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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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The effects of COVID‐19 pandemic on early childhood care systems in Hawaii in 2020

Jeffrey K. Okamoto; Keiko Nitta; Kirra Borrello (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Public Health Challenges
he COVID-19 pandemic caused many effects on the referrals to and the work of governmental agencies working with young children. This article describes the impact on the use of early childhood evaluations and services in the State of Hawaii. It looked at several nonpublic data sets from the Hawaii Department of Health and Department of Human Services, comparing the rates of early intervention referrals, lead level screening, childhood immunizations, and child welfare referrals in 2019 and 2020. It also describes effects on the work processes in various early childhood programs from the COVID-19 stay-at-home and work mandates.
The effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on domestic violence in Germany: a comparison of three representative population surveys

Sören Kliem; Alexandra von Thadden; Dirk Baier

Published: January 2023   Journal: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
The COVID-19 pandemic has had profound societal and economic effects. Concerns were raised that domestic violence might increase because of the enacted infection control measures. Previous findings on this issue have been contradictory. Since existing studies mainly rely on official reports, administrative data, helpline calls, or retrospective measures, their findings are likely to prove unreliable. Few population-based surveys include pre-pandemic data, limiting their ability to test for causality regarding increasing violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare findings from population-representative surveys on the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and violence against children (VAC) before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the data of N = 3,639 individuals living with a romantic partner and N = 1,313 parents living with at least one of their children from three German representative population surveys, we estimated average marginal effects for the temporal trends (i.e., pre vs. post infection control measures) of domestic violence separately for males and females. To minimize bias across survey waves, inverse probability weighting was used.
The mental health of Asian American adolescents and young adults amid the rise of anti-Asian racism

James Huynh; Jessie Chien; Amy T. Nguyen (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Frontiers in Public Health

This study describes the perceptions and experiences of anti-Asian racism and violence and depression severity prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic among a sample of Asian American (AA) adolescents and young adults. It used data from the Young Asian American Health Survey (YAAHS), an online-recruited sample of AA adolescents (ages 13–17) and young adults (ages 18–29 years) conducted during May 2021 to March 2022. It presented descriptive statistics examining the univariate distribution and bivariate relationships of depression severity, sociodemographic characteristics, and experiences and perceptions of anti-Asian violence.

A mixed-method study on adolescents' well-being during the COVID-19 syndemic emergency

Alessandro Pepe; Eleonora Farina

Published: January 2023   Journal: Scientific Reports volume
This study set out to investigate adolescents’ levels of perceived well-being and to map how they went about caring for their well-being during the COVID-19 syndemic. Participants were 229 Italian adolescent high school students (48.9% males, mean age = 16.64). The research design was based on an exploratory, parallel, mixed-method approach. A multi-method, student-centered, computer-assisted, semi-structured online interview was used as the data gathering tool, including both a standardized quantitative questionnaire on perceived well-being and an open-ended question about how adolescents were taking charge of their well-being during the COVID-19 health emergency.
Investigating how the interaction between individual and circumstantial determinants influence the emergence of digital poverty: a post-pandemic survey among families with children in England

Maria Laura Ruiu; Massimo Ragnedda; Felice Addeo (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Information, Communication & Society
This paper explores Digital Poverty (DP) in England by adopting the DP Alliance’s theoretical framework that includes both Individual Determinants (individual capability and motivation) and Circumstantial Determinants (conditions of action). Such a framework is interpreted as an expression of Strong Structuration Theory (SST), by situating the connection between social structure and human agency in an intertwined relationship. This study focuses on new potential vulnerabilities that are connected to DP in England by drawing on a survey conducted on a randomised stratified sample (n = 1988) of parents aged between 20–55 with children at school.
A win-win for all of us: COVID-19 sheds light on the essentialness of child care as key infrastructure

Owusua Yamoah; Sarah Balser; Callie Ogland-Hand (et al.)

Published: January 2023   Journal: Early Childhood Research Quarterly
Child care centers in the United States allow many parents and caregivers to work in and outside of the home and support the growth and development of children. Child care closures and COVID-19 mitigation measures at the onset of the pandemic heightened the need for and awareness of the role of child care as core infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived role and benefits of child care based on the lived experiences of parents/caregivers and staff navigating child care during the pandemic. It conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with parents/caregivers (n = 20) of children who attended child care and staff (n = 12) who were working at child care programs in Ohio from September to November 2020. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed through the lens of four frameworks (i.e., capabilities, developmental, economics, and mutualism) related to child well-being.
Inclusive and resilient societies: equality, sustainability and efficiency
Institution: UNESCO
Published: December 2022

Inclusive and Resilient Societies explores the evolution of inequalities of different types and assesses their interaction with the Covid crisis across people, firms, and places. It shows how the impact of the pandemic varied widely, depending on whether and where people work, their gender, age, education, income levels, and the place they live in, and highlights how economic inequalities have expanded and left our societies with deep social scars.

