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GLOSSARY





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Identity

     IRC site

CRC Article = 8(1)
Note:
According to Article 8(1) of the CRC, the identity of the child includes his or her nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law.

See also:
Children born out of wedlock   Family relations   Know one's parents   Name   Nationality   Preservation of identity   

Ignorance

     IRC site

CRC Article = 28(3)
Note:
States Parties are required to promote international co-operation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance throughout the world. In this regard, States Parties are required to take particular account of the needs of developing countries.

See also:
Developing countries   Education   Education and international co-operation   Illiteracy   International co-operation   

Illicit transfer and non-return

     IRC site

CRC Article = 11
Note:
The illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad refers to the problem of the abduction of children across frontiers by one of their parents. States Parties are required to take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad, including the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral treaties or accession to existing treaties. Existing treaties include: the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980); the European Convention on Recognition and Enforcement of Decisions Concerning Custody of Children and on Restoration of Custody of Children (1980); and the Inter-American Convention on the Return of Children (1989).

See also:
Abduction   Contact with both parents   Recovery of maintenance   Separation from parent(s)   

Illiteracy

     IRC site

CRC Article = 28(3)
Note:
States Parties are required to promote international co-operation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of illiteracy throughout the world. In this regard, States Parties are required to take particular account of the needs of developing countries.

See also:
Developing countries   Education   Education and international co-operation   Ignorance   International co-operation   

Impartial and independent authority

     IRC site

CRC Article =
Note:
An impartial authority is required to be unprejudiced, disinterested, just and equitable in relation to the involved parties. An independent authority is to be independent of the executive and of the parties.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Children deprived of their liberty   Determination of lawfulness of detention   Fair trial   Judicial body   

Impartial authority

     IRC site

Imprisoned children

     IRC site

Imprisonment

     IRC site

CRC Article = 37(b)
Note:
The right of the child not to be subjected to unlawful or arbitrary imprisonment and the right to the use of imprisonment only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time are set forth in Article 37(b) of the CRC.

See also:
Children deprived of their liberty   Deprivation of liberty   Information on absent parent(s) or child   Life imprisonment   Non-custodial measures   

Imprisonment of parent(s)

     IRC site

Incorporation

     IRC site

Note:
Many countries have constitutional provisions which determine the status of treaties in the national law, so that the precise legal implications of becoming party to the CRC will vary from State to State. In general, the approach of States to treaties can be divided into the transformation approach and the incorporation approach. The latter approach means that once the requirements for ratification have been satisfied, the CRC itself becomes automatically part of the national law.

See also:
Applicability   Transformation   

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