Enforcement of child labour standards
CRC Article = 32(2)(c)
States Parties are required to take measures for the implementation of the right of the child to protection against economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or development. States Parties are required, having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, inter alia, to provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the provisions of Article 32. Relevant provisions of other international instruments include: Article 9 of ILO Convention No. 138 Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973); Article 3(1)(a) of ILO Labour Inspection Convention No. 81 (1947); Article 6(1)(a) of ILO Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention No. 129 (1969); and Paragraph 14 of ILO Recommendation No. 146 concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973).
Child labour Conditions of employment Economic exploitation Harmful work Hazardous work Hours of employment Minimum age(s) for admission to employment Trade unions
Enter a country
The right to enter one's own country, which is recognized in Article 12(4) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), is not included in the CRC. The CRC does include the right of the child and parents to enter a State party for the purposes of family reunification, and the right of the child or parents to enter one's own country for the purposes of contact with a parent or child residing in a different country.
Contact with both parents Family reunification Leave a country
Entry into force
CRC Article = 49
When a treaty enters into force its provisions become binding for those States that have expressed their consent to be bound by the treaty. The rules of international treaty law concerning the entry into force of treaties are set forth in Article 24 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969). A treaty normally enters into force in such a manner and upon such date as it may provide or as the negotiating States may agree. Article 49 of the CRC provides that the CRC shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the 20th instrument of ratification or accession. The CRC entered into force on 2 September 1990. For those States that expressed their consent to be bound by the CRC by means of ratification or accession after this date, the CRC entered into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession.
Accession Depositary Ratification
CRC Article = 24(2)(e)
For the implementation of the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to health services, States Parties are required to take appropriate measures to ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of hygiene and environmental sanitation.
Health and health services Health education Hygiene
CRC Article = 28(1); 31(2)
Article 28 of the CRC obligates States Parties to recognize the right of the child to education, and emphasizes the obligation to realize this right on the basis of equal opportunity. In addition, Article 31(2) obligates States Parties to encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural and artistic activity.
Cultural life Discrimination Education Leisure Recreation
Equality of parents
CRC Article = 18(1)
States Parties are required to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child.
Parental guidance Parental responsibilities
Ethnic minority children
CRC Article = 30
An ethnic minority is a group of people of common ethnic or national origin in minority within the territory of a State. Under Article 30 of the CRC, those States Parties in which ethnic minorities exist shall not deny a child belonging to such a minority the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture. This right is also recognized in Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Noteworthy is the standard-setting work of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, including the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1992.
Discrimination Minority children
Evolving capacities of the child
CRC Article = 5; 12(1); 14(2)
One of the general principles of interpretation underlying the implementation of the CRC is that States Parties are required to respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights set forth in the CRC.
Best interests of the child Discrimination Freedom of religion Parental guidance Respect for the views of the child