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Accession

     IRC site

CRC Article = 48
Note:
Article 47 of the CRC provides that the CRC is subject to ratification, and Article 48 provides that the CRC remains open for accession by any State. To become a Party to the CRC, a State must therefore either ratify or accede to the CRC. Ratification and accession both refer to the act whereby the competent authorities of the State express their consent to be bound by the CRC. The only difference is that ratification applies to those States that have signed the CRC and accession applies to those States that have not. The instruments of ratification or accession are to be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. As at 10 March 1995, the CRC had been ratified or acceded to by 170 States.

See also:
Denunciation   Depositary   Entry into force   Ratification   Signature   

Accident prevention

     IRC site

CRC Article = 24(2)(e)
Note:
For the implementation of the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to health services, States Parties are required to take appropriate measures to ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of accident prevention or child safety.

See also:
Health and health services   Health education   

Accompanied refugee children

     IRC site

CRC Article = 22
Note:
Article 22 of the CRC accords special rights to children who are seeking refugee status outside the country of their nationality or former habitual residence or who are considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures, whether accompanied or unaccompanied by their parents or by any other person.

See also:
Refugee children   Refugee status   Unaccompanied refugee children   

Accusations

     IRC site

CRC Article = 40(2)(b)(ii)
Note:
Article 40(2)(b)(ii) accords to the accused child the right to be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Assistance of an interpreter   Defence   Due process   Fair trial   

Accused children

     IRC site

CRC Article = 40
Note:
Article 40 of the CRC accords special rights to children alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law.

See also:
Access to court   Accusations   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Assistance of an interpreter   Capital punishment   Convicted children   Defence   Determination of criminal charges   Due process   Examination of witnesses   Fair trial   Impartial and independent authority   Independent and impartial authority   Judicial body   Legal assistance   Life imprisonment   Nullum crimen sine lege   Offence   Presumption of innocence   Privacy of accused children   Prompt trial   Self-incriminating evidence   Treatment of accused children   Trial in the presence of legal assistance   Trial in the presence of parents   

Adequate nutrition

     IRC site

CRC Article = 27(1)(3)
Note:
For the implementation of the right of every child to an adequate standard of living, States Parties are required to provide material assistance and support programmes for families in need, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

See also:
Adequate standard of living   Child health and nutrition   Malnutrition   Material assistance   Survival and development   

Adequate standard of living

     IRC site

CRC Article = 27(1)(2)(3)
Note:
The right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development is recognized in Article 27 of the CRC.

See also:
Adequate nutrition   Family assistance   Maintenance obligations   Material assistance   Survival and development   

Administration of Juvenile Justice

     IRC site

CRC Article = 40
Note:
Article 40 of the CRC deals with the obligations of States Parties concerning the administration of juvenile justice. Of particular relevance to the implementation of this provision are the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (1985), known as the Beijing Rules. Noteworthy are also the United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of their Liberty (1990) and the United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency (1990).

See also:
Access to court   Accusations   Accused children   Appeal   Assistance of an interpreter   Convicted children   Defence   Determination of criminal charges   Diversions   Due process   Examination of witnesses   Fair trial   Impartial and independent authority   Independent and impartial authority   Judicial body   Juvenile delinquency   Juvenile justice   Juvenile offenders   Legal assistance   Minimum age for criminal responsibility   Non-custodial measures   Nullum crimen sine lege   Offence   Presumption of innocence   Prevention of juvenile delinquency   Privacy of accused children   Prompt trial   Self-incriminating evidence   Treatment of accused children   Treatment of convicted children   Trial in the presence of legal assistance   Trial in the presence of parents   

Adoption

     IRC site

CRC Article = 20(3); 21
Note:
Adoption is an alternative means of care for children permanently deprived of their family environment. Full adoption aims to provide such a child with all of the rights relating to his or her adoptive parents as if the child had been born to them. In addition, it places on the adoptive parents equal parental responsibility to that of biological parents. Article 21 of the CRC provides that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration in adoption, and deals with the safeguards and standards to be ensured by those States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption, covering both national adoption and intercountry adoption.

See also:
Alternative care   Children deprived of their family environment   Inter-country adoption   Intercountry adoption   Judicial review   National adoption   Procedures   

Age of majority

     IRC site


See:
Majority   

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