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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNDER DEVELOPMENT UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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16 - 30 of 199
Crisis of care and education in the early years: paradoxical moments in the global pandemic

AUTHOR(S)
I-Fang Lee

Published: December 2020   Journal: Global Studies of Childhood
Care in the early years entails more than childcare. This paper has three major sections. In the first section, I begin with an introduction and a quick overview of the ECEC system in Australia. This snapshot of the Australian ECEC system presents a messy map of the care and education system for young children under a neoliberal political economy to elucidate what this may mean in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic. With this contextual background of the ECEC system in Australia, in the second section I discuss my theoretical, ethical, political, ontological, and epistemological positioning when re-imagining and reconceptualizing what a socially just ECEC landscape might look like through the lens of a feminism approach. This onto-epistemological discussion explains the shift toward a feminist approach and how this enables me to (re)think about care and education in the early years differently. Taking up this different set of analytical tools with a post-structural sensibility of the politics of caring, in the third section, I continue on to critical analyses and discussions, highlighting the paradoxes of care and education in the early years. A key aim of this paper is to un-settle the taken-for-granted ways of thinking and talking about ECEC in Australia.
Physical activity and screen time of children and adolescents before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Germany: a natural experiment

AUTHOR(S)
Steffen C. E. Schmidt; Bastian Anedda; Alexander Burchartz (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Scientific Reports
The impact of COVID-19 on social life has been drastic and global. However, the different numbers of cases and different actions in different countries have been leading to various interesting yet unexplored effects on human behavior. In the present study, we compare the physical activity and recreational screen time of a representative sample of 1711 4- to 17-year-olds before and during the strictest time of the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany. We found that sports activity declined whereas recreational screen time increased. However, a substantial increase in habitual physical activities leads to an overall increase in physical activity among children and adolescents in Germany. The effects differ in size but not in their direction between age groups and are stable for boys and girls. We conclude from this natural experiment that physical activity among children and adolescents is highly context-driven and mutual and does not act as a functional opposite to recreational screen time.
Social protection and jobs responses to COVID-19 : a real-time review of country measures

AUTHOR(S)
Ugo Gentilini; Mohamed Almenfi; Pamela Dale

Institution: The World Bank
Published: December 2020
Some key finds from this "living paper" include : As of April 23, 2020, a total of 151 countries (18 more since last week) have planned, introduced or adapted 684 social protection measures in response to COVID-19 (Coronavirus). This is a ten-fold increase in measures since the first edition of this living paper (March 20). New countries include Angola, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Belarus, Bermuda, Brunei, Chad, Grenada, Libya, Montserrat, Nigeria, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Seychelles, St Maarten, and UAE. Social assistance transfers are the most widely used class of interventions (60 percent of global responses, or 412 measures). These are complemented by significant action in social insurance and labor market-related measures (supply-side measures). Among safety nets, cash transfer programs remain the most widely used safety net intervention by governments. Overall, cash transfers include 222 COVID-related measures representing one-third of total COVID-related social protection programs.
Shelter from the storm: the global need for universal social protection in times of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Liliana Marcos Barba; Hilde van Regenmortel; Ellen Ehmke

Institution: Oxfam
Published: December 2020

As 2020 draws to a close, the economic devastation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic shows no sign of abating. Without urgent action, global poverty and inequality will deepen dramatically. Hundreds of millions of people have already lost their jobs, gone further into debt or skipped meals for months. Research by Oxfam and Development Pathways shows that over 2 billion people have had no support from their governments in their time of need. This study shows that none of the social protection support to those who are unemployed, elderly people, children and families provided in low- and middle-income countries has been adequate to meet basic needs. 41% of that government support was only a one-off payment and almost all government support has now stopped. Decades of social policy focused on tiny levels of means-tested support have left most countries completely unprepared for the COVID-19 economic crisis. Yet, countries such as South Africa and Bolivia have shown that a universal approach to social protection is affordable, and that it has a profound impact on reducing inequality and protecting those who need it most.

