CONNECT
search advanced search
UNICEF Innocenti
Office of Research-Innocenti
search menu

HOW WE WORK

 

Research is fundamental to UNICEF’s mission. The struggle to safeguard the rights of all children in all circumstances can only succeed when supported by the most reliable evidence and the latest knowledge.

RESEARCH FOR CHILDREN

The Office of Research – Innocenti is UNICEF’s dedicated research centre. Its core mandate is to undertake cutting-edge, policy-relevant research that equips the organization and the wider global community to deliver results for children. To achieve its mandate UNICEF Innocenti must work closely with all parts of its parent organization as well as a wide array of external academic and research institutions.

Innocenti’s research seeks to inform policy, guide action and also to challenge assumptions. The credibility and relevance of findings rest as much on the quality of inquiry as on independence. Innocenti’s position, firmly rooted in the global UNICEF network and fully engaged as an independent research body with leading universities and institutes in all regions of the world promotes a dynamic, real-time discourse on the generation of knowledge about children.

As the research centre for UNICEF, Innocenti is uniquely positioned to understand and respond to research questions on the ground, and to feed research into policy and practice – through its programmes of cooperation with more 150 low and middle income countries, its links to UNICEF National Committees in 33 high income countries, and as an arm of the world’s leading normative agency that shapes global policies and outcomes for children.

RESEARCH GOVERNANCE IN UNICEF

UNICEF Innocenti also supports and facilitates research conducted by other parts of its parent organization. It is responsible for developing appropriate guidelines, establishing standards of research ethics and quality, facilitating the wider organization’s research agenda, providing technical assistance and promoting best practice.

WHY FLORENCE? OUR HISTORY

UNICEF enjoys the unique privilege of locating its global research function at the nearly 600-year-old Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence, Italy. Established as a foundling shelter in 1419 by the influential Silk-workers Guild, Innocenti can be viewed as one of the earliest efforts by secular authorities to elevate the concerns of vulnerable children to the level of civic priority.

UNICEF’s presence at Innocenti was inaugurated in 1988 by then Executive Director James Grant, with a broad mandate to contribute to an “emerging global ethic for children.” Research quickly became a defining mission with provision of crucial early research support for an expanding mandate in child rights, urban programmes, social policy and protection of children, among others.

OUR PROGRAMME

Today UNICEF Innocenti maintains a small team of about 40 researchers, evaluators, knowledge management specialists, communicators, operations and support staff at its centre in Florence. UNICEF Innocenti develops its research agenda in consultation with other parts of UNICEF and with external stakeholders.

The agenda is selected to support intensified research efforts coordinated across the wider organization where there is demand for a concerted effort to build evidence, usually in a rapidly expanding intervention area. Priorities are also driven by critical issues facing children which have been either overlooked or which do not fit neatly into discreet sectors.

Current research projects:

  • Child poverty, equity and well-being: multi-dimensional deprivation analysis, and the flagship Innocenti Report Card on child well-being in rich countries
  • Social protection: the impact of cash transfer programmes in sub-Saharan Africa
  • Child protection: work on the drivers of violence against children, and family and parenting support
  • Children and the internet: investigating child rights in the digital age
  • Adolescent well-being: analysis of the structural and social determinants of adolescent well-being across sectors and throughout the life-course
  • Education: school settings, learning pathways and life skills

Emerging areas of focus include: migration, gender, and the intersection of humanitarian and development work. We also host a global network of longitudinal studies (GLORI).

CONVENING AND ENGAGING

Using the Florence location and the convening power of UNICEF, the office hosts a range of high level events, expert working groups, senior research fellows, workshops and seminars. Events bring together UNICEF staff, academics, policy makers and practitioners. UNICEF Innocenti works through partnerships with academic and policy research institutions as well as think-tanks and NGOs. Strategic communications and research engagement activities ensure that Innocenti research is widely disseminated and translates into practical impacts and policy influence.

