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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 844
The incremental burden of invasive pneumococcal disease associated with a decline in childhood vaccination using a dynamic transmission model in Japan: a secondary impact of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Taito Kitano; Hirosato Aoki

Published: May 2021   Journal: Computers in Biology and Medicine
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted childhood vaccinations, including pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). Evaluating the possible impact on the invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence associated with a decline in childhood pneumococcal vaccination is important to advocate the PCV programs. Using a deterministic, dynamic transmission model, the differential incidence and burden of IPD in children younger than 5 years in Japan were estimated between the rapid vaccination recovery (January 2021) and the delayed vaccination recovery (April 2022) scenarios for the next 10 years.
Does re-opening schools contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence from staggered summer breaks in Germany

AUTHOR(S)
Ingo E. Isphording; Marc Lipfert; Nico Pestel

Published: May 2021   Journal: Journal of Public Economics
This paper studies the effect of the end of school summer breaks on SARS-CoV-2 cases in Germany. The staggered timing of summer breaks across federal states allows us to implement an event study design. We base our analysis on official daily counts of confirmed coronavirus infections by age groups across all 401 German counties. We consider an event window of two weeks before and four weeks after the end of summer breaks. We do not find evidence of a positive effect of school re-openings on case numbers. For individuals aged between 5 and 59 years, comprising school-aged children and their parents, our preferred specification indicates that the end of summer breaks had a negative but insignificant effect on the number of new confirmed cases.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 198 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: COVID-19 response, disease transmission, infectious disease, lockdown, school attendance | Countries: Germany
Impact of remote prenatal education on program participation and breastfeeding of women in rural and remote Indigenous communities

AUTHOR(S)
Amy Hui; Wanda Philips-Beck; Rhonda Campbell (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
First Nations (FN) women have a higher risk of diabetes than non-FN women in Canada. Prenatal education and breastfeeding may reduce the risk of diabetes in mothers and offspring. The rates of breastfeeding initiation and participation in the prenatal program are low in FN communities. A prenatal educational website, social media-assisted prenatal chat groups and community support teams were developed in three rural or remote FN communities in Manitoba. The rates of participation of pregnant women in prenatal programs and breastfeeding initiation were compared before and after the start of the remote prenatal education program within 2014-2017.
Cite this research | Open access | Vol.: 35 | No. of pages: 9 | Language: English | Topics: Health | Tags: breastfeeding, COVID-19 response, maternal and child health, prenatal care | Countries: Canada
An autopsy study of the spectrum of severe COVID-19 in children: From SARS to different phenotypes of MIS-C

AUTHOR(S)
Amaro Nunes Duarte-Neto; Elia Garcia Caldini; Michele Soares Gomes-Gouvea (et al.)

Published: May 2021   Journal: EClinicalMedicine
COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Children and adolescents who died with COVID-19 between March 18 and August 15, 2020 were autopsied with a minimally invasive method. Tissue samples from all vital organs were analysed by histology, electron microscopy (EM), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Psychosocial impact of Covid-19 outbreak on Italian asthmatic children and their mothers in a post lockdown scenario
Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports
Italy was the first European country to fight the Covid-19 outbreak. To limit the transmission of the virus, the Italian Government imposed strict domestic quarantine policies and temporary closure of non-essential businesses and schools from March 10th,2020. Although more and more literature is exploring the impact of the pandemic on non-referred children and families, only a few studies are focused on the psychosocial impact of Covid-19 in chronically ill children and their caregivers. The present study investigates asthma control and children and mothers’ psychological functioning (i.e.: psychological well-being, fear of contagion, and mothers’ Covid-19 related fears) in 45 asthmatic children aged 7-to-14, compared to a control sample. The subjects were administered an online survey after the lockdown (from 28th May to 23rd August 2020).
Physical activity, screen exposure and sleep among students during the pandemic of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Yang‑feng Guo; Min‑qi Liao; Wei‑li Cai (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
This study aimed to determine the levels of health-related behaviours (physical activity, screen exposure and sleep status) among Chinese students from primary, secondary and high schools during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as their changes compared with their status before the pandemic. A cross-sectional online survey of 10,933 students was conducted among 10 schools in Guangzhou, China, between 8th and 15th March, 2020. After getting the informed consent from student’s caregivers, an online questionnaire was designed and used to obtain time spending on health-related behaviours during the pandemic of COVID-19, as well as the changes compared with 3 months before the pandemic, which was completed by students themselves or their caregivers.
Comparison of clinical features on admission between coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza a among children: a retrospective study in China

AUTHOR(S)
Feng Liang; Xianfeng Wang; Jianbo Shao (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) share similar symptoms with influenza A (IA), but it is more worthwhile to understand the disparities of the two infections regarding their clinical characteristics on admission. A total of 71 age-matched pediatric IA and COVID-19 patient pairs were formed and their clinical data on admission were compared.

SARS-COV-2 infection in pregnant women and newborns in a Spanish cohort (GESNEO-COVID) during the first wave

AUTHOR(S)
Itzíar Carrasco; Mar Muñoz-Chapuli; Sara Vigil-Vázquez (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

Knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy and newborns is scarce. The objective of this study is to analyse clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of women infected with SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and their newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 during gestation. Multicentric observational study of Spanish hospitals from the GESNEO-COVD cohort, participants in RECLIP (Spanish Network of Paediatric Clinical Assays). Women with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR and/or serology during pregnancy, diagnosed and delivering during the period 15/03/2020–31/07/2020 were included. Epidemiological, clinical, and analytical data was collected.

