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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 2505
Towards an inclusive recovery from COVID-19 impacts : a policy brief

AUTHOR(S)
Nadia Belhaj Hassine; Sharon Faye Piza; Francine Claire Fernandez

Institution: The World Bank
Published: November 2022
Coronavirus (COVID-19) partly reversed gains made in three decades of sustained decline in poverty and a decade of accelerated reduction in inequality in Philippines. Although the economy is recovering gradually, there are signs that the recovery may be uneven. Income recovery also seems to be slower for the poor. The COVID-19 pandemic may have long-term negative impacts on development of human capital. To manage the pandemic shock, a considerable number of poor households have relied on such adverse coping mechanisms as reducing food consumption, which may aggravate already prevalent child malnutrition and stunting. Policy needs to be directed to support an inclusive recovery and to address enduring medium to long term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Short report: vaccine attitudes in the age of COVID-19 for a population of children with mitochondrial disease

AUTHOR(S)
Eliza Gordon-Lipkina; Christopher Steven Marcumb; Shannon Kruk (et al.)

Published: November 2022   Journal: Research in Developmental Disabilities

Children with developmental disabilities are vulnerable to morbidity associated with COVID-19. This paper aims to understand attitudes toward routine childhood vaccinations versus the COVID-19 vaccine in a population of families affected by mitochondrial disease (MtD), a form of developmental disability. An online survey was administered via several advocacy groups for children with MtD.

Parental refusal and hesitancy of vaccinating children against COVID-19: findings from a nationally representative sample of parents in the U.S.

AUTHOR(S)
Thadchaigeni Panchalingam; Yuyan Shi

Published: November 2022   Journal: Preventive Medicine
The uptake rate of COVID−19 vaccines among children remains low in the U.S. This study aims to 1) identify sociodemographic and behavioral factors influencing parental refusal of vaccinating children, and 2) quantify the relative importance of vaccine characteristics in parental hesitancy of vaccinating children. An online survey was conducted from October to November 2021 among a probability-based, representative sample of 1456 parents with children under age 18. The survey included a discrete choice experiment asking parents to choose between two hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine alternatives with varying levels of characteristics in 10 hypothetical scenarios. Logistic regressions were used to estimate parental refusal (refused to choose any vaccine alternatives in all hypothetical scenarios) and random parameter logit regressions were used to estimate parental hesitancy (choice of vaccine alternatives depended on vaccine characteristics) of vaccinating children.
Confirming—and testing—bonds of trust: A mixed methods study exploring community health workers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh, Haiti and Kenya

AUTHOR(S)
Pooja Sripad; Ann Gottert; Timothy Abuya (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Plos Global Public Health
Amidst the COVID-19 pandemic and national responses, trust (one’s belief that a system acts in one’s best interest) is important to consider. In community health systems, trust is embedded in relationships between clients, CHWs, and health system stakeholders. This mixed-methods study explores trust through the evolving COVID-19 crisis in Bangladesh, Haiti, and Kenya, where multi-country community health research was underway. It investigates the extent and ways trust between communities, community health workers (CHWs), and health system actors shift, including its relation to community fear and hostility, through self-reported positive and negative experiences of CHWs and policy/program stakeholders on a phone-based survey with 2,025 CHWs and 72 key informant interviews, including CHWs, in late 2020.
The Pandemic fund: a blueprint for success
Institution: Save the Children
Published: October 2022

Over the past three years, children have suffered immensely from the health and socioeconomic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic which threatened their rights to survive, thrive, learn and be protected. Many health systems were unable to respond adequately to the increased demand for health care due to the pandemic, nor could they maintain routine health services. With limited health financing, it is critical that we maximise the impact of the investments in the Pandemic Fund. The new fund must focus on the areas which both; strengthen primary health care to boost resilience for health shocks and build core preparedness capacities. By doing so we will make gains in child survival and improve health outcomes for all women, children and adolescents. It is therefore essential that interventions must be equitable, inclusive, integrated and that all stakeholders play an equal part in their design.

The Pandemic accord: a pivotal opportunity to build resilient health systems and realise children’s right to health
Institution: Save the Children, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed fragilities in the global health architecture that contributed to countries being ill-equipped to effectively respond to a global health emergency, which in turn led to devastating consequences for children’s access to essential health services. Increased political awareness and commitment to pandemic Prevention, Preparedness and Response (PPR) efforts offer a pivotal opportunity to make gains in child survival through resilient health systems that are anchored in a primary health care and rights-based approach. Save the Children and UNICEF UK new policy briefing presents a series of measures for the WHO Pandemic Accord as well as recommendations for the broader health emergency PPR architecture.