Related Articles

Ethical research for children
Article Article

Ethical research for children

UNICEF is committed to ensuring that all research, evaluation and data collection processes undertaken by UNICEF and its partners are ethical. To this end, procedures and guidelines have been created to embed ethical principles and practices in all our evidence generation programmes. UNICEF recognizes the critical importance of children’s voice in evidence generation and is developing tools to support and advocate for ethical evidence generation involving children. We also produce critical thinkpieces on new and emerging ethical issues relating to children and adolescents.Project teamKerry Albright, Gabrielle BermanTrainingUNICEF e-learning course on ethics in evidence generation (Free access- registration required)Policies, Procedures, Tools and GuidanceUNICEF Procedure for Ethical Standards in Research, Evaluation and Data Collection & AnalysisEthical Research Involving Children (UNICEF) Blog PostsNew Technologies: Rich Source of Data or Ethical Minefield for Researchers?PodcastGabrielle Berman on ethical research on children in humanitarian situationsUseful external resourcesEthical Principles, Dilemmas and Risks in Collecting Data on Violence Against Children (CP MERG)Ethical Approaches to Gathering Information from Children and Adolescents in International Settings (Population Council)A guide to Young Lives researchWHO ethical and safety recommendations for researching, documenting and monitoring sexual violence in emergenciesInfants’, Children’s and Young People’s Child Health Research Charter (RCPCH)Children and Clinical Research: Nuffield Council on Bioethics.
Research tools and methods
Article Article

Research tools and methods

Alongside training, publications and resources, the Office of Research-Innocenti designs interactive toolkits to enhance development practitioners’ capacity in research methods, when conducting research with children. Toolkits consist in web based packages, including briefs and webinars, which provide an easily accessible experience of contents and resources. Current toolkits include: best-practice Research Methodologies for Adolescent Well-being in Low and Middle-Income Countries; an Impact Evaluation Series covering the building blocks of impact evaluation, strategies for causal attribution, data collection and analysis methods; a toolkit for Researching Children’s Internet Use, developed in collaboration with the London School of Economics; the Ethical Research Involving Children (ERIC) website and compendium, aimed to assist the research community to understand, plan and conduct ethical research involving children; and the Child Rights Research Tools including an International International Children's Rights Thesaurus and the Children's Rights Glossary.Project Team: Kerry Albright, Emanuela Bianchera, Shivit Bakrania, Camille Neyhouser ToolkitsResearch Briefs on conducting research with adolescents in LMICs Impact Evaluation SeriesThe Adolescent Brain: A Second Window Of Opportunity Global Kids Online Toolkit for researching children’s internet useEthical Research Involving Children (UNICEF)Child Rights Research Tools Methodological Briefs on Evidence SynthesisWebinarsHow to do research with adolescents living in low- and middle-income countries?
Research uptake and impact
Article Article

Research uptake and impact

Ensuring that research produced at UNICEF is shared and findings are used is a significant part of our mandate. The Office of Research-Innocenti oversees a variety of initiatives to promote the uptake and impact of UNICEF research in policy and programming. Products are produced in various formats according to audience needs, with a strong preference given to open access publishing.Best of UNICEF ResearchThe office runs the Best of UNICEF Research annual competition, seeking to identify, reward and further promote the best research efforts across UNICEF’s 190+ offices. Impact case studiesTo capture the uptake and impact of our work, the Office of Research commissions independent  impact case studies to capture the impact of particular research projects. For example, the impact case study on Changing National Policy on Violence Affecting Children in Peru draws on Innocenti’s multi-country study on the Drivers of Violence Affecting Children. Read more about the study.The 2019 study, Children's Experiences Online: Building global understanding and action, captures the international impacts of the Global Kids Online network, with three detailed case studies from Uruguay, Bulgaria, and Ghana.Monitoring online research impactUNICEF Innocenti continuously monitors the reach of its research to better shape its programme strategies and influence policy change. Plum Analytics tracks the online impact of Innocenti’s research outputs by scraping the research output published on the Innocenti website, tracking the hyperlinks, and monitoring their usage on the web (e.g. news and online policy documents), as well as social media shares and academic citation indexes. Plum complements the web usage statistics provided by Google Analytics providing extra information about how research is shared and referred to in the web. Project team: Kerry Albright, Emanuela Bianchera, Alessandra Ipince, Jorinde van de Scheur, Patrizia Faustini, Kathleen Sullivan, Nilam McGrath, Celine Little, Cristina Pizzolato
Research governance
Article Article