Psychological distress and associated factors of the primary caregivers of offspring with eating disorder during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
Lei Zhang; Meng Ting Wu; Lei Guo (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Eating Disorders
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic and posed serious challenges in many countries. A number of studies before the COVID-19 pandemic have shown that the primary caregivers of the ED (Eating disorders) patients are subjected to great burden, psychological pressure, and serious emotional problems. This study aimed to investigate the psychological distress level of the primary caregivers of ED offspring during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Parents' willingness to pay for a COVID-19 vaccine for themselves and their children in the United States

AUTHOR(S)
Serkan Catma; Diana Reindl

Published: April 2021   Journal: Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics
Differences in obtaining a vaccine vary based on a multitude of factors including perceptions of vaccine safety, efficacy and willingness to pay (WTP). This study focuses on parent perceptions toward a vaccine for COVID-19 including their WTP decisions for their children and themselves. A mixed methods design using a cross-sectional survey was used to assess the perceptions of US parents, with children under 18, in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey was administered online in November 2020 and 584 final responses were collected.
Pregnant in the United States in the COVID-19 pandemic: a collision of crises we cannot ignore

AUTHOR(S)
Pamela Stratton; Elena Gorodetsky; Janine Clayton

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of the National Medical Association

The COVID-19 pandemic and call for social justice is occurring when the United States, unlike its peer countries, has already experienced a steady 20-year rise in maternal morbidity and mortality with pregnant women today facing a 50 percent higher risk of mortality than their mothers.  Most vulnerable are women of color, black and American Indian/Alaska Native women, who have experienced longstanding disparities in access to and quality of healthcare and may begin pregnancy with hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, complications known to be more common in women enduring segregation. Initially, the race-related health disparities and resultant disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 cases and mortality in indigenous communities and black, latins, or other communities of color were mistakenly considered innate racial differences. More recently, these higher rates have been attributed to underlying social, structural, and environmental determinants of health including resource inequities, inadequate housing, and occupational and environmental hazards that result in greater exposure to and less protection from COVID-19.

SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions: concerns, challenges, management and mitigation strategies: a narrative review

AUTHOR(S)
Rakesh Kumar; Cut Meurah Yeni; Niken Asri Utami (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health
The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global public health problem. The SARS-CoV-2 triggers hyper-activation of inflammatory and immune responses resulting in cytokine storm and increased inflammatory responses on several organs like lungs, kidneys, intestine, and placenta. Although SARS-CoV-2 affects individuals of all age groups and physiological statuses, immune-compromised individuals such as pregnant women are considered as a highly vulnerable group. This review aims to raise the concerns of high risk of infection, morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in pregnant women and provides critical reviews of pathophysiology and pathobiology of how SARS-CoV-2 infection potentially increases the severity and fatality during pregnancy. This article also provides a discussion of current evidence on vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Lastly, guidelines on management, treatment, preventive, and mitigation strategies of SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and pregnancy-related conditions such as delivery and breastfeeding are discussed.
COVID-19 vaccination in pregnant and lactating diabetic women

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Angela Sculli; Gloria Formoso; Laura Sciacca

Published: April 2021   Journal: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome and adverse outcomes. Pregnant women with severe COVID-19 present increased rates of preterm delivery (<37 gestational weeks), cesarean delivery and neonatal admissions to the intensive care unit. Comorbidity such as diabetes (pregestational or gestational) or obesity further increased maternal and fetal complications. It is known that diabetic or obese patients with COVID-19 present an unfavorable course and a worse prognosis, with a direct association between worse outcome and suboptimal glycol-metabolic control or body mass index (BMI) levels. Critical COVID-19 infection prevention is important for both mother and fetus. Vaccination during pregnancy is a common practice. Vaccines against COVID-19 are distributed across the world with some population considered to have a priority. Since pregnant women are excluded from clinical trials very little information are available on safety and efficacy of COVD-19 vaccines during pregnancy. However, it is well known the concept of passive immunization of the newborn obtained with transplacental passage of protective antibodies into the fetal/neonatal circulation after maternal infection or vaccination. Moreover, it has been reported that COVID-19 vaccine-induced IgG pass to the neonates through breastmilk. Therefore, maternal vaccination can protect mother, fetus and baby.
Maternal nutrients and effects of gestational COVID-19 infection on fetal brain development

AUTHOR(S)
M. Camille Hoffman; Robert Freedman; Amanda J. Law (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Maternal gestational infection is a well-characterized risk factor for offsprings’ development of mental disorders including schizophrenia, autism, and attention deficit disorder. The inflammatory response elicited by the infection is partly directed against the placenta and fetus and is the putative pathogenic mechanism for fetal brain developmental abnormalities. Fetal brain abnormalities are generally irreversible after birth and increase risk for later mental disorders. Maternal immune activation in animals models this pathophysiology. SARS-CoV-2 produces maternal inflammatory responses during pregnancy similar to previously studied common respiratory viruses.
Clinical outcomes of maternal and neonate with COVID-19 infection: multicentre study in Saudi Arabia

AUTHOR(S)
Abdulrahman Al-Matary; Faeza Almatari; Mariam Al-Matary (et al.)

Published: April 2021   Journal: Journal of Infection and Public Health
To this end, the influence of COVID-19 on pregnant women and their neonates is not completely clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate maternal and neonatal clinical outcomes with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Besides, it investigates the likelihood of vertical transmission of COVID-19 infection from pregnant women to their neonates.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.