Social relations of urban children in the liminal time of the pandemic period

Marzenna Nowicka

Published: December 2022   Journal: The New Educational Review
This paper analysed the social relations of Polish children during the SARSCoV- 2 pandemic. The period of isolation and remote learning was approached as a transitional time using Victor Turner’s concept of liminality. The concept offered a new perspective on children’s experiences during the regime of health protection constraints and the resulting limitations. The research material was collected using focus group interviews with 41 urban children aged 7 and 9 to describe liminal features of their everyday life and characterise their social interactions.
Parental COVID‐19–related health information practises, sources, evaluations and needs: a qualitative interview study

Hala Altawil; Ronny Klawunn; Marie-Luise Dierks (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Health Expectations

Parents of infants and young children may have specific health information needs and preferences, as they are responsible for their children's health. COVID-19 posed many challenges for families, not least in terms of the constantly updated disease-prevention guidelines. However, little is known about parents' experiences with this unprecedented situation, that is, how and where they seek, use and evaluate COVID-19 (child)-specific health information. This study aimed to find out more about this to provide insights to health (information) providers when communicating pandemic information to parents. It conducted semistructured telephone interviews (August to October 2020) with a purposively selected sample of 20 German-speaking and 10 Arabic-speaking parents of children up to 4 years old. Recruitment occurred through multiple channels, including childcare institutions and social media. Qualitative content analysis of the interview transcripts illustrates the main differences between the two groups.

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle and wellbeing of children, adolescents and their parents: a qualitative study

Kelly G. H. van de Pas; Marijn L. Hesselink; Robin Schlechtriem (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children
Prior studies have shown that changes in daily structure and habits due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected the lifestyle and wellbeing of families. This study aimed to obtain in-depth information on children’s and adolescents’ experiences regarding their lifestyle and wellbeing during the pandemic. Semi-structured interviews with fifteen families were carried out between May and November 2021. Directed content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts and fundamental qualitative description to describe the results. Children and adolescents revealed an overall unhealthier lifestyle and decreased wellbeing. These negative effects were even larger in adolescents and children with overweight or psychosocial complaints. Our results revealed that parents were actively involved in maintaining a normal daily structure. Furthermore, diet changes were inconsistent and dependent on food availability. An increase in screen time was experienced as inevitable, and external influences were necessary to keep children and adolescents active. Almost no effects were reported on physical health, whereas negative emotions were experienced in varying degrees.
Telework during COVID-19: effects on the work–family relationship and well-being in a quasi-field experiment

Maria José Chambel; Vânia Sofia Carvalho; Alda Santos

Published: December 2022   Journal: Sustainability
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, organizations are forced to adopt teleworking. However, little is known about this work modality longitudinally. This study aims to clarify the impact of continuing to work on the organization’s premises and shifting to a telework situation on the work and family relationship and employees’ well-being. Using a sample of 435 bank employees with two waves, two groups were compared: (1) workers who continued to work on the organization’s premises (213), and (2) workers’ who had shifted to a telework situation (222). The first set of data were collected prior to the pandemic and the second approximately 10 months after its onset.
Family resilience during the COVID-19 onset: A daily-diary inquiry into parental employment status, parent–adolescent relationships, and well-being

Ming-Te Wang; Juan Del Toro; Daphne A. Henry (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Development and Psychopathology
COVID-19 changed the landscape of employment and financial security in the USA, contributing to multi-systemic disruptions in family life. Using dyadic, daily-diary parent–adolescent data from a nationwide American sample (18,415 daily assessments; 29 days: 4/8/2020–4/21/2020 and 5/18/2020–6/1/2020; N = 635 parent–adolescent dyads), this intensive longitudinal study investigated how COVID-19-related job loss and working-from-home (WFH) arrangements influenced parents’ and children’s daily affect indirectly through family functioning (i.e., parent–adolescent conflict, inter-adult conflict, and parental warmth) and whether these links varied by family socioeconomic status (SES). Parental employment status was linked to these family relational dynamics, which were then connected to parents’ and adolescents’ daily affect.
Parents' work arrangements and gendered time use during the COVID-19 pandemic

Thomas Lyttelton; Emma Zang; Kelly Musick

Published: December 2022   Journal: Journal of Marriage and Family

This study uses time diaries to examine how parents' work arrangements shaped their time use at home and work during the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic transformed home and work life for parents, disrupting employment and childcare. The shift to work from home offered more flexibility to manage increased care burdens, but the lack of separation between work and family also likely contributed to more challenging work environments, especially among mothers. This study relies on the 2017–2020 American Time Use Survey and matching to estimate changes in time use among parents working from home and on site in the pandemic relative to comparable parents prior to the pandemic.

The role of social support on the relationships between internet use and sleep problems in adolescents during COVID‐19 pandemic: a multicentre study

Filiz Orhon; Ahmet Ergin; Seda Topçu (et al.)

Published: December 2022   Journal: Child and Adolescent Mental Health

This study examines the frequency of problematic internet use and sleep problems in adolescents aged 14–18 years during the COVID-19 pandemic and identifies the impact of factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, internet habits, changes in daily life, and perceived social support on these problems. This multicentre study was a questionnaire-based online survey study. The questionnaire included the Young Internet Addiction Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, as well as questions about demographic information, internet habits, and changes in daily life during pandemic. Several multivariate Backward logistic regression models were run to determine the variables that predicted problematic internet use and poor sleep quality.

Children's services and the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy: a study with educators and parents

Maria Letizia Bosoni

Published: December 2022   Journal: Children & Society
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused disruptive changes across different life experiences essential to children's growth and development, including early childcare services and schools, thus threatening precious opportunities for children in early childhood to learn. The pandemic has also undermined the collaborative and alliance relationship between childcare services and families which has been widely considered an important aspect of modern services. This paper presents and discusses results from a mixed-method exploratory study with early childcare services for children between 0 and 6 years in Italy in 2021, involving both teachers and parents, to understand experiences, educational practices put in place in childcare services, feelings, resources and risks perceived by families and teachers.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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