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Judicial body

     IRC site

CRC Article = 37(d); 40(2)(b)(iii)(v)
Note:
A body with judicial power conferred by law, independent of the executive and of the parties, and with discretionary power to decide, by reference to legal criteria, on controversies over law.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Children deprived of their liberty   Determination of lawfulness of detention   Due process   Fair trial   Impartial and independent authority   Independent and impartial authority   

Judicial review

     IRC site

CRC Article = 9 (1)(2)
Note:
According to Article 9(1), States Parties shall ensure that the child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities, subject to judicial review, determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such a separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. In any proceedings pursuant to Article 9(1), all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known (Article 9(2)).

See also:
Adoption   Alternative care   Children deprived of their family environment   Inter-country adoption   Intercountry adoption   National adoption   Periodic review of placement   Placement in institutions   Respect for the views of the child   Right to be heard   Separation from parent(s)   

Jurisdiction

     IRC site

CRC Article = 2(1)
Note:
States Parties are required to respect and to ensure the rights set forth in the CRC to each child within their jurisdiction. Jurisdiction concerns the power of the State to exercise authority affecting people, property and circumstances within its territory and, in accordance with international law, outside its territory.

See also:
Obligation of States   

Juvenile delinquency

     IRC site

Juvenile justice

     IRC site

CRC Article = 40(3)
Note:
Justice system applied to a "juvenile": a child or a young person who, under the legal system concerned, is to be dealt with for a offence in a manner which is different from an adult. The age limit used to define a juvenile varies between countries. States Parties are required to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to accused and convicted children, in particular the establishment of a minimum age for criminal responsibility and diversions.

See also:
Administration of Juvenile Justice   Diversions   Juvenile delinquency   Juvenile offenders   Minimum age for criminal responsibility   Non-custodial measures   

Juvenile offenders

     IRC site

Note:
A "juvenile" is a child or young person who, under the legal system concerned, is to be dealt with for an offence in a manner which is different from an adult. An "offence" is any behaviour (act or omission) that is punishable by law under the legal system concerned. A "juvenile offender" is a child or young person who is alleged to have committed or who has been found to have committed an offence (see Rule 2.2 of the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (1985), otherwise known as the Beijing Rules).

See also:
Administration of Juvenile Justice   Juvenile justice   Minimum age for criminal responsibility   Offence   

Juveniles deprived of their liberty

     IRC site