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Elena Camilletti

Research Officer (Gender & Adolescence)

Elena Camilletti is a Research Officer at the UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, where she first joined as a Consultant in 2016. Elena’s main research interests are at the intersection of gender and adolescence. Under the new Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection (GRASSP) research programme, she conducts research on the political economy of gender in social protection, unpaid care and domestic work, and gender norms, in low- and middle-income countries. Before joining the Office of Research – Innocenti, she worked for the ILO, the Red Cross / Red Crescent Climate Centre, Oxford Policy Management Ltd and UNRISD. Elena holds a Master of Science in Emerging Economies and Inclusive Development from King’s College London and a Bachelor’s Degree in International Relations and Diplomatic Affairs from the University of Bologna.

Publications

Mainstreaming gender into social protection strategies and programmes: Evidence from 74 low- and middle-income countries
Publication

Mainstreaming gender into social protection strategies and programmes: Evidence from 74 low- and middle-income countries

The importance of mainstreaming gender into social protection policies and programmes is increasingly recognized. However, evidence on the extent to which this is actually happening remains limited. This report contributes to filling this evidence gap by drawing on the findings of two complementary research projects undertaken by UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti and UN Women in 2019. Using a specifically developed analytical framework, these two projects reviewed 50 national social protection strategies and 40 social protection programmes across a total of 74 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to assess the extent to which they incorporate gender equality concerns.
Social Protection and Its Effects on Gender Equality: A literature review
Publication

Social Protection and Its Effects on Gender Equality: A literature review

Globally, progress has been made in the fight against both poverty and gender inequality, including through the expansion of social protection programmes. Yet significant gaps remain. Many women and girls remain in poverty and often face different structural constraints and risks across their life course, related to their biological sex as well as entrenched gender norms that discriminate against them in many aspects of their lives. As poverty, risks and vulnerabilities – which social protection aims to minimize, reduce or tackle – are gendered, if the root causes of gender inequality are not investigated in evidence generation and addressed in policy and practice, poverty will not be sustainably eradicated, nor gender equality achieved. This paper provides an overview of the latest evidence on the effects of social protection on gender equality. It starts by considering how risks and vulnerabilities are gendered, and the implications of their gendered nature for boys’ and girls’, and men’s and women’s well-being throughout the life course. It then reviews and discusses the evidence on the design features of four types of social protection programmes – non-contributory programmes, contributory programmes, labour market programmes, and social care services – and their effects on gender equality, unpacking which design features matter the most to achieve gender equality. Finally, the paper concludes with implications for a future research agenda on gender and social protection.
Realizing an Enabling Environment for Adolescent Well-being: An inventory of laws and policies for adolescents in South Asia
Publication

Realizing an Enabling Environment for Adolescent Well-being: An inventory of laws and policies for adolescents in South Asia

Care Work and Children: An Expert Roundtable
Publication

Care Work and Children: An Expert Roundtable

A first roundtable to explore the issues regarding care work and children was hosted in Florence by the UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti from 6 to 7 December 2016. Unpaid care and domestic work have often been neglected in both research and policymaking, being viewed as lying within the domestic sphere of decisions and responsibilities, rather than as a public issue. However, over recent decades, researchers across a range of disciplines have strived to fill the evidence, data and research gaps by exploring the unpaid care and domestic work provided particularly by women within the household, and uncovering the entrenched social and gender norms and inequalities.

