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EMOTIONAL

VIOLENCE AFFECTING CHILDREN

Emotional violence may be perpetrated by a range of people –

including parents, siblings, partners and peers. It often occurs alongside

other forms of violence and can be particularly difficult to define and

measure. Represented below are different expressions of emotional

violence across all four countries.

*All of the factors listed in the table are statistically significant from multivariate

regression analyses controlling for age and socio-economic status.

Source: Chigiji, H., Fry, D., Mwadiwa, T., Elizalde, A., Izumi, N., Baago-Rasmussen, L.,

and Maternowska, C.M. Risk factors for emotional and physical violence and associated

health outcomes in Zimbabwe: A nationally representative household cluster survey.

Publication forthcoming.

HOW EXPERIENCES OF VIOLENCE

AFFECT EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING

PREVALENCE OF EMOTIONAL VIOLENCE

AFFECTING CHILDREN

RISK FACTORS FOR EMOTIONAL VIOLENCE:

ZIMBABWE

A secondary analysis of emotional violence data in

Zimbabwe shows varied risk and protective factors for

children. Important protective factors for both boys and

girls include trust in and support from adults in multiple

contexts.

Risk and protective factors for experiencing emotional violence by an adult

or relative before the age of 18 (NBSLEA, 2011)*

Risk Factors for Emotional Violence:

Experiencing physical violence before the age of 13

Not attending school

Protective Factors:

Feeling they can talk to their family about important things

Feeling their family cares about them

Feeling teachers care about them

Feeling people in the community can be trusted

Risk Factors for Emotional Violence:

Paternal orphanhood before the age of 13

Illness of adult in the home (> 3 months in the last year)

Age: 13- to 14-year-olds at significantly higher risk

Protective Factors:

Having a very close relationship with their mother

Feeling teachers care about them

Feeling safe and secure in the community

While laws may recognize physical and sexual violence as

crimes against the individual, emotional violence and its

effects are often overlooked. Findings in all four countries

show how different types of violence in childhood,

including emotional violence, subsequently affect

emotional well-being.

ITALY

Among women who

experienced violence during

childhood, 30% also reported

that when faced with a difficult

decision or challenge, they

automatically think of failure.

(Vite in Bilico, 2006)

PERU

Bullying at age 15 is

associated with negative

effects on self-efficacy, self-

esteem, and peer and parental

relations at age 19.

(Young Lives, 2016)

VIET NAM

Among those ever injured by

violence outside the home,

8.7% also reported having

low self-esteem.

(SAVY 2, 2015)

ZIMBABWE

Boys who have experienced

emotional violence during

childhood are 10 times more

likely to attempt suicide; girls are

3 times more likely.

(NBSLEA, 2011)

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ITALY

A national study in Italy found that 13.7

per cent of maltreated children cared for

by social services have suffered emotional

abuse. The same study also states that

19.4 per cent of children assisted by social

services have witnessed domestic violence.

Source: Fry, D., Anderson, J., Hildalgo, R.J.T. et al., (2016). Prevalence of violence in childhood and

adolescence and the impact on educational outcomes: Evidence from the 2013 Peruvian National Survey on

Social Relations. Int. Health, 8(1): 44-52.

Note: Definitions of emotional violence vary by study.

Source: Cappa, C., & Dam, H. (2014). Prevalence of and risk factors for violent disciplinary practices at home in

Viet Nam. Journal of interpersonal violence. 29(3): 497-516.

Source: CISMAI, Terre Des Hommes, Italia. Autorità garante per l’infanzia e l’adolescenza, Indagine nazionale

sul maltrattamento dei bambini e degli adolescenti in Italia 2015, Torino, CISMAI, 2015.

Source: Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency (ZIMSTAT), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and

Collaborating Centre for Operational Research and Evaluation (CCORE), 2013. National Baseline Survey on

Life Experiences of Adolescents, 2011.

Source: Latest available DHS (or MICS) data presented for 42 countries, including 9 countries in the East and

Southern Africa region, as cited in United Nations Children’s Fund, Hidden in Plain Sight: A statistical analysis

of violence against children, UNICEF, New York, 2014.

ZIMBABWE

In Zimbabwe, a national study found that

among 18- to 24-year-olds, 29 per cent of

females and 39.1 per cent of males reported

experiencing emotional violence from an

adult before the age of 18.

VIET NAM

In Viet Nam, 58.2 per cent of Vietnamese

children aged 1-14 have experienced

psychological aggression at home.

PERU

In Peru, 69 per cent of both males and

females aged 12 to 17 report having

experienced peer-to-peer psychological

violence at school at some point in their

lives.

In another study in Zimbabwe, nearly 30 per cent of adolescent girls

aged 15-19 report having experienced emotional violence by a partner.

When compared to national data in eight other countries in East and

Southern Africa, this represents the highest prevalence estimate for the

region.