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Children and COVID-19 Research Library

UNICEF Innocenti's curated library of COVID-19 + Children research

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1 - 15 of 3372
COVID-19 and gender differences in mental health in low- and middle-income countries: Young working women are more vulnerable

Mobarak Hossain

Published: December 2021   Journal: SSM - Mental Health
This study examines gender differences in the relationship between COVID-19-triggered economic hardship and mental health complaints, defined by self-reported anxiety/depression, of young people (17–29) in four low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). To do this, two waves of the Young Lives (YL) phone survey have been used.
Data on students’ learning experiences in mathematics during the COVID-19 school closure

Angel Mukuka; Overson Shumba; Henry M. Mulenga

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief
Like in other education systems around the world, the COVID-19 school closure in Zambia necessitated a shift from physical classroom face-to-face interactions to remote learning. However, it was not clear whether all students’ remained engaged with the learning of mathematics during that time. The data described in this paper were collected to support the findings of a descriptive survey that aimed at finding out Zambian students’ experiences with mathematics remote learning. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 367 secondary school students in Kitwe district. It was anticipated that the collected information could provide some valuable insights into remote learning experiences among secondary school students in times of a crisis such as the COVID-19 outbreak and beyond.
Impact of COVID-19 among young people currently and formerly in foster care

Rachel Rosenberg; Sunny Sun; Alaina Flannigan (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Child Abuse & Neglect

COVID-19 continues to have devastating impacts across the United States, causing high levels of unemployment and disconnection from work and school. Furthermore, some communities are at higher risk for adverse outcomes due to the pandemic, including transition age foster youth. Transition age foster youth report negative impacts on their employment, educational attainment, ability to meet basic needs, and their connection to work and school. The current study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on key young adult outcomes including education, employment, financial well-being, and disconnection from work and school.

Assessment of respiratory function in children wearing a N95 mask with or without an exhalation valve: data compared

Riccardo Lubrano; Silvia Bloise; Alessia Marcellino (et al.)

Published: December 2021   Journal: Data in Brief

In response to the current COVID-19 pandemic, universal face masking represents one of the most important strategies to limit the spread of infection. However, their use in children is still highly debated (Esposito and Principi, 2020; Esposito et al., 2020) and there are few data (Lubrano et al., 2021a, 2021b) describing their possible effects on respiratory function in children. A dataset in this paper presents a comparison of the data related to the effects on respiratory function of children wearing a filtering facepiece 2 (N95 mask) with or without exhalation valve. 22 healthy children were randomly assigned to two groups, both groups wearing an N95 mask: one without an exhalation valve (group A), another with an exhalation valve (group B).

Parents’ attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccination and childhood vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic

Yakup Çağ; Güven Bektemür; Şemsinur Karabela (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health

Vaccination is the most important and successful public health tool for combating infections and epidemics.' During the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it has once again become clear that vaccination is the most effective way to protect people from infectious diseases and epidemics. The significance and success of vaccination is indisputable; however, vaccine hesitancy and refusal regarding both COVID-19 and other childhood vaccinations have become serious problems in the fight against vaccine-preventable diseases and epidemics. This study aimed to investigate parental attitudes toward COVID-19 and childhood vaccines, causes of vaccine exitancy and refusal, and effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on parental vaccine attitudes.

Online education and community participation in Bangladesh: challenges and opportunities to ensure inclusive learning during COVID-19 school closure

Shamim Noor; Saharin Priya Shaoun

Published: November 2021   Journal: Indian Journal of Public Administration
Like most other countries around the world, after the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, the education system in Bangladesh has gone through a radical change from the beginning of March 2020 onwards. The study attempts to analyse teachers’, students’ and parents’ perceptions and experiences about the online education in the COVID-19 pandemic at the school level. To fulfil the research objectives, the study selects some private schools (kindergarten to high school) in the Chattogram District of Bangladesh. The study strongly advocates for making the online classes more effective and inclusive for all. There is a need to bring a strategic change from the course curriculum to the teaching process and ensure an amalgamation of all types of interventions (online and offline classes) for online learning activities through a unified policy direction.
Caregivers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their children’s behavior

Stephanie M. Reich; Melissa Dahlin; Nestor Tulagan (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Family Issues
The COVID-19 pandemic has financial and emotional impacts on families. This study explored how caregivers’ financial strain and mental health are associated with changes in their young children’s behavior during the pandemic. It additionally considered whether having a sense of purpose moderated these associations. Caregivers (n = 300) in the emergency department of a children’s hospital were surveyed anonymously about changes to their employment (e.g., reduced/increased hours and job loss), ability to pay for expenses and whether their child’s behavior had changed. Aligned with the Family Stress Model, caregivers’ financial strain was associated with poor mental health, inconsistent sleep routines, and changes in children’s problematic and prosocial behaviors. A sense of purpose buffered some of these relationships. Families are differently affected by the pandemic and our findings underscore the need for supporting caregivers’ mental health and connecting them with resources.
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities during the COVID-19 lockdown in China

Y. Q. Yuan; J. N. Ding; N. Bi (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research

In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, preliminary research has reported a significant decline in physical activity (PA) and an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) among typically developed children and adolescents. Limited research has looked at the current situation of PA and SB during this pandemic among children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities (ID). This study investigated the situations about PA and SB among school-aged children and adolescents with ID on China's mainland during the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 837 parents of children and adolescents (ages 6–18 years) with ID from 15 special education schools of Shandong Province in China were recruited through convenience sampling in the study. Parents reported PA and SB among children and adolescents with ID through the Children's Leisure Activities Study Survey-Chinese version (CLASS-C) online questionnaires.