Protect the promise: 2022 progress report on the Every woman every child global strategy for women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health (2016–2030)
Institution: World Health Organisation, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

The 2022 Global Strategy progress report provides an assessment of the situation of women’s, children’s and adolescent’s health in this third year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Section 1 presents abundant evidence showing that inequities persist despite great progress in reducing maternal and child mortality in the two decades leading up to the pandemic. A child’s life trajectory and rights to health, education, opportunities and safety are still largely determined by where that child is born. Data showing stagnation or drops in coverage of lifesaving interventions similarly serve as a reminder of the need to be more vigilant about bridging gaps and placing women, children and adolescents at the centre of development efforts. It also showcases key drivers of women’s, children’s and adolescents’ health and well-being. It emphasizes that women’s empowerment and adolescent participation are pivotal to achieving the 2030 Agenda yet notes that there is a long way to go in reducing gender inequality and increasing young people’s meaningful opportunities to actively engage in community and civic life. Also stressed is the importance of addressing the complex factors underpinning today’s unacceptable levels of malnutrition and developing effective strategies to reach women, children and adolescents affected by conflict, forced migration, poverty and climate change impacts. Section 2 takes stock of the direct and indirect effects of COVID-19 on women, children and adolescents. Although children and adolescents are less likely to experience severe health consequences from SARS-COV-2 infection compared with adults, multiple years of education, health, nutrition and social service disruptions have impacted and will continue to impact their lives.

Rebuilding human capital amidst the pandemic - A global analysis of the impacts of COVID-19 on school-aged children and youth
Institution: World Food Programme
Published: October 2022
This joint study by the Research, Assessment and Monitoring (RAM) Division and the School–Based Programme (SBP) Service aimed to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted school–aged children and youth through a global web survey conducted across seven countries Cambodia, Colombia, Ghana, Haiti, Iraq, Kenya and Zimbabwe from May to July 2021.
Enhancing the health and well-being of Asia-Pacific learners and teachers at school post-COVID-19: technical paper

AUTHOR(S)
Inon Schenker

Institution: UNESCO, *UNICEF
Published: October 2022

A  new  social  contract  for  education  in  the  Asia-Pacific  region  paves  the  way  for  building fairer and strengthened education systems in the post-COVID-19 era. It will repair inequalities, while transformingthe future, rebuild relationships with each other, with the planet and with technology and support full realization of   all the inter-connected Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) (UNESCO, 2022).  In this new social contract, schools must continue to play a vital role in enhancing health, nutrition andthe well-being of   learners, teachers and the community. School Health and Nutrition (SHN) programmesthat  address  the  health,  nutrition  and  well-being  of    learners  and  teachers  are  not  only  essential  for maximizing every child’s life expectancy and potential as a learner; they are cost effective, with benefitsacross multiple sectors and they are a sound economic investment (Oliveira de FPSL et al., 2020).

COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among marginalized populations in Kosovo: insight from a qualitative study

AUTHOR(S)
Ha Thi Hong Nguyen; Mrike Aliu; Kimberly Ann Ashburn (et al.)

Institution: The World Bank
Published: October 2022
Kosovo has fully vaccinated 45.5 percent of the population, below what is needed to slow the spread of COVID-19. The Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities, as marginalized ethnic groups, have been identified as high risk for acquiring COVID-19 and for lower acceptance of vaccines. Factors associated with vaccine acceptance are examined in this qualitative study among Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian community members and representatives from civil society, community leaders, health care providers, and government working directly within these communities. Using a social-ecological model, intrapersonal, interpersonal, community, and structural factors influencing vaccine acceptance were identified. Intrapersonal-level factors centered on fear of side effects and doubt about vaccine safety and effectiveness, and lack of trust of health care providers; at the interpersonal level, male head of households decided for the entire family whether to receive the vaccine; in the social context at the community level, exposure to prolific misinformation on social media, television news, and paper pamphlets distributed in study communities created fear, doubt, and anxiety about vaccines, and stereotypes about the strong immune systems of ethnic minority groups reinforced beliefs about the communities low susceptibility to COVID-19; and structural-level barriers included the requirement for identification documents, and a buildup of doubt about motivations of the vaccinators created by massive vaccine-promotion efforts and police harassment in implementing curfew, and other protective measures targeting ethnic minority communities. Implications of these findings highlight a need for a segmented approach in designing subgroup-specific and multicomponent interventions to promote vaccine acceptance. Strategies include training local opinion leaders in door-to-door awareness raising, directly addressing misinformation, and distributing vouchers to be exchanged for incentives after vaccination; using social media where respected health care providers and community members post videos promoting vaccination; and removing or providing an alternative to identification requirements.
Association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with early breastfeeding