Social protection for families with children and adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean: an imperative to address the impact of COVID-19

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have predicted that the social and economic effects of the ongoing pandemic will have a significant impact on the well-being of families with children and adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean. Even before the COVID-19 crisis, children and adolescents were already a highly vulnerable population group, suffering a higher incidence of poverty than other age groups and affected by numerous inequalities in various dimensions. Not only does the current emergency threaten families with the loss of their livelihoods and a drop in their incomes, children and adolescents also face significant barriers in securing access to health care —including vaccination schemes— and to education. Thus, they are also at a higher risk of falling behind or dropping out of school, as well as at risk from food insecurity and threats of violence or physical punishment. It is therefore urgent to invest in children and to ensure their development in a context characterized by adversities old and new.

SARS-CoV-2 in Malawi: are we sacrificing the youth in sub-Saharan Africa?

AUTHOR(S)
Biplap Nandi; Andreas Schultz; Minke H. Huibers (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Global Health
In response to the SARS-COV-2 threat Malawi has closed schools and universities. As a result, pupils risk losing their only good meal a day, shelter from household violence and stipends, delaying graduation and their first job in life. Moreover, Malawi blood transfusion service depends on schools, colleges, places of worship, and workplaces. Decreased blood stocks will increase preventable mortality.
Gender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic response in Italy.

AUTHOR(S)
Rebecca Lundin; Benedetta Armocida; Paola Sdao (et al.)

Published: December 2020   Journal: Journal of Global Health
Gender-based violence (GBV), with one out of three women worldwide experiencing violence in their lifetime, has been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a “global public health problem of epidemic proportions”. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, the WHO and other international authorities have warned about the increased risk of GBV related to more time spent indoors, isolation from social and protective networks, and greater social and economic stress re-lated to both the epidemic and response measures. In fact, since the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak, reports from many countries including France, Ger-many, Spain, the United Kingdom, Cyprus, Argentina, Singapore, Canada, and the United States indicate that violence against women has increase.
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Children with disabilities: ensuring their inclusion in COVID-19 response strategies and evidence generation.
Institution: UNICEF Data & Analytics
Published: December 2020 UNICEF Publication
The COVID-19 crisis is disrupting life in every corner of the globe. But while its impacts are far-reaching, the virus and the measures implemented by governments to contain its spread are hitting the most vulnerable children and families the hardest. Even before the pandemic struck, children with disabilities were among the most disadvantaged, facing increased exposure to abuse and discrimination as well as reduced access to services in many parts of the world. This publication uses existing data to illustrate the vulnerabilities that place children with disabilities at higher risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. It documents what has happened to services for children and adults with disabilities across the world and includes examples of what has been done to address disruptions in services. It also discusses the challenges in generating disability-inclusive data during the pandemic.
Bangladesh: Covid-19 knowledge, attitudes, practices & needs: responses from three rounds of data collection among adolescent girls in districts with high rates of child marriage

AUTHOR(S)
Amin Sajeda; Rob Ubaidur; Ainul Sigma (et al.)

Institution: Population Council, *UNICEF
Published: November 2020
From April 20–30, 2020, during a nationwide lockdown, the Population Council Bangladesh conducted the first round of a rapid phone-based survey on COVID-19 knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). The survey randomly selected girls who had provided phone numbers during enrollment in a skills-building program that began before the pandemic. The survey’s objective was to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adolescent lives and to design programs that would contribute to protecting girls and meet social distancing guidelines imposed by the government. Phone interviews were conducted with 479 girls living in the districts of Chapainawabganj, Kushtia, and Sherpur who were participants in a program focused on reducing child marriage by increasing school attendance and grade progression among girls ages 12 to 15.1 A follow-up survey was conducted from June 12–22, 2020, prior to the introduction of virtual skills sessions as school closure and social distancing protocols were in effect. The nationwide lockdown had been withdrawn by that time. A third round of remote data collection took place from September 5–11, 2020. This brief presents the findings and comparisons from the three rounds of phone surveys.
COVID-19: a catastrophe for children in sub-Saharan Africa
Institution: *UNICEF
Published: November 2020

This report investigates how COVID-19 and other shocks have impacted child well-being in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during 2020 and the potential role of cash transfers and external resources to help children and economies. It reviews the latest social, economic and financial information from a range of global databases and modelling exercises, draws on emerging country-level reporting and carries out projections where recent data are unavailable. Although information remains incomplete and things are quickly evolving, the outlook is alarming.