School-age adopted children's early responses to remote schooling during COVID-19

Abbie E. Goldberg; Nora McCormick; Haylie Virginia

Published: November 2021   Journal: Family Relations

This mixed-methods exploratory study sought to address the experiences of 89 adoptive parents (heterosexual, lesbian, and gay) in the United States with school-age children in relation to the transition to remote schooling and their children's mental health during the early part of the COVID-19 pandemic. The transition to remote schooling and associated confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic presents challenges for families, particularly when children are struggling with mental health and learning challenges. Data were collected via an online survey between May and June 2020. Before the pandemic, almost half of the children received special education services.

Dynamic masking: a proposal of burden-based metrics for masking in K-12 schools during the COVID-19 pandemic

Leah C. Rowland; Martin D. Klinkhammer; Dana W .E. Ramirez

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of School Health

Ongoing masking of K-12 children has not been universally accepted despite recommendation from public health authorities. In states without universal mask mandates for schools, district administrators are forced to make masking decisions under significant local political pressures. There is a call for endpoints to masking to allow communities to tailor mitigation while keeping schools safe, focusing on harm reduction. This study reviewed existing measures for the safe opening of schools and designed a stepwise, accessible approach to the removal of masks in the K-12 setting.

‘They're like little police’: Australian parents' perceptions of their children's awareness of drinking during COVID-19

Megan Cook; Sandra Kuntsche; Amy Pennay

Published: November 2021   Journal: Drug and Alcohol Review

As a result of COVID-19 and associated lockdown restrictions, children may have been exposed to more home-based alcohol consumption and parents' drinking practices. This paper explores Australian parents' perceptions of their children's awareness of drinking and their reflections on the impact of COVID-19 on children's exposure and acquisition of alcohol-related knowledge. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 30 parents and carers of children aged four to 12 years from across Australia. Participants described their family lives, the role of alcohol, any changes in alcohol and family dynamics experienced because of COVID-19 and their children's exposure and knowledge of alcohol before and during their experience of COVID-19. Using social learning theory as a guiding framework, transcripts were analysed to identify relevant themes.

Telecommuting and gender inequalities in parents' paid and unpaid work before and during the COVID-19 pandemic

Thomas Lyttelton; Emma Zang; Kelly Musick

Published: November 2021   Journal: Journal of Marriage and Family

This study examines the relationship between telecommuting and gender inequalities in parents' time use at home and on the job before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telecommuting is a potential strategy for addressing the competing demands of work and home and the gendered ways in which they play out. Limited evidence is mixed, however, on the implications of telecommuting for mothers' and fathers' time in paid and unpaid work. The massive increase in telecommuting due to COVID-19 underscores the critical need to address this gap in the literature.

Care in COVID: a qualitative analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on the health and care of children and young people with severe physical neurodisability and their families.

Jill Cadwgan; Jane Goodwin; Tomoki Arichi (et al.)

Published: November 2021   Journal: Child: Care, Health and Development

This paper aims to evaluate clinicians’ perspectives on the impact of “lockdown” during the COVID-19 pandemic for children and young people with severe physical neurodisability and their families. Framework analysis of comments from families during a recent service review was used to code the themes discussed according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and interpreted into emergent themes to summarise the impact of lockdown (Stage 1). They were presented to a clinician focus group for discussion (consultants and physiotherapists working in a specialist motor disorders service, [Stage 2]).

‘We'd never had to set up a virtual school before’: opportunities and challenges for primary and secondary teachers during emergency remote education

Anastasia Gouseti

Published: November 2021   Journal: Review of Education
The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about the largest disruption to formal education in recent history and has resulted in school closures and the move to online teaching and learning across the globe. Using data from interviews with 25 teachers and head teachers in England and Greece, this paper aims to capture educators’ experiences during emergency remote education (ERE) in spring–summer 2020 and contribute to current and future conversations about the post-pandemic school. Through a qualitative approach, the paper reports on the often improvised and compromised nature of online schooling during the first pandemic lockdown and presents the opportunities and challenges teachers experienced with the move to emergency remote education. It discusses how didactic modes of teaching prevailed, highlights the importance of parental involvement during ERE and argues that the move to online teaching and learning has accentuated digital inequalities.
Gendering boundary work: Experiences of work–family practices among Finnish working parents during COVID-19 lockdown

Katri Otonkorpi-Lehtoranta; Milla Salin Hakovirta; Anniina Kaittila

Published: November 2021   Journal: Gender, Work & Organisation
In the spring of 2020, the COVID-19 outbreak and governmental lockdowns changed the everyday lives of families with children worldwide. Due to remote work recommendations and the closing of school premises and childcare centers, work–family boundaries became blurred in many families. This study examines the possibly gendered boundary work practices among Finnish parents during the COVID-19 lockdown in spring 2020 by asking, how do parents perceive the blurring of work–family boundaries? What kind of boundary work practices did families develop to manage their work and family roles, and were these practices gendered and how? Boundary practices are analyzed by combining theories of doing boundaries and gender theories in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and applying them to survey data.
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UNICEF Innocenti's Children and COVID-19 Library is a database collecting research from around the world on COVID-19 and its impacts on children and adolescents.


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COVID-19 & Children: Rapid Research Response

UNICEF Innocenti is mobilizing a rapid research response in line with UNICEF’s global response to the COVID-19 crisis. The initiatives we’ve begun will provide the broad range of evidence needed to inform our work to scale up rapid assessment, develop urgent mitigating strategies in programming and advocacy, and preparation of interventions to respond to the medium and longer-term consequences of the COVID-19 crisis. The research projects cover a rapid review of evidence, education analysis, and social and economic policies.