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Ximena Jativa

Consultant

Ximena is a development economist with 6+ years of experience in performing rigorous research and economic analysis with a strong data-driven focus. Her research seeks to understand how public policies and shocks affect agents’ economic decisions. She has worked extensively conducting applied research in policy relevant topics including education, labor, health and social inclusion policies in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Prior to joining UNICEF, Ximena worked as a Post-Doctoral researcher at the chair of Development Economics at the University of Fribourg. She also gained field experience working on qualitative data collection on women’s and health issues in India and worked as a Data Analysis Intern at the International Labor Organization. Ximena was also previously a visiting researcher at the Development Group of Paris School of Economics. She holds a PhD degree from the University of Fribourg (Switzerland) and academic majors in Development Economics and Growth (M.Sc.), International Political Economics (M.Sc.) and Economics (B.A.).

Publications

Time to Teach: Understanding teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Liberia
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Understanding teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Liberia

In Liberia, recurring school absenteeism and post abandonment are considered critical obstacles to quality education. Although national political actors recognize absenteeism as a major impediment to quality education, studies on the factors influencing teacher attendance in the country, including national policies and practices at the community and school levels, remain scarce. Also, there is a lack of knowledge on the direct and indirect ways the coronavirus pandemic and the measures adopted to contain it impact primary school teachers. This Time to Teach study seeks to fill these knowledge gaps. The report provides valuable insights into how the COVID-19 crisis may exacerbate existing education system challenges that affect teacher attendance and time on task. It also collects and strengthens the evidence base on the factors affecting the various dimensions of primary school teacher attendance to inform the design and implementation of teacher policies.
Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Nigeria
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: Teacher attendance and time on task in primary schools in Nigeria

Prior to COVID-19 lockdowns, the Federal Republic of Nigeria had taken measures to improve the quality of education and of teachers’ working conditions such as by improving school infrastructure and accelerating teacher training programs, and providing incentive schemes for teachers. While education is free and compulsory, Nigeria reports the highest number of out-of-school children in the world. Economic consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact of school closures, and the shift towards remote learning are anticipated to pose further constraints and push even more vulnerable children out of the education system. Teacher absenteeism and the poor use of instructional time are also significant problems for the Nigerian education system, negatively affect students’ academic performance and learning. This Time to Teach study seeks to support both federal and state governments by providing a comprehensive understanding of teacher attendance in the country’s primary schools. It also aims to provide insights into how attendance challenges may be similar or different across the types of schools (public/Quranic/private) and settings (urban/rural) and more importantly, how these can inform teacher policy design and implementation. Though data were collected prior to COVID-19 school closures, this study also aims to provide insights on how the pandemic may further exacerbate existing challenges.
Time to Teach: La fréquentation des enseignants et le temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires au Togo
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: La fréquentation des enseignants et le temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires au Togo

L'absentéisme des enseignants est un défi particulier affectant la qualité de l'éducation au Togo. Des études précédentes suggèrent qu'une fois dans la salle de classe, les enseignants n'enseignaient que 79 pour cent du temps, ce qui signifie que près d'un cinquième du temps était consacré à d'autres activités. Cette réduction du temps d'enseignement était exacerbée par l'absentéisme des enseignants. Bien que le défi de l’absentéisme soit reconnu par les acteurs politiques nationaux, les études sur les facteurs, les politiques et les pratiques qui influencent l’assiduité des enseignants et enseignantes au Togo restent rares. La pandémie de COVID-19 ne fera qu’aggraver les défis existants au sein du système éducatif togolais. L’étude Time to Teach (TTT) vise à combler ce manque de connaissances et à renforcer la base de données factuelles sur les différents types d’assiduité des enseignants du primaire, et les facteurs qui y contribuent.
Time to Teach: La fréquentation des enseignants et le temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires en Mauritanie
Publication Publication

Time to Teach: La fréquentation des enseignants et le temps d’enseignement dans les écoles primaires en Mauritanie

L'absentéisme des enseignants et le non-respect du temps scolaire constituent un obstacle persistant à l'apprentissage universel de qualité en République Islamique de Mauritanie. Cependant, les données vérifiées sur les facteurs, les politiques et les pratiques relatives à l'assiduité des enseignants en Mauritanie restent rares. Dans l'environnement post-COVID-19, il y a raison de s'inquiéter du fait que l'ampleur des répercussions sociales et économiques de la pandémie aggrave davantage les défis existants au sein du système éducatif mauritanien. L'étude Time to Teach cherche à combler ce manque de connaissances.