Blogs

Researchers reflect on what inspired them to work on gender
Blog

Researchers reflect on what inspired them to work on gender

To mark International Women's Day 2021 we asked three Innocenti researchers to share what inspired them to work on gender issues.  Alessandra Guedes (centre), Gender and Development Research Manager, UNICEF InnocentiAlessandra Guedes has dedicated 20 years of her professional life to promoting children’s and women’s rights and health, including working intensively to end violence against children and against women.I actually didn’t intentionally set out to work on gender and came to the issue in a roundabout way. I often joke that while I started out by studying what, in my opinion, is arguably humanity at its best (I have a degree in studio art!), I ended up working with humanity at its worse: violence against children and against women. How did I get here? Few things are as important to me as social justice and once I started working on the issue of violence prevention over 20 years ago, there was no turning back. globally, one-third of women continue to experience violence at the hands of those who should love and protect them: their partnersMy journey started haphazardly when I was offered a position to work with International Planned Parenthood setting up services for women who had experienced violence within reproductive health clinics in Latin America and the Caribbean. It didn’t take long to become obvious that women’s rights and gender-based violence were areas of work that were spearheaded primarily by women. Women have spent centuries (millennia?) protesting all kinds of injustices committed against them simply because they are women. The same impetus to fight for women’s right to vote or to drive is what keeps us working to change the fact that, globally, one-third of women continue to experience violence at the hands of those who should love and care for them: their partners. While this is the most common form of violence against women and girls, plenty more females experience other forms of gender-based violence, including femicide. While I started working specifically on violence against women and girls, I’ve come to understand that these forms of violence are intimately connected with violence against children and that many drivers are shared across these manifestations of violence.  Equipped with this knowledge, I’m supporting UNICEF to address the gender dimensions of violence against children, including looking for ways to end violence in the home. I am both inspired and grateful to all of the women on whose shoulders I stand. Many have been imprisoned, some have been killed, fighting for equality across gender, race and ethnicity. I hope that my work will add a grain of sand to their heroic efforts. See an example of Alessandra’s research on violence against women and violence against children.   Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed, Gender and Development Research Manager, UNICEF InnocentiZahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed has extensive experience in women's rights and gender equality across organisations and within large-scale development projects.Today, I can say I am a researcher – a qualitative researcher – exploring gender, care work (paid and unpaid) and social protection. But my inspiration started small, and with no name. Growing up I had no terms to make sense of the world I lived in, the world people I knew lived in, the world people I didn’t know, but would observe, lived in.  But there was curiosity, a lot of it. I would search for answers – mostly through books. When I got older, and a little less shy, I ventured beyond the books and would speak to others to find out a bit more. Still, there was no name. Let me dig a little deeper. After all, what is research if not trying to uncover what is unknown and make sense of it?  My inspiration really started with what I would observe inside and outside homes: what girls would do, what boys would do, what women would do, what men would do. Or more, what could be done, and what couldn’t be done. Still, I had no name. Only what I saw (or maybe also what I didn’t see). Over time, I found the words, the terms: that what could or couldn’t be done forms part of the unequal division of labour inside and outside homesOver time, I found the words, the terms: that what could or couldn’t be done forms part of the unequal division of labour inside and outside homes; that the activities that boys and girls, women and men are often told they can do feeds into our understanding of care work in homes, paid work outside the home, and also that sometimes these unpaid care activities are commodified, in the form of paid care work. So, what really inspired me to do research on gender - home: the home I lived in, the homes people I knew lived in, the homes people I didn’t know, but would observe, lived in; and over time the people who left their homes, who worked in homes, and those who lost homes. See an example of Zahrah’s research on gender and unpaid care work.   Elena Camilletti, Research Officer in Gender and Adolescence, UNICEF InnocentiElena Camilletti conducts research on the political economy of gender in social protection, unpaid care and domestic work, and gender norms, in low- and middle-income countries.My commitment to gender equality, and my interest in making that my career, has come gradually over time, but it goes back to my adolescence years. During that time, as it’s often the case for all adolescents, I started to become more aware of the world around me, the inequalities and injustices that I was seeing, in my family, in my community, in my country, and beyond, as I was growing up. When it was time to choose my University degree, and later on when applying for jobs, I knew I wanted to pursue a career where I could make a small, humble, contribution to the fight against those inequalities, those injustices. Gender inequalities specifically remain, in my opinion, the main obstacle to a world that’s just and caring, where equal opportunities exist for all genders.Gender inequalities specifically remain, in my opinion, the main obstacle to a world that’s just and caring, where equal opportunities exist for all genders. And research on gender inequalities is the first step to being able to make a difference: understanding their prevalence, for example the amount of time that women and girls spend on unpaid care and domestic work; investigating their root causes, for example unpacking the social and gender norms that drive gender inequalities; and identifying interventions that work to change those, sustainably. But ultimately what brought me to a career on gender equality and children’s rights, is the potential to use the evidence generated to raise awareness on these gender inequalities, and inform action, for current and future generations to benefit from. Something that I’m proud we at UNICEF Innocenti are committed to doing! See Elena’s research on adolescence and gender. 
Unleashing the Potential of Social Protection for Adolescent Girls and Women
Blog