Research governance

The Office of Research—Innocenti provides formal oversight of research at UNICEF which includes research governance (research policies, procedures and guidance) made available on UNICEF internal platforms. More informal technical advisory ‘helpdesk’ support is provided on an ongoing basis to UNICEF staff in research management, research design and delivery including ethics, quality assurance, tools and methods, impact etc.Project team:Kerry Albright, Emanuela Bianchera, Jorinde van de Scheur, Camille NeyhouserPolicies, Procedures, Tools and GuidanceUNICEF Policy on ResearchUNICEF Taxonomy for Research, Data and EvaluationGuidance on External Academic PublishingUNICEF Procedures for Quality Assurance in Research UNICEF Procedure for Ethical Standards in Research, Evaluation and Data Collection & Analysis

Research Projects

Adolescent wellbeing
Research Project Research Project

Adolescent wellbeing

Despite great strides in improving overall child well-being, progress has been slower in key areas of adolescent vulnerability, including exposure to violence, early marriage and school completion, especially among adolescent girls. The Lancet Commission ‘Our Future’ (2016) has examined the rapidly changing social and structural determinants of adolescent well-being and their implications on health promotion and prevention work.  It stresses the importance of adolescence as a critical period of formative growth that affects well-being across the life course. Although evidence is building in some domains of adolescent’s lives, greater understanding of the transition to adulthood and how different underlying factors interact is needed in order to inform the basis for effective programming and policy. The need to incorporate consideration of different structural factors into programme design is gaining support, yet there is still little guidance on systematic evidence-based approaches to employ in practice. The Adolescent Research Programme is advancing global understandings of adolescent well-being in selected countries and themes by defining the drivers of well-being outcomes (‘causes and consequences’) and examining effective policy and programme interventions (‘what works’). Research Priorities 2014 – 2018• Rigorous evidence generation on structural and social determinants of adolescent wellbeing across sectors and throughout the life course.• Understanding formal institutions, systems and policy processes as well as social and cultural norms affecting behaviours and policy implementation.• Analytical focus on age and gender gaps to shed light on the main drivers of adolescent vulnerability.Global Research PartnershipTogether with UK Department of International Development, Italy, SIDA, UNICEF as well as US Department of Labour, the Oak Foundation, and others, the global research partnership is working with multiple national governments and institutions to improve understandings of various dimensions of adolescents’ lives.The programme is linked to the Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence initiative. It leverages UNICEF’s programme technical capacity as well as networks of regional and country offices and implementing partners in low and middle income countries.Drawing on multi –disciplinary research expertise, the UNICEF programme has produced cutting edge research that explores what works to improve outcomes for adolescents.Quality evidence is having impact - informing effective policy and interventions in focus countries and beyond.
Child rights in the digital age
Research Project Research Project

Child rights in the digital age

One in three internet users globally is a child. This proportion is likely to be even higher in the global South. Organizations working to advance children’s rights and promote well-being need to understand how to reduce the risk of harm children face online while maximizing their opportunities for learning, participation and creativity. Crucially, children’s perspectives and experiences need to be considered when drafting policies that govern the use of young people’s digital use, as well as when designing the technology itself. However, there is still insufficient evidence globally to enable policy and practice to act in children’s best interest.To bridge this evidence gap, UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti coordinates and facilitates research on children’s use of digital technologies by developing research methodologies that can be implemented to generate national evidence. UNICEF Innocenti coordinates two multi-country evidence generation programmes, Global Kids Online and Disrupting Harm , which serve to generate evidence of the opportunities and risks that children from around the world may encounter in a digital age. In addition, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti engages with stakeholders  to ensure that children’s perspectives are at centre of discourse and debates around internet governance and children’s internet use. We publish research on national and international internet-related policies affecting children and support UNICEF country offices, regional offices and headquarters in carrying out high-quality research and interventions. We  actively contribute to global discussions around online gaming, excessive internet use, digital technology and mental health, online violence and technology-facilitated sexual exploitation and abuse.COVID-19 & Children OnlineThe importance of children's internet access during COVID-19 An analysis of new data from Global Kids Online and EU Kids Online on: children’s internet access, proportion of children accessing health information online, and extent to which they are able to verify the truth of online informationChildren’s use of digital technology during COVID-19Online surveys across eleven European countries will help understand: what digital engagement looks like during COVID-19; how it has changed; and what support children need to take advantage of the internet during lockdowns. 
Children and migration: rights, advocacy and resilience
Research Project Research Project

