In most countries minors of a certain age enjoy special legal capacity to act independently in some important matters. Pursuant to Article 1 of the CRC dealing with the definition of the child, the Committee on the Rights of the Child has requested States Parties to provide relevant information on the legal minimum ages established for various purposes, including, inter alia, legal or medical counselling without parental consent, end of compulsory education, part-time employment, full-time employment, hazardous employment, sexual consent, marriage, voluntary enlistment into the armed forces, conscription into the armed forces, voluntarily giving testimony in court, criminal liability, deprivation of liberty, imprisonment and consumption of alcohol or other controlled substances.
Definition of the child Majority Minimum age for criminal responsibility Minimum age(s) for admission to employment
Minimum age(s) for admission to employment
CRC Article = 32(2)(a)
Article 32(2) of the CRC obligates States Parties to take measures for the implementation of the right of the child to protection against economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or development. In particular, States Parties are required, having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, to provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment. Relevant provisions of other international instruments include Article 10(3) of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) and Article 7 of the European Social Charter (1961). ILO Convention No. 138 Concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (1973) sets 18 as the minimum age for any employment which is likely to jeopardise a person's health, safety or morals and establishes a general minimum age of 15 for employment. It permits States Parties whose economies and educational facilities are insufficiently developed to set the lower age of 14.
Child labour Conditions of employment Economic exploitation Enforcement of child labour standards Harmful work Hazardous work Hours of employment Minimum age(s)
CRC Article = 30
A minority is a group of people in minority within the territory of a State. Under Article 30 of the CRC those States Parties in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist shall not deny a child belonging to such a minority the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language. This right is also recognized in Article 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966). Noteworthy is the standard-setting work of the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, including the Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities, which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1993.
Discrimination Ethnic minority children Indigenous children Linguistic minority children Religious minority children