Unleashing the Potential of Social Protection for Adolescent Girls and Women

On March 12th 2019, UNICEF will co-host a side event to the sixty-third Commission on the Status of Women, together with the UK’s Department for International Development and GAGE Consortium managed by ODI, to share evidence and policy approaches to strengthen gender equality outcomes of social protection programmes, with a particular focus on adolescents and the safe transition to adulthood. Well-designed social protection can address risks and vulnerabilities across the life-course for girls and women, yet so often gender and age inequalities are not considered in social protection systems. Social protection is failing to deliver on this potential – missing the opportunity to benefit the most marginalized girls and women and risks widening inequalities even further. More work and investment is needed to make gender- and adolescent-responsive social protection a reality. Life-course risks and vulnerabilities are influenced by genderWomen and girls face multiple barriers throughout their lives, such as limited access to basic services in education, health and nutrition; limited resources and assets including land and finance; and limited economic, social and political opportunities. Because they lack equal access to resources and assets, women and girls are less able to fully develop their capabilities, and ability to manage and mitigate the effects of risks and vulnerabilities. Women and girls face specific risks in different stages of their lives – adolescence, pregnancy and child birth – that are related to their biological sex as well as to entrenched gender norms that discriminate against them in diverse ways. For instance, more women and girls die before birth, in childhood, and during reproductive years than men and boys. Women and girls shoulder the greatest responsibility for unpaid care and domestic work – amounting to around 2.5 times more time than men. This limits their opportunities to access an education and take on paid work, and makes them more vulnerable to the impacts of poverty. This unpaid care and domestic work differentials between females and males start early in the life course and persist throughout their lives. This unpaid care and domestic work differentials between females and males start early in the life course and persist throughout their lives. Globally girls aged five to nine engage in household chores for an average of almost four hours per week, while girls aged ten to 14 years old spend around nine hours per week Unpaid care and domestic work among adolescents: staggering statistics55050%2/3  Girls under 15 spend 550 million hours every day on household chores, 160 million more hours than boys  Girls 10-14 spend 50% more of their time on household chores than boysOf children performing household chores for 21 hours or more per week are girls  Adolescence is a transformative period to address gender inequalities and break cycles of life-course and intergenerational transmission of inequalitiesAdolescence is a period of life during which transformative change can be accelerated, and more equitable outcomes can be achieved for both girls and boys. It is a profound period of biological and psychosocial development when gender dynamics, relations, beliefs and norms consolidate for life. While children discover their gender and sexuality in their first years of life, it is during puberty and adolescence that gender starts to play a more defining role in their lives. Differentiations between females and males start to widen and become more entrenched, particularly roles within households, and in their relations with family members, peers and in their intimate communities. Yet adolescence is a formative stage of life, and interventions have shown to have an effect on modifying behaviours and outcomes, making this period a unique one for intervening through programmes and policies.vii Recent studies, including from low- and middle-income countries, suggest that this period could be a second window of opportunity in the life-course – where there is the opportunity not only to catch up and redress earlier negative experiences, but also to ensure that previous investments are not lost when children enter adolescence and face new risks and vulnerabilities. Tapping on this window of opportunity is particularly important - there are 1.2 billion adolescents worldwide, of which 90 percent live in low- and middle-income services, at risk of poverty, exclusion and vulnerabilities. Evidence demonstrates positive impacts of social protection programmes on adolescent