Strengthening community engagement in Nepal during COVID-19: community-based training and development to reduce child labour

AUTHOR(S)
Stephen Larmar; Merina Sunuwar; Helen Sherpa (et al.)

Published: November 2020   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Social Work and Development
The COVID-19 pandemic is leading to serious socio-economic consequences globally. These impacts are disproportionately disruptive to vulnerable groups and low- and middle-income countries. This paper explores the case of Nepal and challenges faced by NGOs and community-based organisations (CBOs) to reduce child labour in brick production, embroidery (zari) and the carpet industry amidst the strict lockdown laws, and industry closure during the pandemic. The case of the Sakriya Project, a child protection initiative headed by World Education Inc. (WEI) Nepal illustrates challenges and opportunities for social work in building capacity to support this vulnerable population during the pandemic.
Perceived knowledge as [protective] power: parents’ protective efficacy, information-seeking, and scrutiny during COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Elizabeth Johnson Avery; Sejin Park

Published: November 2020   Journal: Health Communication
During the COVID-19 pandemic, parents were issued numerous, sometimes changing, safeguarding directives including social distancing, mask use, hygiene, and stay-at-home orders. Enacting these behaviors for the parent presented challenges, but the responsibility for children to follow protocol properly was an even more daunting undertaking. Self-efficacy is one of the most power predictors of health behavior and has been adapted to a context-specific crisis self-efficacy scale conducted on March20, 2020, captures real-time perceptions of parents as coronavirus anxieties peaked. The study reveals a relationship between self- and protective efficacy that is mediated by parents’ assessments of how informed they are about COVID-19. It also examines the role of perceived knowledge on information-seeking and scrutiny of pandemic information found online.
Re-imagining play spaces in early childhood education: supporting girls’ motive orientation to STEM in times of COVID-19

AUTHOR(S)
Marilyn Fleer

Published: November 2020   Journal: Journal of Early Childhood Research
In unprecedented times, the global community is calling for greater knowledge and engagement in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) to support the decision making and practices of the general community. COVID-19 has highlighted this pressing need and inviting a ‘new normal’. But STEM is not the core business of early childhood. What role can the early childhood education research community take? This paper reports on a cultural-historical study that investigated how a Conceptual PlayWorld changed the traditional Froebelian play areas to support girls’ play and motives in STEM. The question guiding that study was how could a Conceptual PlayWorld overcome the problems previously identified in the literature on girls’ inclusion in STEM activities in preschools.
Inequalities in children's experiences of home learning during the COVID‐19 lockdown in England

AUTHOR(S)
Alison Andrew; Sarah Cattan; Monica Costa Dias

Published: November 2020   Journal: Fiscal Studies
This paper combines novel data on the time use, home‐learning practices and economic circumstances of families with children during the COVID‐19 lockdown with pre‐lockdown data from the UK Time Use Survey to characterise the time use of children and how it changed during lockdown, and to gauge the extent to which changes in time use and learning practices during this period are likely to reinforce the already large gaps in educational attainment between children from poorer and better‐off families.
Centring adolescent girls and young women in the HIV and COVID-19 responses

AUTHOR(S)
Ameena Goga; Linda Gail Bekker; Philippe Van de Perre

Published: November 2020   Journal: The Lancet
Adolescent girls (10–19 years) and young women (20–24 years) are a key part of the 1·8 billion people who live in fragile contexts. In 2019, adolescent girls and young women comprised an estimated 10% of the population in sub-Saharan Africa but accounted for 59% of new HIV infections. Adolescent girls and young women are disproportionally affected by HIV and COVID-19.
16 - 30 of 199

UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.

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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.