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Sally Waheed Elkhadry; Tahany Abd El Hameed Salem; Abdelhamid Elshabrawy (et al.)
Gopal K. Singh; Hyunjung Lee; Romuladus E. Azuine
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial adverse impact on the health and well-being of populations in the United States (US) and globally. Although COVID-19 vaccine disparities among US adults aged ≥18 years are well documented, COVID-19 vaccination inequalities among US children are not well studied. Using the recent nationally representative data, this study examines disparities in COVID-19 vaccination among US children aged 5-17 years by a wide range of social determinants and parental characteristics. Using the US Census Bureau’s Household Pulse Survey from December 1, 2021 to April 11, 2022 (N=86,335), disparities in child vaccination rates by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health insurance, parental vaccination status, parental COVID-19 diagnosis, and metropolitan area were modeled by multivariate logistic regression.
Hyunjung Lee; Gopal K. Singh
Adolescents and young adults in the United States (US) have experienced a significant increase in drug overdose mortality rates in the last two decades. During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, they experienced a lack of access to substance use disorder treatment, stay-home orders, school closure, social isolation, increased psychological distress, and financial strain. Few studies have examined the impact of the pandemic on monthly trends in drug-overdose mortality among youth by race/ethnicity. This study estimates differential changes in monthly drug overdose mortality among youth in the US by age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Monthly deaths from the final 2018-2020 national mortality data and the 2021 provisional mortality data were used, and monthly population estimates were obtained from the Census Bureau.
Yusra Habib Khan; Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi; Muhammad Salman (et al.)
Pranjali Dhume; Madhusudan Dey; Shyamji Tiwari (et al.)
Omicron was declared as a variant of concern by WHO on 26 Nov 2021. Omicron is highly transmissible, but the disease severity and morbidity were lesser compared to the Delta variant. However, COVID-19 Vaccine efficacy was reduced for the Omicron variant whereas it was highly efficacious for the Delta variant. Hence, for evidence-based counseling in pregnant patients about expected outcomes depending on their vaccination status, this prospective cohort study was conducted. This study was conducted in Base Hospital Delhi Cantt, New Delhi, India during the third wave of SARS-CoV-2 i.e. from Jan 2022 to Mar 2022. All COVID-19-positive patients who were admitted for delivery were followed up till discharge from the hospital. The outcomes in terms of severity of COVID-19 infection, period of gestation at the time of delivery, intrapartum/postpartum complications, fetal distress, meconium staining of liquor, the requirement of neonatal intensive care unit admission were documented and data was analyzed to assess clinical severity of the disease in fully/partially vaccinated+unvaccinated women.
Rachael Lacy; Jini Puma; Michael Tubolino (et al.)
Kharismatul Laili; Suci Puspita Ratih; Rara Warih Gayatri (et al.)
The prevalence of teen smokers has increased during the Covid-19 pandemic. Smoking behavior occurs due to exposure to advertising and the promotion of cigarettes. This quantitative research was conducted using cross-sectional approach. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between advertising exposure and cigarette promotion on adolescent smoking behavior in Malang Regency during the pandemic using the chi-square test. Random sampling on students from several high schools or equal degree in the Kepanjen District was done with a total of 145 respondents.
Minghui Li; Jianzhen Hao; Tingting Jiang (et al.)
To investigate the safety of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine in Chinese pregnant women and their fetuses when inoculated during the peri-pregnancy period. Eligible pregnant women were prospectively collected and divided into a vaccine group (n = 93) and control group (n = 160) according to whether they had been vaccinated against COVID-19 within 3 months before their last menstruation period (LMP) and after pregnancy. Demographic data of couples, complications during pregnancy and delivery of pregnant women, and data of newborns at birth were collected.
Xiao Zheng; Lei Shi; Weiyan Ou (et al.)
To determine the association between poor visual acuity, the use of digital devices and physical activity (PA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 327,646 Chinese children and adolescents were included in the analysis using a cluster random sampling method; this is a case-control study, of those 144,708 children and adolescents with poor visual acuity were included in the case group, while 182,938 who did not have poor visual acuity were included in the control group. A logistic regression model was used to assess the contribution of PA and the use of digital devices to poor visual acuity.
Sisca Wulandari; Edi Sumatirta; Siti Fatimatul Zuhro
The ease of ordering snacks through online applications after the COVID-19 pandemic makes it difficult for parents to control the halal snacks consumed by their children. In fact, there are still many parents who do not understand what halal snacks are like. Whereas the knowledge and behavior of parents greatly influence the way children choose whatever snacks to consume. This community service activity is expected to increase understanding of the role of parents in familiarizing children with halal snacks. The methods are: a) the lecture method, used to convey knowledge about changes in the halal logo in Indonesia, the urgency, ways, and creative media to familiarize children with halal snacks; b) the question and answer method, used to provide feedback to parents as well as to get parents' feedback on the material that has been delivered during the activity; (3) the practical method, used to practice making a variety of simple creative media that can easily familiarize halal snacks on child.
Ouma Congo; George Otieno; Imeldah Wakhungu (et al.)
Annalisa Di Nucci; Umberto Scognamiglio; Federica Grant (et al.)
This paper aims to evaluate whether changes in lifestyle and eating habits resulting from the Covid-19 emergency have influenced the post-pandemic level of food neophobia and in children living in an Italian central region. A sample of 99 children took part in a retrospective assessment carried out with a self-administrated questionnaire. Pre and post-pandemic evaluation of eating habits, physical activity, and lifestyle indicators was carried out. Food neophobia was evaluated following the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). Descriptive statistics were produced. A contingency analysis was performed to check associations between variables.
Arti Maria; Ritika Mukherjee; Swati Upadhyay (et al.)
The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted newborn care and breastfeeding practices across most healthcare facilities. We undertook this study to explore the barriers and enablers for newborn care and breastfeeding practices in hospitals in Delhi, India for recently delivered mother (RDM)–newborn dyads during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020) and inductively design a “pathway of impaction” for informing mitigatory initiatives during the current and future pandemics, at least in the initial months. This study used an exploratory descriptive design (qualitative research method) and collected information from seven leading public health facilities in Delhi, India. We conducted separate interviews with the head and senior faculty from the Departments of Pediatrics/Neonatology (n = 12) and Obstetrics (n = 7), resident doctors (n = 14), nurses (labor room/maternity ward; n = 13), and RDMs (n = 45) across three profiles: (a) COVID-19-negative RDM with healthy newborn (n = 18), (b) COVID-19-positive RDM with healthy newborn (n = 19), and (c) COVID-19 positive RDM with sick newborn needing intensive care (n = 8) along with their care-giving family members (n = 39). We analyzed the data using grounded theory as the method and phenomenology as the philosophy of our research.
Merina Varghese; Adelyn Sherrard; Michael Vang (et al.)
Tamirat Getachew; Bikila Balisa; Addis Eyeberu (et al.)
The Ethiopian government had planned to vaccinate the total population and started to deliver the COVID-19 vaccine but, there is limited evidence about vaccine acceptance among pregnant women. Thus, this study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women attending an antenatal care unit clinic in Eastern Ethiopia. A facility-based cross-sectional study. A study was conducted from June 01 to 30/2021 among systematically selected pregnant women. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, which was adapted from previous studies, through a face-to-face interview. Predictors were assessed using a multivariable logistic regression model and reported using an adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI. Statistical significance was declared at p-value less than 0.05.
UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.
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