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Enforcement of child labour standards

     IRC site

CRC Article = 32(2)(c)
Note:
States Parties are required to take measures for the implementation of the right of the child to protection against economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or development. States Parties are required, having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, inter alia, to provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the provisions of Article 32. Relevant provisions of other international instruments include: Article 9 of ILO Convention No. 138 Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973); Article 3(1)(a) of ILO Labour Inspection Convention No. 81 (1947); Article 6(1)(a) of ILO Labour Inspection (Agriculture) Convention No. 129 (1969); and Paragraph 14 of ILO Recommendation No. 146 concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973).

See also:
Child labour   Conditions of employment   Economic exploitation   Harmful work   Hazardous work   Hours of employment   Minimum age(s) for admission to employment   Trade unions   

Enter a country

     IRC site

Note:
The right to enter one's own country, which is recognized in Article 12(4) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), is not included in the CRC. The CRC does include the right of the child and parents to enter a State party for the purposes of family reunification, and the right of the child or parents to enter one's own country for the purposes of contact with a parent or child residing in a different country.

See also:
Contact with both parents   Family reunification   Leave a country   

Entry into force

     IRC site

CRC Article = 49
Note:
When a treaty enters into force its provisions become binding for those States that have expressed their consent to be bound by the treaty. The rules of international treaty law concerning the entry into force of treaties are set forth in Article 24 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969). A treaty normally enters into force in such a manner and upon such date as it may provide or as the negotiating States may agree. Article 49 of the CRC provides that the CRC shall enter into force on the 30th day following the date of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the 20th instrument of ratification or accession. The CRC entered into force on 2 September 1990. For those States that expressed their consent to be bound by the CRC by means of ratification or accession after this date, the CRC entered into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession.

See also:
Accession   Depositary   Ratification   

Environmental sanitation

     IRC site

CRC Article = 24(2)(e)
Note:
For the implementation of the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to health services, States Parties are required to take appropriate measures to ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of hygiene and environmental sanitation.

See also:
Health and health services   Health education   Hygiene   

Equal opportunities

     IRC site

CRC Article = 28(1); 31(2)
Note:
Article 28 of the CRC obligates States Parties to recognize the right of the child to education, and emphasizes the obligation to realize this right on the basis of equal opportunity. In addition, Article 31(2) obligates States Parties to encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural and artistic activity.

See also:
Cultural life   Discrimination   Education   Leisure   Recreation   

Equality of parents

     IRC site

CRC Article = 18(1)
Note:
States Parties are required to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child.

See also:
Parental guidance   Parental responsibilities   

Ethnic minority children

     IRC site

CRC Article = 30
Note:
An ethnic minority is a group of people of common ethnic or national origin in minority within the territory of a State. Under Article 30 of the CRC, those States Parties in which ethnic minorities exist shall not deny a child belonging to such a minority the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture. This right is also recognized in Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Noteworthy is the standard-setting work of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, including the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1992.

See also:
Discrimination   Minority children   

Ethnic origin

     IRC site

Evolving capacities of the child

     IRC site

CRC Article = 5; 12(1); 14(2)
Note:
One of the general principles of interpretation underlying the implementation of the CRC is that States Parties are required to respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights set forth in the CRC.

See also:
Best interests of the child   Discrimination   Freedom of religion   Parental guidance   Respect for the views of the child   

Examination of witnesses

     IRC site

CRC Article = 40(2)(b)(iv)
Note:
The right of the accused child to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality is recognized in Article 40(2)(b)(iv) of the CRC.

See also:
Accused children   Administration of Juvenile Justice   Defence   Due process   Fair trial   

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