evidence and material available at this stage of the crisis makes firm conclusions hard to reach. Despite this the report concludes with a set of recommendations supported by the literature as it stands.
Girl-focused life skills interventions at a distance

AUTHOR(S)
Tal Rafaeli

Institution: Institute of Development Studies
Published: April 2020
This rapid review explores the evidence and lessons learned about engaging girls in life skills interventions at a distance (i.e. through mobile, online, radio or other) both in emergency and non-emergency settings. The purpose of the review is to assist programmes in identifying relevant and effective ways to continue and build girls’ life skills remotely during the widespread school closures and quarantine of the COVID-19 crisis (Albrectsen and Giannini, 2020). The main interest of the review is emergency contexts, however, the limited evidence as well as the potential for learning from programmes from non-emergency settings, led to the inclusion of non-emergency settings in the review.
The social and economic impact of Covid-19 in the Asia-Pacific region
Institution: UNDP - United Nations Development Programme
Published: April 2020
The COVID-19 pandemic and the associated economic crisis are posing huge challenges, raising many unknowns and imposing wrenching trade-offs. Both crises are global, but their impacts are deeply local. The policy response to both crises needs to be rapid, even if it is rough around the edges. But countries cannot pull this off on their own—the global crises require global solidarity and coordination.
Supporting continued access to education during COVID-19: emerging promising practices
Institution: UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Published: April 2020

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented situation whereby schooling has been disrupted for almost 1.6 billion children and youth as governments enforce total or partial closures of schools in efforts to contain the spread of the virus. Higher education institutions have also suspended classes. As of late April, UNESCO estimates that 91% of those enrolled in formal education programmes have been affected. The closure of schools, universities, technical and vocational training institutes has also affected refugee learners and students. In these challenging times, displaced and refugee students are at a particular disadvantage and there is a risk that progress in increased enrolment may be eroded. The suspension of school feeding programmes could affect the nutrition and health status of refugee children and youth. Lessons drawn from other pandemic responses that included extended school closures have shown that girls are less likely to return to school and are at greater risk of falling behind1. As many governments move to at-home learning modalities, many refugees are disadvantaged as they experience uneven access to distance education and online learning opportunities and hardware, and do not have access to support services such as language classes.

Investing in the early years during COVID-19
Institution: The World Bank
Published: April 2020
Young children need comprehensive nurturing care which includes good health, adequate nutrition, early learning opportunities, responsive caregiving, and safety and security. Severe, lifelong impacts can result from deprivations during the early years if children do not have these critical inputs to ensure optimal child development. The World Bank’s Investing in the Early Years framework lays out three pillars to ensure children reach their full potential: i. Children are healthy and well-nourished, especially in the first 1,000 days ii. Children receive early stimulation and learning opportunities and iii. Children are nurtured and protected from stress. In the following three pages, we set out specific risks that children face under each of these pillars due to the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) crisis, together with response options, potential platforms and country examples. While health and nutrition are key elements of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) emergency response and are more likely to be addressed immediately, empowering parents to provide warm and responsive caregiving and ensuring safety and security of young children and early learning opportunities for young children is essential and risks falling through the cracks.
Promoting positive gender roles in marketing and advertising during COVID-19 : key considerations for business
Institution: *UNICEF, UN Women
Published: April 2020 UNICEF Publication
In an effort to address the impacts of COVID-19, companies are making a number of socially beneficial communications to the public. It is essential that these communications avoid harmful stereotypes and seek to depict positive and progressive gender portrayals. This document provides considerations for corporate entities currently creating socially beneficial communications.
Cite this research | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health | Tags: communication, gender roles, social inequality
A UN framework for the immediate socio-economic response to COVID-19
Institution: United Nations
Published: April 2020
This report sets out the framework for the United Nations’ urgent socio-economic support to countries and societies in the face of COVID-19, putting in practice the UN Secretary-General’s Shared Responsibility, Global Solidarity report on the same subject. It is one of three critical components of the UN’s efforts to save lives, protect people, and rebuild better, alongside the health response, led by the World Health Organization (WHO), and the humanitarian response, as detailed in the UN-led COVID-19 Global Humanitarian Response Plan.
Mental health effects of school closures during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Joyce Lee

Published: April 2020   Journal: The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic—and the social distancing measures that many countries have implemented—have caused disruptions to daily routines. As of April 8, 2020, schools have been suspended nationwide in 188 countries, according to UNESCO. Over 90% of enrolled learners (1·5 billion young people) worldwide are now out of education. For children and adolescents with mental health needs, such closures mean a lack of access to the resources they usually have through schools. In a survey by the mental health charity YoungMinds, which included 2111 participants up to age 25 years with a mental illness history in the UK, 83% said the pandemic had made their conditions worse. 26% said they were unable to access mental health support; peer support groups and face-to-face services have been cancelled, and support by phone or online can be challenging for some young people.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 4 | Issue: 6 | No. of pages: 8 | Language: English | Topics: Education, Health, Mental Health | Tags: adolescents, children, COVID-19, mental health, pandemic | Countries: United Kingdom
The Impact of COVID-19 on children
Institution: United Nations
Published: April 2020

The UN Secretary-General has launched a policy brief on the impact of COVID-19 on children. The brief lays out the ways in which the virus will impact children.  Whilst they appear largely to be spared the worst symptoms of the disease, they may well be among the biggest victims of the crisis in the long run because their education, nutrition, safety and health will be significantly undermined by the socioeconomic impact and by unintended consequences of the pandemic response. The harmful effects of this pandemic will not be distributed equally. They are expected to be most damaging for children in the poorest countries, and in the poorest neighbourhoods, and for those in already disadvantaged or vulnerable situations. This policy brief provides a deeper analysis of these effects. It identifies also a series of immediate and sustained actions for the attention of governments and policymakers.

COVID-19, School Closures, and Child Poverty: A Social Crisis in the Making

AUTHOR(S)
Wim Van Lancker; Zachary Parolin

Institution: The Lancet
Published: April 2020   Journal: The Lancet Public Health
While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread across the globe, many countries have decided to close schools as part of a physical distancing policy to slow transmission and ease the burden on health systems. The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization estimates that 138 countries have closed schools nationwide, and several other countries have implemented regional or local closures. These school closures are affecting the education of 80% of children worldwide. Although scientific debate is ongoing with regard to the effectiveness of school closures on virus transmission, the fact that schools are closed for a long period of time could have detrimental social and health consequences for children living in poverty, and are likely to exacerbate existing inequalities. We discuss two mechanisms through which school closures will affect poor children in the USA and Europe.
Localized approach to Covid-19 humanitarian response
Published: March 2020
This document aims to provide some key considerations for the leadership of education clusters and humanitarian coordination groups in order to have a more inclusive and localized response to the COVID-19 global emergency.
646 - 660 of 678

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.