well-beingEvidence suggests that social protection systems  play a crucial role in lifting children and adolescents out of poverty and improving their well-being. These programmes can act as buffers against shocks, minimizing use of negative coping strategies such as withdrawing children from schools, sending them to work, or selling productive assets such as livestock. Governments have recognised this potential, and in the past two decades, many countries across Asia and the Pacific, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East, have designed or expanded social protection programmes to families with children. Many of these programmes have been cash transfers to families with children, either unconditional or conditional onto certain behaviours such as school enrolment or attendance and visits to health centres for check-ups. Some countries have also established a path of progressive universalization of cash transfers, such as Argentina ix. Evaluations of these programmes have shown some positive results – ranging from school enrolment or even attendance, improved nutrition, reduced risky behaviours such as unsafe sex, multiple partners and early sexual debut for girls. For instance, the Zomba cash transfer in Malawi, which targeted girls aged 13-22 for two years, showed strong impacts on school participation by facilitating girls returning to school, as well as reducing early marriages and pregnancies, reducing risky sexual behaviours and HIV infection – although all these positive impacts lasted only for the short-to-medium term. The Malawi Social Cash Transfer Programme and the Zambia Multiple Category Targeted Grant, both government-run unconditional cash transfers targeted to ultra-poor, rural and labour-constrained households, have also demonstrated reductions in poverty and improved schooling outcomes among youth, although no effects on early unions or teen pregnancy were demonstrated. Despite this expansion, only 35 percent of children or adolescents on average across the globe have access to any form of social protection. And there are significant regional disparities: 87 per cent of children in Europe and Central Asia and 66 per cent in the Americas receive benefits; however only 28 per cent of children in Asia and the Pacific and 16 per cent in Africa. A gender and life-cycle lens is needed to strengthen social protection programmes to improve adolescent well-beingMany programmes are not designed with gender dynamics in mind and others are either targeted at younger children, or at adult women and households more generally. Research in eight countries between 2009 and 2012 found very little or no attention to gender considerations in most social protection programmes. While some studies have found that cash transfers can have a positive impact on women’s economic empowerment by increasing women’s economic participation, few studies have systematically assessed the influence of design features on gender outcomes. Moreover many programmes, by identifying women as the transfer recipients, either as beneficiaries themselves or on behalf of their children, have at times unwittingly perpetuated the stereotype of women as primary caregivers. Among the few adolescent-targeted social protection programmes that have tackled child marriage as a primary objective, there is limited efficacy and sometimes even unintended negative effects. And in the case of humanitarian and conflict-affected contexts, while the risks of child marriage and coerced transactional sex are high, we also have very limited evidence on the efficacy of social protection programming. The absence of both gender and adolescent-responsive approaches creates a gap in adequate coverage throughout the life-cycle and across a range of risks, compounding vulnerabilities, increasing exclusion and perpetuating cycles of inequity. Much promise exists in new approaches to respond to adolescent and gender vulnerabilities by looking at social protection in conjunction with other social and economic policies, including infrastructure, health systems, education systems, and labour market systems. This article was written by Prerna Banati, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Elena Camilletti, UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti, Roopa Hinton, UK Department for International Development (DfID), Shreyasi Jha, UNICEF Programme Division, Nicola Jones, ODI-GAGE, Muriel Kahane, ODI-GAGE, Atif Khurshid, UNICEF Programme Division. Read more about the event.    
Three windows of opportunity - Using science to inform programming for adolescents and young people
Blog