AUTHOR(S)
Henry H. Bernstein; Eric J. Slora; Tara Mathias-Prabhu (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Academic Pediatrics
The association of maternal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) status before delivery with breastfeeding is unknown. This study compares breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration between SARS-CoV-2-positive (+) and SARS-CoV-2-negative (-) mothers during the first 2 months of their newborns’ lives. A single center, retrospective cohort study of pediatric contacts during the first 2 months in a diverse mother-infant population (n = 285) compared breastfeeding outcomes by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status during a pandemic surge. Infants of SARS-CoV-2 positive mothers were also tested before discharge. Comparison of maternal demographics (age, race, ethnicity), maternal/infant characteristics (parity, insurance, delivery mode, infant sex, hospital length of stay), and pediatric contacts by maternal SARS-CoV-2 status included Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests and Poisson regression for count outcomes. Logistic regression compared breastfeeding outcomes between the 2 groups, adjusting for potential confounders and effect modifiers.
Caregiver and clinician experience with virtual services for children and youth with complex needs during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Laura Theall; Kim Arbeau; Ajit Ninan (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
During the COVID-19 pandemic, support services for children and youth quickly shifted to virtual means. To continue delivering essential, trauma-informed, specialized services, the center transitioned to providing most services by phone/video conference. A quality improvement project using survey methods was conducted to determine if virtual delivery was timely and satisfactory for inpatient and outpatient care.
Changes in dietary practices of mother and child during the COVID-19 lockdown: results from a household survey in Bihar, India

AUTHOR(S)
Zakir Husain; Saswata Ghosh; Mousumi Dutta

Published: October 2022   Journal: Food Policy
The outbreak of COVID-19, and the national-level lockdown to contain it, were expected to disrupt supply chains, lead to livelihood loss, and reduce household income. Studies anticipated a decline in food security in India, leading to a near famine-like situation. This study examines the change in Dietary Score (number of food groups consumed out of a possible eight) and proportion of respondents complying with Minimum Dietary Diversity norms (consuming at least four food groups) among women aged 15–49 years and their youngest child (aged between 7 and 36 months) during the lockdown. The present study also analyses whether ownership of ration cards and contacts with the party in power locally helped the household to tide over the crisis. The data was collected through a two-phase primary survey undertaken in January-March 2020 (pre-lockdown period) and October-November 2020 (post-lockdown period). It was undertaken in six districts of Bihar, a state with a history of poor maternal and child health outcomes and dysfunctional delivery of health services.
Eating disorders: the role of the family in development and maintenance of children's problems in the pandemic period

AUTHOR(S)
Maria Rosaria Juli; Rebecca Juli; Giada Juli (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: Psychiatria Danubina

According to data released by the Ministry of Health in 2021 in Italy about three million young people suffer from eating disorders with onset before the age of 13 and the number tends to be increasing. This work aims to understand if and to what extent the areas of family functioning are related to the way of eating of adolescents in the period of restriction due to COVID-19. In particular, which dimensions of family functioning can be correlated with dysfunctional eating habits. The group that took part in the study was composed of 154 non clinical subjects, of which 124 females, 27 males and 3 non-binary gender subjects. The tests used were the McMaster Family Assessment Device and the Binge Eating Scale, in addition a personal data sheet was used containing the details of the subjects who participated anonymously, recruited at the university of Italy. The data have some limitations, first of all the low number of the sample and the online modality in compiling the tests.

Effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years in Singapore: a national cohort study

AUTHOR(S)
Calvin J. Chiew; M. Premikha; Chia Yin Chong (et al.)

Published: October 2022   Journal: The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Singapore offered the BNT162b2 vaccine (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) to adolescents aged 12–17 years in May 18, 2021, and extended booster vaccines to this group in Jan 21, 2022. Literature on the effectiveness of primary series and booster vaccination among adolescents is scarce outside of Europe and North America. We aimed to determine primary series and booster vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents in Singapore. This national cohort study assessed the incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalisation among adolescents aged 12–17 years vaccinated with BNT162b2 in Singapore from Sept 1 to Dec 15, 2021, during the delta (B.1.617.2) variant wave, and from Jan 21 to April 28, 2022, during the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant wave. Data were collected from official databases maintained by the Ministry of Health of Singapore. Individuals were classified as partly vaccinated (those who had received one dose and those who had received the second dose no more than 7 days previously), fully vaccinated (8 days after receiving a second dose), or boosted (8 days after receiving a third dose) and compared with unvaccinated individuals.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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Each quarterly thematic digest features the latest evidence drawn from the Children and COVID-19 Research Library on a particular topic of interest.
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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.