Children and migration: rights, advocacy and resilience

Children cross borders – within and between countries – in varying circumstances and for different reasons, both voluntary and involuntary. Economic, socio-political and environmental factors can influence children and their parents’ decision to migrate. Poverty has also been a key driver of child migration, particularly from rural to urban locations, but it’s becoming clearer that the poorest cannot so easily migrate to another country. Children are also trafficked to provide labour or are forced to move because of political violence or environmental disasters.Although domestic migration of children occurs frequently, it is often incorrectly perceived as an everyday phenomenon. International migration of children is now more visible, and because of conflict-induced migration, it is understood as distinct and traumatic. Mobility pathways deeply impact on a child’s development and we need to gain better understanding of their  migration patterns.While vast amounts of data now exist chronicling the lives of migrants, we have less understanding of the movement of young people. Child-sensitive research in this area is essential and can explain intricate dynamics not captured by more general research. Historically, receiving, transit and origin societies have been more tolerant of the migration of children and youth. Some have an exploitative interest in child migrants and others recognize that the international community must commit to protecting child migrants.Our new programme builds on Innocenti’s existing expertise and UNICEF’s work on the ground with children in the areas of protection, justice, violence prevention and well-being.
Children in high income countries
Research Project Research Project

Children in high income countries

In keeping with UNICEF's universal mandate for children in every country, the Innocenti Report Card series focuses on the well-being of children in high income countries. Each Report Card publication includes league tables ranking OECD and EU countries according to the latest available comparative data. Report Cards are designed to appeal to a wide audience while maintaining academic rigour.Innocenti Report Cards are valuable advocacy tools for bringing the well-being of children and their families in industrialized countries to the attention of the public, policy decision makers and the news media. UNICEF Innocenti's Report Card 15, An Unfair Start: Inequality in Children’s Education in Rich Countries, presents a comprehensive assessment of current levels of inequalities of educational opportunity in rich countries, using the best and most up-to-date data available. It also discusses what can be done to reduce these inequalities.  The report establishes a point of departure for reviewing progress towards minimising educational inequality for children in rich countries. It compares 41 countries of the European Union (EU) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).Established in 2000, the Innocenti Report Card series has analyzed a wide variety of themes in the living conditions of children and adolescents. The series constitutes one of UNICEF’s major efforts to provide a set of child well-being monitoring instruments focused on rich economies. It has also provided a regular high-profile platform for improved evidence based efforts for the most deprived children in these countries.
Education
Research Project Research Project

