CRC Article = 32
There is no precise definition of child labour, as it is a term covering many diverse situations. Child labour can be divided into six categories: domestic, non-domestic, non-monetary, bonded labour, wage labour and marginal economic activity. According to the ILO, in developing countries the most important method for ensuring that children under the age of 12 years are not working is the accessibility of primary education. Article 32 of the CRC deals with the right of the child to protection against economic exploitation. In addition, it deals with the right to be protected from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. The term "work" is broader than employment, the latter implying some form of contractual or formal status. States Parties are required to take appropriate measures for the implementation of the rights set forth in Article 32. In particular, they are required to provide for: a minimum age or minimum age(s) for admission to employment; appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment; and appropriate sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the provisions of Article 32. There are 27 ILO Conventions and 14 ILO Recommendations relevant to the employment of children. Of particular relevance to the implementation of Article 32 are ILO Convention No. 138 Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973) and ILO Recommendation No. 146 concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973).
Bonded labour Conditions of employment Economic exploitation Enforcement of child labour standards Exploitation Forced labour Harmful work Hazardous work Hours of employment Minimum age(s) for admission to employment Slavery Trade unions