Three windows of opportunity - Using science to inform programming for adolescents and young people

With the launch of Generation Unlimited,  UNICEF has assumed global leadership to advance the quality of life for children in the second decade. Yet many programs designed for young people, including by UNICEF, are not framed by well-developed theories of the developmental process.Recent scientific discoveries and studies demonstrate that adolescence is a critical or sensitive period, a time in life during which adverse events and exposures can have great impact. Scientific advances can provide actionable insights into windows of opportunity during which policies and programs can have a positive impact on lifetime trajectories.The three windows of opportunity in adolescence, inspired by our 2018 Oxford Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and its Impact on Global Policy,  is a framework, firmly rooted in the evidence, and drawing from the developmental and social science literature, that can help to steer how we design programs, conduct research and advocate on behalf of adolescents and young people. Download the Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and Its Impact on Global PolicyAdolescence is a UNIQUE window, with experiences and exposures that happen only during this period of life. Think about the start of menstruation, the final growth spurt, breast development, these are all examples of unique events occurring during this time of life. Undeniably the biological expressions of puberty are a turning point at the transition into adolescence.Neuroscientific advances now clearly show the plasticity of the adolescent brain, with unique developments of the prefrontal cortex during this period of life. During adolescence, the brain undergoes a process of synaptic elimination or pruning, during which frequently used connections are strengthened while others are eliminated. This process ensures that the remaining synaptic circuits are more efficient. Adolescence is therefore a unique moment to acquire new skills. For instance, research by Janacsek and colleagues (2012) on implicit sequence learning across the lifespan (between four and 85 years of age) suggests that sensitivity to acquiring new skills is significantly more effective until early adolescence (12 years old), than later in life. Yet too many skills-building programs begin after this age.This period is also unique in that we see gender differences emerge. While this might vary across cultures, many societies codify social norms for girls and boys during this period. These lead to an emergence of behaviours and practices which can instill gender inequalities, which may interact with other forms of disadvantage and accumulate. Evidence shows that many children assume care and domestic responsibilities from an early age, with an increasingly gendered pattern as children mature into adolescents. UNICEF estimates from MICS and DHS suggest that girls aged ten to 14 years old spend around nine hours per week on these activities, more than their male peers and more than double the 5-9 years old age group. Analysis of time use data from Malawi[1] shows that while in early adolescence, differences between girls and boys are small, 19-year-old girls undertake two hours of care work a day, while boys only half an hour. This gendered difference persists until females reach 60 years old, when physical limitations for sometimes demanding care work curtail it. Based on data collected for the impact evaluation of the Malawi Social Cash Transfer program. Generated by Jacobus de Hoop. Gender-transformative interventions, and those addressing gender norms, can be particularly impactful in this window, when gender norms are being internalized and consolidated.Adolescence as a unique window of opportunity The experiences of adolescence – biological, neurological and social –  occur uniquely during this period of life.Adolescence occurs at the interface of biology and society. Puberty, secondary sexual characteristics, and brain development – interact with social and structural phenomena around adolescents’ lives, including their relations with peers, parents and siblings, and non-family adultsGender-based discrimination, norms and stereotypes can intensify with puberty and adolescence There is also what some are calling a SECOND or catch up window. This is a window that provides an opportunity to redress gaps in exposures and vulnerabilities experienced in early childhood. We know not all children born during the MDGs benefitted equally from MDG gains. Many of these children are now entering adolescence. A re-prioritized set of actions that advance progress for the most vulnerable can help redress the gaps, creating a ‘second window’ of opportunity to leave no child behind.Increasingly this evidence of a catch-up window is emerging – but more studies are needed to understand when to intervene, and which factors can be leveraged to ensure that full advantage can be taken of this potential second window of opportunity to improve child wellbeing.Evidence from a longitudinal study of childhood and poverty has recently shown that some stunting might be reversible, and catch up growth possible. In the study, around 50% of children stunted at year 1 were no longer stunted at year 8 in the absence of intervention, suggesting accelerated growth after the first 1000 days can occur. Unsurprisingly, catch-up growth depends on the degree of stunting experienced during infancy. This has significant implications for nutritional programming for adolescents. Height for age and height for weight indicators have long been recognized as being associated with outcomes across the board, and indicative of outcomes in a number of other wellbeing domains. For instance, stunting[2] is associated with long-lasting harmful consequences, including diminished mental ability and learning capacity, poor school performance in childhood.Adolescence as a second window of opportunityThe possibility of catch-up growth is an amazing finding that has the potential to revolutionize how we develop programs and policies for young people.While the optimal growth needs for a child are best received in the first 1000 days, extending attention to the first 1000 weeks would allow policymakers and practitioners to intervene to leave no child behind.More research is needed on what, beyond growth, might benefit from a second chance – such as impacts on cognition. Finally, adolescence is also a window into OUR FUTURES. Here the impacts of intervening during this period can be seen to endure, as