Education

The learning crisis is striking. 53 percent of children in low- and middle-income countries cannot read and understand a simple text by age 10. In poor countries, the “learning poverty” rate is as high as 80 percent. The UNICEF Office of Research (OoR) – Innocenti developed in 2019 a new vision for its education programme for addressing learning poverty, aligned with the 2019-2030 UNICEF Education Strategy ‘Every child learns’. The vision puts increased emphasis on research embedded within programmes and on the use of evidence at country level, through co-creation of the research from the onset with Governments, implementing partners, communities and other stakeholders.  OoR-education programme focuses on research of: i) education systems and policies and ii) local service delivery (in and outside the school); and iii) innovations using behavioral/scaling science & implementation research to build evidence to bridge the “know-do” gap between systems and local level implementation.Time to Teach Teachers attending lessons and spending quality time on task is a critical prerequisite to learning. However, in sub-Saharan Africa, teacher absenteeism ranges from 15 to 45 per cent. The Time to Teach study seeks to identify factors affecting various forms of teacher attendance and to use this evidence to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies in twenty African countries (the Comoros; Kenya; Mozambique; Rwanda, Puntland, State of Somalia; South Sudan; the United Republic of Tanzania; Uganda; Morocco; the Gambia, Nigeria, Ghana, Liberia, Niger, Mauritania, Togo, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Cote d’Ivoire; Gabon). The study draws from national, system-wide, qualitative data collections and school observations, and a quantitative survey of teachers.Sport for DevelopmentSport for Development (S4D) programmes use sports to achieve development objectives such as education, health, empowerment and like skills. Collaborating with partners, including the Barça Foundation, this research aims to build the evidence base on the  practice and policy of S4D. Building on the findings of the Getting into the Game report, this mixed-methods study is now conducting case studies of programmes from different countries. By listening to the voices of various stakeholders from different countries it aims to develop guidelines on best practices, advocacy and communication, and monitoring and evaluation for organisations implementing S4D progamming for children.Akelius - Digital language learning for refugees, migrants and linguistic minorities This research programme investigates the co-creation, implementation, effectiveness of the Akelius digital language course.  The digital language course is co-created with teachers and students and used in a blended learning approach as a tool for teachers / facilitators, and as a self-learning tool. Fit for purpose monitoring and implementation research is built into to programme to facilitate improvements in the programme as it scales.  The programme is currently implemented for refugees and migrants in Greece, as part of the non-formal education programmes for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon, and as a tool to improve language skills of marginalized children in Mauritania.Data Must Speak (research component)In spite of the learning crisis and even in the most difficult contexts, there are some “positive deviant” schools, that outperform (in terms of learning, gender and equity) other schools in similar contexts and with equivalent resources. Data Must Speak uses mixed-method research on school performance, including behavioral and scaling science and implementation research to identify “positive deviant” practices and behaviors at classroom, school, community and district levels and incentivize their application at scale in all schools, in partnership with Ministries of Education in 8 countries (Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Lao PDR, Madagascar, Niger, Togo, Zambia)Let Us Learn – building evidence into education programmes for the most marginalized.Let Us Learn (LUL) is an initiative that supports vulnerable children - especially girls - learning though a variety of education programmes in 5 countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Liberia, Madagascar and Nepal. UNICEF Office of Research- Innocenti and the Education Section in UNICEF HQ are supporting LUL programmes by helping implementing partners to improve their M&E systems and building evidence through mixed methods research to understand programme effectiveness in their contribution to improved education outcomes, including learning.The education team also provides research outside of these multi-year research programmes supporting UNICEF HQ, Regional offices and Country Offices in research on multiple topics including: Private Education in South Asia, Migration and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean and understanding equity in education spending using Benefit Incidence Analysis together with UNICEF’s Education and Social Policy sections in HQ. COVID 19 & ChildrenVisit our COVID-19 & Children website for Research Agenda, Research Publications, Blogs, Think Pieces, Online Events, Good Reads and moreShort-term projectsIdentifying good practices for equitable remote learning during COVID-19 school closuresAnalysis of promising remote learning practices during school closures and effects on the most vulnerable children. Builds on data collected from country offices and other sources.Parental engagement in children’s learning: Insights for remote learning response during COVID-19Analysis of MICS 6 data on the potential of child-oriented books at home and the parental role for learning, especially where low access to technology.Long-term projectLearning from COVID-19 on providing continued education for all in times of school closuresInvestigating the impacts of COVID-19 school closures on education and other outcomes and what works to provide continued learning during crises. The research will draw on available data and ongoing Innocenti research. 
Humanitarian research
Research Project Research Project

Humanitarian research

Building knowledge and evidence on how best to meet children’s needs in emergencies is a pressing challenge. Year-on-year more children are caught up in conflict and displacement. They face recurrent threats of famine and are the most exposed to climate change and environmental degradation. The crises and fragile contexts children face are also more and more protracted and entrenched. Since 2010, UNICEF responds to an average 300 humanitarian situations in nearly 90 countries each year.The consequences of childhood exposure to shocks and long-running uncertainty remain poorly understood. Acknowledging this gap, Innocenti will be looking into the critical questions that today’s crises pose for children - and how best to respond in ways that strike the right balance between humanitarian and development action. One component will be exploring key lessons and ‘case studies’ from on-the-ground experience in tackling these challenges – to better institutionalize and analyse this knowledge from experience, and identify critical questions for further research. Innocenti will also expand its well-established work on rigorous impact evaluations of social protection mechanisms in order to better understand cash in emergencies and fragile contexts.  Innocenti will draw on past experience working on children and armed conflict, and explore linkages with ongoing work that transcends usual humanitarian/development divides, and that require research and responses that combine different lenses and approaches – including child migration, ethical research and children, long-term impacts of food shocks (particularly on adolescents), drivers of violence, and the complex interactions between poverty, demography and climate for children.
Multidimensional child poverty
Research Project Research Project

Multidimensional child poverty

SDG 1 calls for the eradication of poverty, in all its forms, for every man, woman and child.Children don’t control income, and they depend on the adults in their life to fulfill their needs. Children’s needs also change rapidly: a 3-year-old’s needs are quite different from those of an 8-year-old. This impacts heavily on the way poverty is experienced by children, even among children within the same household.A multidimensional approach to child poverty is an essential complement to standard monetary poverty measurement. Research on multidimensional poverty aims to measure the actual access of children to goods and services that are fundamental for their full development and essential for the fulfillment of their rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC).Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) is a tool developed at UNICEF Innocenti that measures and defines multidimensional child poverty, based on the CRC. It allows us to gain a clearer picture of which dimensions of poverty children are experiencing, providing enhanced analytics to guide programming and policy responses. MODA is a practical and flexible tool that allows rigorous measurement of multidimensional child poverty in different contexts, as well as in-depth monitoring of SDG target 1.2. More than 50 national studies and 3 regional studies using MODA have been produced.MODA can act as a supportive tool in planning interventions and policies that are more effective in targeting and revealing the most deprived children. It can also provide important evidence required to plan delivery of multi-sectoral interventions through the analysis of overlaps. Finally, MODA can be adapted to critical situations such as humanitarian crises and displacement, providing us with extremely valuable information not otherwise readily available. Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) can be applied using various surveys, ranging from local to international levels, such as the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). DHS and MICS provide suitable data on child deprivation in low- and middle-income countries. When evaluating surveys for MODA, it is important to select dimensions and indicators that are relevant in each country setting. Here is a list of common indicators in each dimension for different age groups.  These are taken from previous MODA studies that used MICS or DHS questionnaires. But the list can be adapted for use with other surveys, such as household budget or living conditions studies. See the “MODA HOW-TO Guide” for more information about how to use this approach to multidimensional child poverty analysis.Download the MODA Brochure. 
Social protection and cash transfers
Research Project Research Project

Social protection and cash transfers

 Social protection has significant positive impacts for poor and vulnerable children and their families. Cash transfers – regular, predictable payments of cash - are an important social protection modality. Research shows that cash transfers promote economic empowerment, while decreasing poverty and food insecurity. Our research goes beyond this to find out if and how cash transfers can be used more effectively to impact other aspects of people’s lives. Innocenti’s work on cash transfers forms part of an inter-agency research and learning initiative called the Transfer Project.A collaboration between UNICEF, FAO, University of North Carolina, and UNICEF country offices, the Transfer Project provides rigorous evidence on the impact of large-scale, typically unconditional national cash transfer programs in sub-Saharan Africa and countries in the Middle East. The project provides technical assistance in the design, implementation and analysis of Government programs in over a dozen countries, including Tanzania, Ghana, Mozambique and Malawi. The Transfer Project disseminates results to national and international stakeholders and holds a bi-annual workshop to promote cross-country learning and capacity building.The Transfer Project is a thought leader on cash transfers in Africa, with over a decade’s research. Findings indicate that cash transfers can: increase household productive capacity and resilience; create household and local economy spill overs; increase school enrollment and attendance;improve mental health and life satisfaction;delay sexual debut and reduce intimate partner violence, among others. However, numerous evidence gaps exist, including on promising ‘cash-plus’ designs, on long-term impacts and if impacts are transferable to fragile and humanitarian settings. While establishing effective social protection in the context of protracted instability and displaced populations is more complex, it is also increasingly viewed as an essential mechanism to bridge the humanitarian-developmental divide. Our project Social Protection in Humanitarian Settings is contributing to investigate what works, and why in those contexts.
Violence affecting children
Research Project Research Project

Violence affecting children

Violence affecting children manifests differently in every society. The most effective interventions address both the immediate needs of children and the broader social causes of violence. The Multi Country Study on the Drivers of Violence Affecting Children, led by Innocenti and national partners in Peru, Zimbabwe, Viet Nam and Italy, builds national research capacity across the four countries. National reports and policy briefs synthesize findings to create a composite picture of violence. Field research tests if interventions to prevent violence are addressing the underlying drivers. An Advisory Board  provides advice and guidance for the Multi Country Study.   Several countries neighboring the four main field sites have initiated the Research to Policy & Practice Process, called R3Ps.. These are scaled-down studies on the drivers of violence allowing UNICEF Country offices and partners to systematically review and prioritize best possible prevention and response interventions based on local evidence. Young Lives is a longitudinal study following the lives of 12,000 children in Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam over a 15 year period. The study measures the effect of violence on child outcomes at multiple points in time. Young Lives study data is powerful in suggesting when, where and how risk and protective factors manifest in children’s lives; this work complements the Multi Country Study findings and contributes to new understandings for violence prevention policy and programming.  For a list of the studies, reports, videos, blogs and other related content produced by the Multi-country Study and its spin-off studies, see our list of outputs.