adolescents age into their adult lives and for future cohorts of their children. Health professionals are well aware of the life time benefits of positive health behaviours (for instance, physical activity and healthy diet) instilled during adolescence. This ability to create lifetime habits is also well known to cigarette manufacturers and the Food and Beverage industry (‘Big Food’).It is also a period during which vulnerabilities and stressors can strongly hit with severe consequences for adolescent futures. Portrait and colleagues (2011) analyzed data from the Amsterdam Longitudinal Aging Study to understand the effects of early life exposure to the Dutch famine (during the winter of 1944-45) on the prevalence of heart diseases, peripheral arterial diseases and diabetes mellitus at ages 60–76. The authors found that across four age classes (0-1 years old; 2-5 years old; 6-10 years old; and 11-14 years old), the exposure to severe undernutrition at ages 11–14 was the most significantly associated with a higher probability of developing diabetes mellitus and/or peripheral arterial diseases among women aged 60–76. Evidence from Falconi and colleagues, using cohort mortality data in France (1816-1919), England and Wales (1841-1919), and Sweden (1861-1919), also demonstrates that early adolescence is a sensitive developmental period for males; with findings suggesting that stressors experienced during the ages of 10-14 are related to shorter life spans.Importantly, the impact of stressors on an individual are cumulative, making it difficult to catch up once young people fall behind. Research in Vietnam has shown a considerably high share of children in the bottom quintile in mathematics scores at age 12 had left school by age 15, further limiting their life chances. Investments in education and learning for primary- and secondary-age children is crucial to ensure long-term well-being. to have positive effects at individual and household levels on their future annual earnings, decreased lifetime fertility rate and increased labour market participation, as well as on their children’s well-being and human capital.The window into our futures includes recognizing intergenerational impacts, which are evident for the next generation of children born to this cohort. For instance, interventions to improve the nutritional status of pregnant adolescents – for example through the provision of micronutrient supplementation and of nutritional education sessions – result in a statistically significant improvement in mean birth weight, reduced low birth weight rates, and preterm birth.Adolescence as a third window of opportunity Adolescence is a critical period responsive to effective interventions (or on the contrary, to stressors and adversities) that can have impacts on lifetime trajectories, and for the next generation.“Investments in adolescent health and wellbeing are some of the best that can be made, resulting in a 10-fold economic benefit”, and vital to achieve the SDGs Our approach to programming now needs new focus. With the new Generation Unlimited partnership, this conceptual approach can help researchers and practitioners, including UNICEF and policymakers, conceptualize adolescence in its interlinkages with other generations and life-course periods, to ensure synergies and effectiveness in the design and delivery of programs and policies.The criticality of the first 1000 days remains, but to ensure the best for the future of society, science now obligates us to extend our reach to the first 1000 weeks of life. The conceptualization of adolescence through a three-window opportunity approach highlights life-course and gender perspectives on adolescence – and reminds us to consider this period of life for its unique, catch up, lifetime and intergenerational significance.  Prerna Banati, PhD, is chief of programs at UNICEF’s Office of Research — Innocenti. Her research focuses on the social and structural forces that are among the most fundamental determinants of poor well- being among children. She was a Takemi Fellow in the Department of Global Health and Population at Harvard University and has previously worked at the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria and at the World Health Organization (WHO). Before WHO, she was based in South Africa, leading research on community HIV prevention, and has published in the fields of HIV prevention, reproductive health, health systems, and financing.Elena Camilletti supports the Office of Research – Innocenti’s work on adolescence and gender. She conducts research on adolescent girls and unpaid care and domestic work, gender norms, legal and policy frameworks for adolescent well-being, mental health and sexual reproductive health, and cost analyses in low- and middle-income countries. Before joining the Office of Research – Innocenti, she worked for the ILO, the Red Cross / Red Crescent Climate Centre, Oxford Policy Management Ltd and UNRISD. Elena holds a Master of Science in Emerging Economies and Inclusive Development from King’s College London and a Bachelor’s Degree in International Relations and Diplomatic Affairs from the University of Bologna. You can follow here on twitter @elenacml.[1] Based on data collected for the impact evaluation of the Malawi Social Cash Transfer program. See more at https://transfer.cpc.unc.edu/?page_id=196[2] Number of under-fives falling below minus 2 standard deviations (moderate and severe) and minus 3 standard deviations (severe) from the median height-for-age of the reference* population, out of the total number of children under 5 years old in the surveyed population. See more at https://data.unicef.org/topic/nutrition/malnutrition/

Journal articles

Three windows of opportunity - Using science to inform programming for adolescents and young people
Journal Article

COVID-19 and a “crisis of care”: A feminist analysis of public policy responses to paid and unpaid care and domestic work

Three windows of opportunity - Using science to inform programming for adolescents and young people
Journal Article

Children’s Roles in Social Reproduction: reexamining the discourse on care through a child lens

Events

How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender considerations?
Event

How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender considerations?

Elena Camilletti and Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed presented "How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender considerations? Evidence from low- and middle income countries" at socialprotection.org's e-conference.